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Full text of "Volume 13, The Liturgical Year: The Time After Pentecost, Volume 4, 1901"

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United States: 

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Chap. I. — On hearing Mass during the Time 

after Pentecost, .... 1 

Chap. II. — On the Office of Vespers for Sundays 
and Feasts during the Time after 
Pentecost, 35 

Chap. III. — On the Office of Compline during the 

Time after Pentecost, ... 46 


July 8. — Saint Elizabeth, Queen of Portugal, 55 
July 10. — The Seven Brothers, Martyrs, and 
Saints Rufina and Secunda, Vir- 
gins and Martyrs, . . .63 
July 11. — Saint Pius I., Pope and Martyr, . 72 
July 12. — Saint John Gualbert, Abbot, . . 75 
Commemoration of Saints Nabor and 

Felix, Martyrs, .... 85 
Jxdy 13. — Saint Anacletus, Pope and Martyr, . 86 
July 14. — Saint Bonaventure, Cardinal and 

Doctor of the Church, ... 89 
July 15. — Saint Henry, Emperor, . . .105 

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July 16. — Our Lady of Mount Carmel, . .113 
July 17. — Saint Alexius, Confessor, . .125 
July 18. — Saint Camillus of Lellis, Confessor, 130 
Same day. — Saints Stmphorosa and Seven Sons, 

Martyrs, 138 

July 19. — Saint Vincent db Paul, Confessor, . 142 
July 20. — Saint Jerome ^Emilian, Confessor, . 154 
Same day. — Saint Margaret, Virgin and Martyr, 161 
July 21. — Saint Praxedes, Virgin, . . . . 165 
July 22. — Saint Mary Magdalene, . . .168 
July 23. — Saint Apollinaris, Bishop and Martyr, 182 
Conmemoration of Saint Liborius, Pope 

and Martyr, . . . .186 
July 24. — Saint Christina, Virgin and Martyr, 188 
July 25. — Saint James the Great, Apostle, . 190 
Commemoration of Saint Christopher, 

Martyr, . . ' . . .197 
July 26. — Saint Anne, Mother of the Blessed 

Virgin Mary, .... 199 
July 27. — Saint Pantaleon, Martyr, . . 214 
July 28. — Saints Nazarius, Celsus, and Victor, 

Martyrs, and Saint Innocent, 

Pope and Confessor, . . .216 
July 29. — Saint Martha, Virgin, . . . 223 
Commemoration of Saints Felix, Sim- 

plicius, Faustinus and Beatrice, 

Martyrs, 232 

July 30. — Saints Abdon and Sennen, Martyrs, 234 
July 31. — Saint Ignatius, Confessor, . .236 

August 1. — Saint Peter's Chains, . . . 246 
Commemoration of the Seven Brothers 

Maehabees, 251 

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August 2. — Saint Alphonsus, Bishop and Doctor 

of the Church, .... 255 
Commemoration of Saint Stephen L, 

Pope and Martyr, . . . 265 
August 3. — Invention of Saint Stephen, Proto- 

martyr, 267 

August 4. — Saint Dominic, Confessor, . .273 
August 5. — Our Lady op the Snow, . . . 284 
August 6. — The Transfiguration of our Lord, . 293 
Same day, — Saint Sixtus II., Pope and Martyr, 
and Saints Felicissimus and Aga- 
pitus, Martyrs, . . . .310 
August 7. — Saint Cajetan, Confessor, . .314 
Commemoration of Saint Donatus, 

Bishop and Martyr, . . .320 
August 8. — Saints Cyriacus, Largus, and Smarag- 

dus, Martyrs, . . . .321 
August 9.- — Vigil op Saint Laurence. — Saint 

Romanus, Martyr, . . . 324 
August 10. — Saint Laurence, Deacon and Martyr, 327 

First Vespers, 330 

Mass, 339 

Second Vespers, . . . .346 
August 11.— Second Day within the Octave of 
Saint Laurence. — Saints Tibur- 
tius and Susanna, Martyrs, . 357 
August 12. — Saint Clare, Virgin, . . .361 
August 13. — Saint Radegonde, Queen of France, . 370 
Commemoration of Saints Hippolytus 

and Cassian, Martyrs, . . .379 
August 14. — Vigil of the Assumption, . .381 
Commemoration of Saint Eusebius, 

Confessor, . . . . .386 

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First Vespers 391 

Mass, 408 

Second Vespers, . . . .417 
Sunday within the Octave of the Assumption. — Saint 
Joachim, Confessor, Father of the 

Blessed Virgin Mary, . . . 434 

Mass, 436 

Vespers, 443 

August 16. — Saint Hyacinth, Confessor, . . 448 

Same day. — Saint Roch, Confessor, . . . 455 

August 17. — The Octave Day of Saint Laurence, 458 
August 18. — Fourth Day within the Octave of 

the Assumption, .... 463 
Commemoration of Saint Agapitus, 

Martyr, 467 

August 19. — Fifth Day within the Octave of the 

Assumption, . . . .471 
August 20. — Saint Bernard, Abbot, Doctor of the 

Church, 477 

Auyust 21. — Saint Jane Frances Fremiot de 

Chantal, Widow, . . . 490 
August 22. — The Octave Day of the Assumption, 501 
Commemoration of Saints Timothy, 

Hippolytus, and Symphorian, 

Martyrs, 504 

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On the Sundays, if the Mass, at which the Faithful 
assist, be the Parochial, or, as it is often called, the 
Public Mass, two solemn rites precede it, and they 
are full of instruction and blessing ; — the Asperges, or 
sprinkling of the Holy Water, and the Procession. 

During the Asperges, you should unite with the 
intentions which the Church has in this ceremony, 
so venerable by its antiquity : — you should pray for 
that purity of heart, which is needed for worthily 
assisting at the Mysteries, wherein God himself 
becomes present, and unites heaven and earth so 
closely together. 


Thou shalt sprinkle me with 
hyssop, O Lord, and I shall be 
cleansed ; thou shalt wash me 
and I shall be made whiter 
than snow. 

Ps. Have mercy on me, O 
God, according to thy great 

f. Glory, &c. 

Ant. Sprinkle me, &c. 
Show us, O Lord, thy 


Asperges me, Domine, 
hyssopo, et mundabor; la- 
vabis me, et super nivem 

Ps. Miserere mei, Deus, 
secundum magnam miseri- 
cordiam tuam. 

f. Gloria Patri, &c. 

Ant. Asperges me, &c. 
Ostende nobis, Domine, 
misericordiam tuam. 

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1$. Et salOtarc tiram da 1$. And grant us thy salva- 
nobis. ;* / • ' tion. 

ft. Domini, exaudi ora- ft. 0 Lord, hear my prayer, 
tionein meam. 

. ^. Et clamor meus ad te 1$. And let my cry come 
Veaiat." unto thee. 

Dominus vobiscum. 
; # J$. Et cum spiritu tuo. 

ft. The Lord be with you. 
1$. And with thy spirit. 


Exaudi nos, Domine sanc- 
te, Pater omnipotens, aeterne 
Deus: et mittere digneris 
sanctum Angelum tuum de 
coelis, qui custodiat, foveat, 
protegat, visitet atque de- 
fendat omnes habitantes in 
hoc habitaculo. Per Chris- 
tum Dominum nostrum. 

R. Amen. 


Graciously hear us, O holy 
Lord, Father Almighty, Eter- 
nal God : and vouchsafe to 
send thy holy Angel from 
heaven, who may keep, cher- 
ish, protect, visit, and defend 
all who are assembled in this 
place. Through Christ our 

IJ. Amen. 

The Procession, which in many Churches imme- 
diately precedes a Solemn Mass, is a prelude to the 
great Act which is about to be accomplished. It 
originated from the practice used in Monasteries, of 
going through the Cloisters, every Sunday, whilst 
chanting certain appointed Responsories; and during 
which, the Hebdomadarian went through all the 
Conventual Places, blessing each of them. The 
practice is still in use. 

But see, Christians! the Sacrifice begins! The 
Priest is at the foot of the Altar; God is attentive, the 
Angels are in adoration, the whole Church is united 
with the Priest, whose Priesthood and action are those 
of the great High Priest, Jesus Christ. Let us make 
the sign of the Cross with him. 

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In the name of the Father, 
and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost. Amen. 

I unite myself, O my God, 
with thy holy Church, who 
thrills with joy at theapproach 
of Jesus Christ thy Son, who 
is the true Altar. 

Like her, I beseech thee to 
defend me against the malice 
of the enemies of my salva- 

It is in thee that I have put 
my hope ; yet do I feel sad 
and troubled at being in the 
midst of the snares which are 
set for me. 

Send me, then, him who is 
light and truth : it is he that 
will open to us the way to thy 
holy mount, to thy heavenly 

He is the Mediator, and the 
living Altar; I will draw nigh 
to him, and be filled with joy. 

When he shall have come, 
I will sing in my gladness. 
Be not sad, O my soul ! Why 
wouidst thou be troubled ] 

Hope in Him, who will 
soon show himself unto thee, 
as thy Saviour, and thy God. 

Glory be to the Father, 
and to the Son, and to the 
Holy Ghost 

As it was in the beginning, 
is now, and ever shall be, 
world without end. Amen. 


In nomine Patris, et Filii, 
et Spiritus Saucti. Amen. 

ft. Introibo ad altare Dei. 
1$. Ad Deum qui lsetificat 
juventutem meam. 

Judica me, Deus, et dis- 
cerne causam meam de gente 
non* sancfca : ab homine ini- 
quo et doloso erue me. 

Quia tu es, Deus, forti- 
tudo mea: quare me repu- 
listi ? et quare tristis incedo, 
dum affligit me inimicus 1 

Emitte lucem tuam et ve- 
ritatem tuam : ipsa me de- 
duxerunt et adduxerunt in 
montem sanctum tuum, et 
in tabernacula tua. 

Et introibo ad altare Dei : 
ad Deum qui laetificat juven- 
tutem meam. 

Confitebor tibi in cithara, 
Deus, Deus meus : quare 
tristis es anima meal et 
quare conturbas me 1 

Spera in Deo, quoniam 
adhuc confitebor illi : Salu- 
tare vultus mei, et Deus 

Gloria Patri, et Filio, et 
Spiritui Sancto. 

Sicut erat in principio, et 
nunc, et semper, et in saecula 
saeculorum. Amen. 

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Introibo ad altare Dei. 
Ad Deum qui laetificat 
juventutem meam. 

Adjutorium nostrum in 
nomine Domini. 

1$. Qui fecit coelum et 

I am to go to the altar of 
God, and feel the presence of 
him who desires to give me 
a new life ! 

This my hope comes not 
from any merits of my own, 
but from the all-powerful 
help of my Creator. 

The thought of his being about to appear before 
his God, excites, in the soul of the Priest, a lively 
sentiment of compunction. He cannot go further in 
the holy Sacrifice without confessing, and publicly, 
that he is a sinner, and deserves not the grace he is 
about to receive. Listen, with respect, to this con- 
fession of God's Minister, and earnestly ask our Lord 
to show mercy to him ; for the Priest is your Father ; 
he is answerable for your salvation, for which he every 
day risks his own. When he has finished, unite with 
the Servers, or the Sacred Ministers, in this prayer : 

Misereatur tui omni- May Almighty God have 

potens Deus, et dimissis mercy on thee, and, forgiving 

peccatis tuis, perducat te ad thy sins, bring thee to ever- 

vitam aeternara. lasting life. 

The Priest having answered Amen, make your 
confession, saying with a contrite spirit : 

Confiteor Deo omnipotenti, 
beatse Mariae semper Virgini, 
beato Michaeli Archangelo, 
beato Joanni Baptistaa, San- 
ctis Apostolis Petro et Paulo, 
omnibus Sanctis, et tibi, 
Pater, quia peccavi nimis 
cogitatione, verbo, et opere : 
mea culpa, mea culpa, mea 
maxima culpa. Ideo precor 
beatam Mariam semper Vir- 
ginem, beatum Michaelem 
Archangelum, beatum Joan- 

I confess to Almighty God, 
to blessed $lary ever Virgin, 
to blessed Michael the Arch- 
angel, to blessed J ohn Baptist, 
to the holy Apostles Peter and 
Paul, to all the Saints, 
and to thee. Father, that I 
have sinned exceedingly in 
thought, word, and deed; 
through my fault, through my 
fault, through my most griev- 
ous fault Therefore I beseech 
the blessed Mary ever Virgin, 

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blessed Michael the Arch- 
angel, blessed John Baptist, 
the holy Apostles Peter and 
Paul, and all the Saints, and 
thee,' Father, to pray to our 
Lord^God for me. 

Receive with gratitude 
Priest, who says to you : 

May Almighty God be mer- 
ciful to you, and, forgiving 
your sins, bring you to ever- 
lasting life. 

1$. Amen. 

May the Almighty and 
merciful Lord grant us par- 
don, absolution, and remis- 
sion of our sins. 

1$. Amen. 

nem Baptistam, sanctos 
Apostolos Petrum et Paul- 
um, omnes Sanctos, et te, 
Pater, orare pro me ad Domi- 
num Deum nostrum. 

the paternal wish of the 

Misereatur vestri omni- 
potens Deus, et dimissis 
peccatis vestris, perducat 
vos ad vitam aeternam. 
1$. Amen. 

Indulgentiam, absolutio- 
nem, et remissionem pecca- 
torum nostrorum tribuat 
nobis omnipotens et miseri- 
cors Dominus. 
1$. Amen. 

Invoke the divine assistance, that you may ap- 
proach to Jesus Christ. 

O God, it needs but one 
look of thine to give us life. 

1$. And thy people shall 
fejoice in thee. 

Show us, O Lord, thy 

1$. And give us to know 
and love the Saviour whom 
thou hast sent unto us. 

"ff. O Lord, hear my prayer. 

% Deus, tu conversus vi- 
vificabis nos. 

Et plebs tua laetabitur 

in te. 

^. Ostende nobis, Domi- 
ne, misericordiam tuam. 

1$. Et Salutare tuum da 
nobis. • 

Domine, exaudi ora- 
tionem meam. 

Q. Et clamor meus ad te 

1$. And let my cry come 
unto thee. 

The Priest here leaves you to ascend to the altar ; 
but first he salutes you : 

ft. The Lord be with you. Dominus vobiscum. 

Answer him with reverence : 
]$. And with thy spirit. 1$. Et cum spiritu tuo. 

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He ascends the steps, and comes to the Holy of 
Holies. Ask, both for him and yourself, the deliver- 
ance from sin : 


Aufer a nobis, quaesumus Take from our hearts, O 

Domine, iniquitates nos- Lord, all those sins, which 

tras ; ut ad Sancta sanctorum make us unworthy to appear 

puris mereamur mentibus in thy presence ; we ask this 

mtroire. Per Christum Do- of thee by thy divine Son, our 

minum nostrum. Amen . Lord. 

When the Priest kisses the altar, out of reve- 
rence for the relics of the Martyrs which are there, 

Oramus te, Domine, per Generous soldiers of Jesus 
merita sanctorum tuorum, Christ, who have mingled 
quorum reliquiae hie sunt, et your own blood with his, in- 
omnium sanctorum : ut in- tercede for us that our sins 
dulgere digneris omnia pec- may be forgiven : that so we 
cata mea. Amen. may, like you, approach unto 


If it be a High Mass at which you are assisting, 
the Priest incenses the Altar in a most solemn man- 
ner ; and this white cloud, which you see ascending 
from every part of the Altar, signifies the prayer of 
the Church, who addresses herself to Jesus Christ; 
and which this Divine Mediator then causes to 
ascend, united with his own, to the throne of the 
majesty of his Father. 

The Priest then says the Introit. It is a solemn 
opening-anthem, in which the Church, at the very 
commencement of the Holy Sacrifice, gives expression 
to the sentiments which fill her heart. 

It is followed by nine exclamations, which are 
even more earnest, — for they ask for mercy. In 
addressing them to God, the Church unites herself 
with the nine choirs of Angels, who are standing 
round the altar of Heaven, one and the same as this 
before which you are kneeling. 

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To the Father: 

Lord, have mercy on us ! Kyrie eleison. 

Lord, have mercy on us ! Kyrie eleison . 

Lord, have mercy on us ! Kyrie eleison. 

To the Son : 

Christ, have mercy on us I Christe eleison. 
Christ, have mercy on us ! Christe eleison. 

Christ, have mercy on us ! Christe eleison. 

To the Holy Ghost : 

Lord, have mercy on us ! Kyrie eleison. 

Lord, have mercy on us ! Kyrie eleison . 

Lord, have mercy on us ! Kyrie eleison. 

Then mingling his voice with that of the heaven- 
ly host, the Priest intones the sublime Canticle of 
Bethlehem, which announces glory to God, and peace 
to men. Instructed by the revelations of God, the 
Church continues, in her own words, the Hymn of 
the Angels. 


Glory be to God on high, Gloria in excelsis Deo, et 

and on earth peace to men of in terra pax hominibus bonse 

good will. voluntatis. 

We praise thee: we bless Laudamus te: benedici- 

thee: we adore thee: we mus te: adoramuste: gloriti- 

glorify thee : we give thee camus te : gratias agimus tibi 

thanks for thy great glory. propter magnam gloriam 


0 Lord God, Heavenly Domine Deus, Kex cceles- 

King, God the Father Al- tis, Deus Pater omnipotent 

0 Lord Jesus Christ, the Domine, Fili unigenite, 

only begotten Son. Jesu Christe. 

O Lord God, Lamb of God, Domine Deus, Agnus Dei, 

Son of the Father. Filius Patris. 

Who takest away the sins of Qui tollis peccata mundi, 

the world, have mercy on us. miserere nobis. 

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Qui tollis peccata mundi, Who takest away the sins of 
suscipe deprecationem nos- the world, receive our humble 
tram. prayer. 

Qui sedes ad dexteram Who sittest at the right 
Patris, miserere nobis. hand of the Father, have 

mercy on us. 

Quoniam tu solus sanctus, For thou alone art holy, 
tu solus Dominus, tu solus thou alone art Lord, thou 
Altissimus, Jesu Christe, alone, O Jesus Christ, together 
cum Sancto Spiritu, in glo- with the Holy Ghost, art most 
ria Dei Patris. Amen. high in the glory of God the 

Father. Amen. 

The Priest then turns towards the people, and 
again salutes them, as it were to make sure of their 
pious attention to the sublime act, for which all this 
is but the preparation. 

Then foil lows the Collect or Prayer, in which the 
Church formally expresses to the % divine Majesty the 
special intentions she has in the Mass which is being 
celebrated. You may unite in this prayer, bjr recit- 
ing with the Priest the Collects which you will find 
in their proper places: but on no account omit to 
join with the server of the Mass in answering A men. 

After this comes the Ejdstle, which is, generally, 
a portion of one or other of the Epistles of the 
Apostles, or a passage from some Book of the Old 
Testament Whilst it is being read, give thanks to 
that God, who not satisfied with having spoken to us, 
at sundry times, by his Messengers, deigned, at last, 
to speak unto us by his well-beloved Son. 1 

The Gradual is an intermediate formula of prayer 
between the Epistle and the Gospel. Most frequently, 
it again brings before us the sentiments already ex- 
pressed in the Introit. Bead it devoutly, that so you 
may more and more enter into the spirit of the 
mystery proposed to you this day, by the Church. 

1 Heb. i. 2. 

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The song of praise, the Alleluia, is next heard. 
Let us, whilst it is being said, unite with the holy 
Angels, who are, for all eternity, making heaven 
resound with that song, which we on earth are per- 
mitted to attempt. 

The time is now come for the Gospel to be read. 
The Gospel is the written word ; our hearing it will 
prepare us for the Word, who is our Victim and our 

If it be a High Mass, the Deacon, meanwhile, 
prepares to fulfil his noble office, — that of announcing 
the Good Tidings of salvation. He prays God to 
cleanse his heart and lips. Then kneeling before 
the Priest, he asks a blessing ; and, having received 
it, at once goes to the place where he is to sing the 

As a preparation for hearing it worthily, you may 
thus pray, together with both Priest and Deacon : 

Alas ! these ears of mine are Munda cor rueum ac la- 
but too often denied with the bia mea, Omnipotens Deus, 
world's vain words : cleanse qui labia Isaise Prophetaa 
them, O Lord, that so I may calculo mundasti ignito ; ita 
hear the words of eternal life, me tua grata miseratione 
and treasure them in my heart, dignare mundare, ut sane- 
Through our Lord Jesus turn Evangelium tuum dig- 
Christ. Amen. ne valeam nuntiare. Per 

Christum Dominum nostrum. 


Grant to thy ministers thy Dominus sit in corde meo, 
grace, that they may faithfully et in labiis meis : ut digne 
explain thy law ; that so all, et competenter annuntiem 
both pastors and flock, may Evangelium suum ; In no- 
be united to thee for ever, mine Patris, et Filii, et Spi- 
Amen. ritus Sancti. Amen. 

You will stand during the Gospel, as though you 
were waiting the orders of your Lord; and at the 
commencement, make the sign of the Cross on your 
forehead, lips, and breast ; and then listen to every 
word of the Priest or Deacon. Let your heart be 

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ready and obedient. Whilst my beloved was speak- 
ing, says the Spouse in the Canticle, my soul melted 
within me. 1 If you have not such love as this, have 
at least the humble submission of Samuel, and say : 
Speak, Lord ! thy servant heareth f 2 

After the Gospel, if the Priest says the Symbol of 
Faith, the Credo, you will say it with him. Faith is 
that gift of God, without which we, cannot please 
him. It is Faith that makes us see the Light which 
shineth in darkness, and which the darkness of un- 
belief did> not compreliend. Let us, then, say with 
the Catholic Church, our Mother : 


Credo in unum Denm, 
Patreni omnipotentem, Fac- 
torem coeli et terrae, visibi- 
lium omnium et invisibi- 

Et in unum Dominum 
Jesum Christum, Filium Dei 
unigenitum. Et ex Patre 
natum ante omnia saecula, 
Deum de Deo, lumen de 
lumine, Deum verum de Deo 
vero. Genitum non factum, 
consubstantialem Patri, per 
quern omnia facta sunt. Qui 
propter nos homines, et prop- 
ter nostram salutem, descen- 
dit de ccelis. Et incarnatus 
est de Spiritu Sancto, ex 
Maria Virgine ; et homo 
factus est. Crucifixus 
etiam pro nobis sub Pontio 
Pilato, passus, et sepultus 
est. Et resurrexit tenia die, 
secundum Scripturas. Et 
ascendit in ccelum ; sedet ad 

I believe in one God, the 
Father Almighty, Maker of 
heaven and earth, and of all 
things visible and invisible. 

And in one Lord Jesus 
Christ, the only begotten Son 
of God. And born of the 
Father before all ages ; God 
of God ; Light of light ; true 
God of true God. Begotten, 
not made ; consubstantiai to 
the Father, by whom all 
things were made. Who for 
us men, and for our salvation, 
came down from heaven. 
And became incarnate by the> 
Holy Ghost of the Virgin 
Mary ; and was made man. 
He was crucified also for us, 
under Pontius Pilate, suffer- 
ed, and was buried. And the 
third day he rose again, ac- 
cording to the Scriptures. 
And ascended into heaven, 

1 Cantic. v. 6. 

* 1 Kings, iii. 10. 

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sitteth at the right hand of dexteram Patris. Et iterum 

the Father. And he is to venturus est cum gloria judi- 

come again with glory, to care vivos et mortuos ; cujus 

j odge the living and the dead : regni non erit finis, 
of whose kingdom there shall 
be no end. 

And in the Holy Ghost, Et in Spiritum Sanctum, 

the Lord and giver of life, Dominum et yivificantem, 

who proceedeth from the qui ex Patre Filioque proce- 

Father and the Son. Who ait. Qui cum Patre et Filio 

together with the Father and simul adoratur, et conglori- 

the Son, is adored and glori- ficatur ; qui locutus est per 

fied ; who spoke by the Pro- Prophetas. Et unam sanc- 

phets. And one holy Catho- tarn Catholicam et Apostoli- 

lic and Apostolic Church. I cam Ecclesiam. Confiteor 

confess one Baptism for the unum Baptisma in remissio- 

remission of sins. And I nem peccatorum. Etexspec- 

expect the resurrection of the to resurrectionem mortuo- 

dead, and the life of the world rum, et vitam venturi saeculi. 

to come. Amen. Amen. 

The Priest and the people should, by this time, 
have their hearts ready: it is time to prepare the 
offering itself. And here we come to the second part 
of the Holy Mass, which is called the Oblation, and 
immediately follows that which was named the Mass 
of Catechumens, on account of its being formerly 
the only part, at which the candidates for Baptism 
had a right to be present. 

See, then, dear Christians! bread and wine are 
about to be offered to God, as being the noblest of 
inanimate creatures, since they are made for the 
nourishment of man ; and even that is only a poor 
material image of what they are destined to become 
in our Christian Sacrifice. Their substance will soon 
give place to God himself, and of themselves nothing 
will remain but the appearances. Happy creatures, 
thus to yield up their own being, that God may take 
its place ! We, too, are to undergo a like transfor- 
mation, when, as the Apostle expresses it, that which 
is mortal, will be swallowed up by life. 1 . Until that 

x 2Cor. v. 4. 

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happy change shall be realised, let us offer ourselves 
to God, as often as we see the bread and wine pre- 
sented to him in the Holy Sacrifice ; and let us 
glorify him, who, by assuming our human nature, 
has made us partakers of the divine nature. 1 

The Priest again turns to the people with the 
usual salutation, as though he would warn them to 
redouble their attention. Let us read the Offertory 
with him, and when he offers the Host to God, let us 
unite with him in saying : 

Suscipe, sancte Pater, 
omnipotens, seterne Deus, 
hanc immaculatam hostiam, 
quam ego indignus famulus 
tuus offero tibi, Deo meo 
vivo et vero, pro innumera- 
bilibus peccatis et offensio- 
nibus et negligentiis meis, 
et pro omnibus circumstan- 
tibus, sed et pro omnibus 
fidelibus christianis vivis 
atque defunctis ; ut mihi et 
illis proficiat ad salutem in 
vitam seternam. Amen. 

All that we have, O Lord, 
comes from thee, and belongs 
to thee ; it is just, therefore, 
that we return it unto thee. 
But how wonderful art thou 
in the inventions of thy im- 
mense love ! This bread 
which we are offering to thee 
is to give place, in a few 
moments, to the sacred Body 
of Jesus. We beseech thee, 
receive, together with this 
oblation, our hearts which 
long to live by thee, and to 
cease to live their own life of 

When the Priest puts the wine into the chalice, 
and then mingles with it a drop of water, let your 
thoughts turn to the divine mystery of the Incarna- 
tion, which is the source of our hope and our salva- 
tion ; and say : 

Deus, qui humanae sub- 
stantias dignitatem mirabi- 
liter condidisti, et mirabi- 
lius ref ormasti : da nobis per 
hujus aquae et vini myste- 
rium, ejus divinitatis esse 
consortes, qui humanitatis 
nostra fieri dignatus est 

O Lord Jesus, who art the 
true Vine, and whose Blood, 
like a generous wine, has 
been poured forth under the 

Eressure of the Cross ! thou 
ast deigned to unite thy 
divine nature to our weak 
humanity, which is signified 

1 2 St Peter, i. 4. 

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by this drop of water. O particeps, Jesus Christus, 
come and make us partakers Filius tuus, Dominus noster : 
of thy divinity, by showing qui tecum vivit et regnat 
thyself to us in thy sweet and in unitate Spiritus Sancti 
wondrous visit. Deus, per omnia ssecula ssecu- 

lorum. Amen. 

The Priest then offers the mixture of wine and 
water, beseeching God graciously to accept this obla- 
tion, which is so soon to be changed into the reality, 
of which it is now but the figure. Meanwhile, say, 
in union with the Priest: 

Graciously accept these Offerimus tibi, Domine, 
gifts, O sovereign Creator of calicem salutaris, tuam de- 
all things. Let them be fitted precantes clementiam : ut in 
for the divine transformation, conspectu divinse Majestatis 
which will make them, from tuas, pro nostra et totius 
being mere offerings of created mundi salute, cum odore 
things, the instrument of the suavitatis ascendat. Amen, 
world's salvation. 

After having thus held up the sacred gifts towards 
heaven, the Priest bows down : let us, also, humble 
ourselves, and say: 

Though daring, as we do, to In spiritu humilitatis, et 

approach thy altar, O Lord, in animo contrito, suscipia- 

we cannot forget that we are mur a te, Domine : et sic fiat 

sinners. Have mercy on us, sacrificium nostrum in con- 

and delay not to send us thy spectu tuo hodie, ut placeat 

Son, who is our saving Host, tibi, Domine Deus. 

Let us next invoke the Holy Ghost, whose opera- 
tion is about to produce on the altar the presence of 
the Son of God, as it did in the womb of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, in the divine mystery of the Incarna- 
tion : 

Come, O Divine Spirit, Veni, Sanctificator omni- 
make fruitful the offering potens seterne Deus, et be- 
which is upon the altar, and nedic hoc sacrificium tuo 
produce in our hearts him sancto nomini praeparatum. 
whom they desire. 

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If it be a High Mass, the Priest before proceeding 
any further with the Sacrifice, takes the thurible a 
second time. He first incenses the bread and wine 
which have just been offered, and then the altar 
itself ; hereby inviting the faithful to make their 
prayer, which is signified by the incense, more and 
more fervent, the nearer the solemn moment ap- 
proaches. Saint John tells us that the incense he 
beheld burning on the Altar in heaven is made up 
of the prayers of the Saints ; let us take a share in 
those prayers, aod with all the ardour of holy desires. 

But the thought of his own unworthiness becomes 
more intense than ever in the heart of the Priest. 
The public confession, which he made at the foot of 
the altar, is not enough ; he would now, at the altar 
itself, express to the people, in the language of a 
solemn rite, how far he knows himself to be from 
that spotless sanctity, wherewith he should approach 
to God. He washes his hands. Our hands signify 
our works ; and the Priest, though by his priesthood 
he bear the office of Jesus Christ, is, by his works, 
but man. Seeing your Father thus humble himself, 
do you also make an act of humility, and say with 
him these verses of the Psalm : 

Lavabo inter innocentes 
raanus meas : et circumdabo 
altare tuum, Domine. 

Ut audiam vocem laudis ; 
et enarrem uni versa mira- 
bilia tua. 

Domine, dilexi decorem 
domus tuse, et locum habi- 
tations glorias tuse. 

Ne perdas cum impiis, 
Dens, animam meam, et cum 
virissanguinumvitam meam. 

In quorum manibus iniqui- 

[ 25. 

I, too, would wash my 
hands, O Lord, and become 
like unto those who are in- 
nocent, that so I may be wor- 
thy to come near thy altar, 
and hear thy sacred Canticles, 
and then go and proclaim to 
the world the wonders of thy 
goodness. I love the beauty 
of thy House, which thou art 
about to make the dwelling- 
place of thy glory. Leave me 
not, O God, in the midst of 

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them that are enemies both 
to thee and me. Thy mercy 
having separated me from 
them, I entered on the path of 
innocence and was restored to 
thy grace ; but have pity on 
my weakness still; redeem me 
yet more, thou who hast so 
mercifully brought me back 
to the right path. In the 
midst of these thy faithful 
people, I give thee thanks. 
Glory be to the Father, and 
to the Son, and to the Holy 
Ghost } as it was in the begin- 
ning, is now, and ever shall 
be, world without end. Amen. 

The priest, taking encouragement from the act of 
humility he has just made, returns to the middle of 
the altar, and bows down full of respectful awe, 
begging of God to receive graciously the Sacrifice 
which is about to be offered to him, and expresses 
the intentions for which it is offered. Let us do the 

tates sunt : dextera eorum 
repleta est muneribus. 

Ego autem in innocentia 
mea ingressus sum : redime 
me, et miserere mei. 

Pes meus stetit in directo : 
in ecclesiis benedicam te, Do- 

Gloria Patri, et Filio, et 
Spiritui Sancto. 

Sicut erat in principio, et 
nunc, et semper, et in ssecula 
sseculorum. Amen. 

0 Holy Trinity, graciously 
accept the Sacrifice we have 
begun. We offer it in remem- 
brance of the Passion, Kesur- 
rection, and Ascension of our 
Lord Jesus Christ. Permit 
thy Church to join with this 
intention that of honouring 
the ever glorious Virgin 
Mary, the Blessed Baptist 
John, the holy Apostles Peter 
and Paul, the Martyrs whose 
relics lie here under our altar 
awaiting their resurrection, 
and the Saints whose memory 
we this day celebrate. In- 
crease the glory they are en- 
joying, and receive the pray- 
ers they address to thee for us. 

Suscipe, Saucta Trinitas, 
hanc oblationem, quam tibi 
offerimus ob memoriam Pas- 
sionis, Kesurrectionis, et 
Ascensionis Jesu Christi 
Domini nostri : et in honore 
beatse Marise semper Virgi- 
nis, et Beati Joannis Bap- 
tists, et sanctorum Aposto- 
lorum Petri et Pauli, et 
istorum, et omnium Sanc- 
torum : ut illis proficiat ad 
honorem, nobis autem ad 
salutem : et illi pro nobis 
intercedere dignentur in 
ccelis, quorum memoriam 
agimus in terris. Per eum- 
dem Christum Dominum 
nostrum. Amen. 

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The Priest again turns to the people ; it is for the 
last time before the sacred Mysteries are accomplished. 
He feels anxious to excite the fervour of the people. 
Neither does the thought of his own unworthiness 
leave him ; and before entering the cloud with the 
Lord, he seeks support in the prayers of his brethren 
who are present He says to them : 

Orate, f ratres : ut meum Brethren, pray that my 

ac vestrum sacrificium ac- Sacrifice, which is yours also, 

ceptabile fiat apud Deum may be acceptable to God, 

Patrem omnipotentem. our Almighty Father. 

This request made, he turns again to the altar, and 
you will see his face no more, until our Lord himself 
shall have come down from heaven upon that same 
altar. Assure the Priest that he has your prayers, 
and say to him : 

Suscipiat Dominus sacri- May our Lord accept this 

ficium de manibus tuis, ad Sacrifice at thy hands, to the 

laudem et gloriam nominis praise and glory of his name, 

sui, ad utilitatem quoque and for our benefit and that 

nostram totiusque Ecclesise of his holy Church through- 

suse sanctse. out the world. 

Here the Priest recites the prayers called the Se- 
crets, in which he presents the petition of the whole 
Church for God's acceptance of the Sacrifice, and 
then immediately begins to fulfil that great duty of 
religion, — Thanksgiving. So far he has adored God, 
and has sued for mercy ; he has still to give thanks 
for the blessings bestowed on us by the bounty of 
our heavenly Father, the chief of which is his 
having sent us his own Son. The blessing of a 
new visit from this divine Word is just upon us; and 
in expectation of it, and in the name of the whole 
Church, the Priest is about to give expression to 
the gratitude of all mankind. In order to excite 
the Faithful to that intensity of gratitude which 

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is due to God for all his gifts, he interrupts his 
own and their silent prayer by terminating it aloud, 
saying : 

For ever and ever. Per omnia saecula sasculo- 


In the same feeling, answer your Amen! Then 
he continues : 

ft. The Lord be with you. ft. Dominus vobiscum. 
1$. And with thy spirit. 1$. Et cum spiritu tuo. 

ft. Lift up your hearts ! ft. Sursum corda ! 

Let your response be sincere : 

1$. We have them fixed on Habemus ad Domi- 

God. num. 

And when he adds : 

ft. Let us give thanks to ft. Gratias agamus Domi- 
the Lord our God, no Deo nostro. 

Answer him with all the earnestness of your soul : 
1$. It is meet and just. 1$. Dignum et justum est 

Then the Priest : 


It is truly meet and just, Vere dignum et justum 

right and available to salva- est, aequum et salutare, nos 

tion, that we should always, tibi semper et ubique gra- 

and in all places, give thanks tias agere : Domine Sancte, 

to thee, O Holy Lord, Father Pater omnipotens, aeterne 

Almighty, Eternal God ; Deus ; per Christum Domi- 

th rough Christ our Lord ; by num nostrum. Per quern 

whom the Angels praise thy majestatem tuam laudant 

majesty, the Dominations Angeli, adorant Dominatio- 

adore it, the Powers tremble nes, tremunt Potestates ; 

before it; the Heavens and Cceli ccelorumque Virtutes, 

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ac beata Seraphim, socia the Heavenly Virtues, and the 
exsultatione concelebrant. blessed Seraphim, with com- 
Cum quibus et nostras vo- mon jubilee, glorify it To- 
ces, ut admitti jubeas de- gether with whom, we beseech 
precamur, supphci confes- thee, that we may be admitted 
sione dicentes : to join our humble voices, 

saying : 

Here unite with the Priest, who, on his part, unites 
himself with the blessed Spirits in giving thanks to 
God for the unspeakable Gift : bow down and say: 

Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus, 
Dominus Dens sabaoth ! 

Pleni sunt cceli et terra 
gloria tua. 

Hosanna in excelsis ! 

Benedictus qui venit in 
nomine Domini. 

Hosanna in excelsis ! 

Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God 
of hosts ! 

Heaven aud earth are full 
of thy glory. 

Hosanna in the highest ! 

Blessed be the Saviour who 
is coming to us in the name 
of the Lord who sends him. 

Hosanna be to him in the 

♦ After these words commences the Canon, — that 
mysterious prayer, in the midst of which heaven bows 
down to earth, and God descends unto us. The voice 
of the Priest is no longer heard ; yea, even at the 
altar all is silence. It was thus, says the Book of 
Wisdom, in the quiet of silence, and while the night 
was in the midst of her course, that the Almighty 
Word came doivn from his royal throne. 1 Let a 
profound respect stay all distractions, and keep our 
senses in submission to the soul. Let us respectfully 
fix our eyes on what the Priest does in the Holy 


In this mysterious colloquy with the great God of 
heaven and earth, the first prayer of the sacrificing 
Priest is for the Catholic Church, his and our Mother. 

1 Wisd. xviii. 14, 15. 

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O God, who man if est est 
thyself unto us by means of 
the mysteries which thou hast 
intrusted to thy holy Church, 
our Mother ; we beseech thee, 
by the merits of this sacrifice, 
that thou wouldst remove all 
those hindrances which op- 
pose her during her pilgrim- 
age in this world. Give her 
peace and unity. Do thou 
thyself guide our Holy Fa- 
ther the Pope, thy Vicar 
on earth. Direct thou our 
Bishop, who is our sacred 
link of unity ; and watch 
over all the orthodox child- 
ren of the Catholic, Aposto- 
lic, Roman Church. 

Here pray, together with the Priest, for those 
whose interests should be dearest to you. 

Te igitur, clementissime 
Pater, per Jesum Christum 
Filium tuum Dominum nos- 
trum, supplices rogamus ac 
petimus, uti accepta habeas 
et benedicas haec dona, haec 
munera, haec sancta sacrificia 
illibata ; in primis quae tibi 
offerimus pro Ecclesia tua 
sancta Catholica ; quam paci- 
ficare, castodire, adunare, et 
regere digneris toto orbe ter- 
rarum, una cum famulo tuo 
Papa nostro N. et Antistite 
nostro N., et omnibus ortho- 
doxis, at que catholicae et 
apostolicae fidei cultoribus. 

Permit me, O God, to in- 
tercede with thee for special 
blessings upon such of thy 
servants for whom thou 
knowest that I have a special 
obligation to pray : * * * Ap- 

Sly to them the fruits of this 
ivine Sacrifice, which is of- 
fered unto thee in the name 
of all mankind. Visit them 
bv thy grace, pardon them 
their sins, grant them the 
blessings of this present life 
and of that which is eternal. 

Memento, Domine, famu- 
lorum famularumque tua- 
rum N. et N., et omnium 
circumstantium, quorum tibi 
fides cognita est, et nota de- 
votio : pro quibus tibi offeri- 
mus, vel qui tibi offerunt 
hoc sacrificium laudis pro se 
suisque omnibus, pro redemp- 
tione animarum suarum, pro 
spe salutis et incolumitatis 
suae ; tibique reddunt vota 
sua aeterno Deo vivo et vero. 

Here let us commemorate the Saints: they are 
that portion of the Body of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
which is called the Church Triumphant 

But the offering of this Communicantes, et memo- 
Sacrifice, 0 my God, does riam venerantes, in primis 
not unite us with those only gloriosae semper Virginis Ma- 
of our brethren who are still riae, Genitricis Dei et Domini 


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no8tri Jesu Christi : sed et 
beatorum Apostolorum ac 
Martyrum tuorum, Petri et 
Pauli, Andreae, Jacobi, Joan- 
nis, Thomae, Jacobi, Philippi, 
Bartholomsei, Matthaei,Simo- 
nis et Thaddaei : Lini, Cleti, 
dementis, Xysti, Cornelii, 
Cypriani, Laurentii, Chryso- 
goni, Joanni8 et Pauli, Cos- 
mae et Damiani, et omnium 
sanctorum tuorum : quorum 
mentis precibusque coucedas, 
ut in omnibus protection is 
tuae muniamur auxilio. Per 
eumdem Christum Dominum 
nostrum. Amen. 

in this transient life of trial : 
it brings us closer to those 
also who are already in pos- 
session of heaven. Therefore 
it is, that we wish to honour, 
by it, the memory of the glo- 
rious and ever Virgin Mary, 
of whom Jesus was born to 
us ; of the Apostles, Confes- 
sors, Virgins, and of all the 
Saints ; that they may assist 
us, by their powerful inter- 
cession, to be worthy of this 
thy visit, and of contemplat- 
ing thee, as they themselves 
now do, in the mansion of 
thy glory. 

The Priest, who up to this time has been praying 
with his hands extended, now joins them, and holds 
them over the Bread and Wine, as the High Priest 
of the Old Law was wont to do over the figurative 
victim : he thus expresses his intention of bringing 
these gifts more closely under the notice of the 
Divine Majesty, and of marking them as the material 
offering whereby we express our dependence, and 
which, in a few instants, is to yield its place to the 
living Host, upon whom are laid all our iniquities. 

Hanc igitur oblationem 
servitutis nostras, sed et 
cunctae families tuae, quaesu- 
mus, Domine, ut placatus 
accipias: diesque nostros in 
tua pace disponas, atque ab 
aeterna damnatione nos eripi, 
et in electorum tuorum ju- 
beas grege numerari. Per 
Christum Dominum nos- 
trum. Amen. 

Quam oblationem tu,Deus, 
in omnibus, quaesumus, be- 
nedictam, adscriptam,ratam, 

Vouchsafe, O God, to ac- 
cept the offering, which this 
thine assembled family pre- 
sents to thee as the homage 
of its most happy servitude. 
In return, give us peace, save 
us from thy wrath, and num- 
ber us among thine elect, 
through Him who is coming 
to us, — thy Son, our Saviour ! 

Yea, Lord, this is the 
moment when this bread is 
to become his sacred Body, 

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which is our food ; and this rationabilem, acceptabilem- 

wine is to be changed into que facere digneris : ut nobis 

his Blood, which is our drink. Corpus et Sanguis fiat dilec- 

Ah ! delay no longer, but tissimi Filii tui Domini nos- 

bring us into the presence of tri Jesu Christi. 
this divine Son, our Saviour! 

And here the Priest ceases to act as man ; he now 
becomes more than a mere minister of the Church. 
His word becomes that of Jesus Christ, with its 
power and efficacy. Prostrate yourself in profound 
adoration, for the Emmanuel, that is, God with us, 
is coming upon our altar. 

What, O God of heaven and Qui pridie quam patere- 
earth, my Jesus, the long ex- tur, accepit panem in sane- 
pectedMessias! what else can tas ac venerabiles manus 
I do, at this solemn moment, suas :• et elevatis oculis in 
but adore thee in silence, as coelum, ad te Deum Patrem 
my sovereign Master, and suum omnipotentem, tibi 
open to thee my whole heart, gratias agens, benedixit, fre- 
as to its dearest King) Come git, deditque discipulis suis, 
then, O Lord Jesus, come ! dicens : Accipite, et mandu- 

cate ex hoc omnes. Hoc 
est bnim Corpus meum. 

The Divine Lamb is now lying on our Altar ! 
Glory and love be to him for ever ! But, he is come 
that he may be immolated. Hence the Priest, who 
is the minister of the designs of the Most High; 
immediately pronounces, over the Chalice, the sacred 
words which follow, that will produce the great 
mystical immolation, by the separation of the Victim's 
Body and Blood. After those words, the substances 
of both bread and wine have ceased to exist; thp 
species alone are left, veiling, as it were, the Body and 
Blood of our Redeemer, lest fear should keep us from 
a mystery, which God gives us for the very purpose 
of infusing confidence into our hearts. Whilst the 
Priest is pronouncing those words, let us associate, 

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ourselves to the Angela, who tremblingly gaze upon 
this deepest wonder. 

Simili modo postquam cce- 
natum est, accipiens et hunc 
prseclarum Calicem in san- 
ctas ac venerabiles manus 
suas : item tibi gratias agens, 
benedixit, deditque discipu- 
lis suis dicens : Accipite et 
bibite ex eo omnes. Hie 


quotiescumque feceritis, in 
raei memoriam facietis. 

O Precious Blood! thou 
price of my salvation 
adore thee ! Wash away my 
sins, and make me whiter 
than snow. O Lamb ever 
slain, yet ever living, thou 
comest to take away the sins 
of the world ! Come, also, 
and reign in me by thy 
power and by thy love. 

The Priest is now face to face with God. He 
again raises his hands towards heaven, and tells our 
heavenly Father, that the oblation, now on the altar, 
is no longer an earthly material offering, but the 
Body and Blood, the whole Person, of his divine 

Unde et memores, Donii- 
ne, nos servi tui, sed et plebs 
tua sancta, ejusdem Christi 
Filii tui Domini nostri tarn 
beatae Fassionis, nec non et 
ab inferis Eesurrectionis, sed 
et in coelos gloriosae Ascen- 
sionis : offerimus praeclarae 
Majestati tuae de tuis donis 
ac datis, Hostiam puram, 
Hostiam sanctam, Hostiam 
immaculatam : Fanem sanc- 
tum vitae aeternae, et Calicem 
salutis perpetuae. 

Supra quae propitio ac se- 
reno vultu respicere digne- 

Father of infinite holiness! 
the Host so long expected is 
here before thee. Behold this 
thine eternal Son, who suf- 
fered a bitter Fassion, rose 
again with glory from the 
grave, and ascended trium* 
phantly into heaven. He is 
thy Son ; but he is also our 
Host, Host pure and spot- 
less, — our Meat and Drink 
of everlasting life. 

Heretofore, thou acceptedst 
the sacrifice of the innocent 

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ris : et accepta habere, sicuti 
accepta habere dignatus es 
munera pueri tui justi Abel, 
et sacrificium Patriarchs 
nostri Abrahse, et quod tibi 
obtulit summus Sacerdos 
tuus Melchisedech, sanctum 
sacrificium, immaculatam 

lambs offered unto thee by 
4bel ; and the sacrifice which 
Abraham made thee of his 
son Isaac, who, though im- 
molated, yet lived ; and, 
lastly, the sacrifice, which 
Melchisedech presented to 
thee, of bread and wine. Re- 
ceive our Sacrifice, which 
surpasses all those others: 
it is the Lamb, of whom all 
others could be but figures ; 
it is the undying Victim ; it 
is the Body of thy Son, who 
is the Bread of Life, and his 
Blood, which, whilst a drink 
of immortality for us, is a 
tribute adequate to thy glory. 

The Priest bows down to the altar, and kisses it as 
the throne of love, on which is throned the Saviour 
of men. 

But, O God of iufinite, 
power! these sacred gifts are 
not only on this altar here 
below : they are, also, on that 
sublime Altar in heaven, 
which is before the throne of 
thy divine Majesty. These two 
Altars are one and the same, 
on which is accomplished the 
great mystery of thy glory 
and our salvation. Vouch- 
safe to make us partakers of 
the Body and Blood of the 
august Victim, from whom 
flow every grace and bless- 

Nor is the moment less favourable for our making 
supplication for the Church Suffering. Let us, there- 
fore, ask the divine Liberator, who has come down 
among us, that he mercifully visit, by a ray of his 
consoling light, the dark abode of Purgatory; and 

Supplices te rogamus, om- 
nipotens Deus, jube haec per- 
f end per manus sancti Angeli 
tui in sublime Altare tuum* 
in conspectu divinae Majesta- 
tis tuse : ut quotquot ex bac 
altaris particioatione, sacro- 
sanctum Filii tui Corpus 
et Sanguinem sumpserimus, 
omni benedictione coelesti et 
gratia repleamur. Per eum- 
dem Christum Dominum nos- 
trum. Amen. 

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permit his Blood to flow, as a stream of mercy's dew, 
from this our altar, and refresh the panting captives 
there. Let us pray expressly for those among them, 
who have a claim upon our suffrages. 

Dear Jesus ! let the hap- 
piness of this thy visit ex- 
tend to every portion of thy 
Church. Thy face gladdens 
the elect, in the holy City \ 
even our mortal eyes can 
see thee beneath the veil of 
our delighted faith ; ah ! hide 
not thyself from those bre- 
thren of ours, who are im- 
prisoned in the abode of ex- 
piation. Be thou refreshment 
to them in their flames, light 
in their darkness, and peace 
in their agonies of torment. 

This duty of charity fulfilled, let us pray for our- 
selves, — sinners, alas ! and who profit so little by the 
visit which our Saviour pays us. Let us, together 
with the Priest, strike our breast, saying: 

Memento, etiam, Domine, 
famulorum famularumque 
tuarum N. et N., qui nos 
praecesserunt cum signo fidei, 
et dormiunt in somno pacis. 
Ipsis, Domine, et omnibus 
in Christo quiescentibus, lo- 
cum refrigerii, lucis et pacis, 
ut indulgeas, deprecamur. 
Per eumdem Christum Do- 
minum nostrum. Amen. 

Nobis quoque peccatori- 
bus famulis tuis, de multi- 
tudine miserationum tua- 
rum sperantibus, partem 
aliquam et societatem do- 
nare digneris cum tuis Sanc- 
tis Apostolis et Martyribus ; 
cum Joanne, Stephano, Mat- 
thia, Barnaba, Ignatio, Alex- 
andra, Marcellino, Petro, Fe- 
licitate, Perpetua, Agatha, 
Lucia, Agnete, Csecilia, Ana- 
Btasia, et omnibus Sanctis 
tuis ; intra quorum nos con- 
sortium, non sestimator me- 
riti, sed veniffi, quaesumus, lar- 
gitor admitte : per Christum 
Dominum nostrum. Per quern 

Alas ! we are poor sinners, 
O God of all sanctity ! yet 
do we hope that thine infinite 
mercy will grant us to share 
thy kingdom ; not indeed, by 
reason of our works, which 
deserve little else than pun- 
ishment, — but because of the 
merits of this Sacrifice, which 
we are offering unto thee. 
Remember, too, the merits 
of thy holy Apostles, of thy 
holy Martyrs, of thy holy 
Virgins, and of all thy saints. 
Grant us, by their interces- 
sion, grace in this world, and 
glory eternal in the next : 
which we ask of thee, in the' 

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name of our Lord Jesus hsec omnia, Domine, semper 
Christ, thy Son; It is by bona creas, sanctificas, vivi- 
him thou bestowest upon us ficas, benedicis, et praestas 
thy blessings of life ana sane- nobis ; per ipsum, et cum 
tincation ; and, by him also, ipso, et m ipso, est tibi Deo 
with him, and in him, in the Patri omnipotent, in unitate 
unity of the Holy Ghost, Spiritus Sancti, omnis honor 
may honour and glory be to et gloria, 
thee I 

Whilst saying the last of these words, the Priest 
has taken up the Sacred Host, which was upon the 
altar; he has held it over the Chalice: thus re- 
uniting the Body and Blood of the divine Victim, 
in order to show that he is now immortal. Then 
raising up both Chalice and Host, he offers to God 
the noblest and most perfect homage which the divine 
Majesty could receive. 

This sublime and mysterious rite ends the Canon. 
The silence of the Mysteries is interrupted. The 
Priest concludes his long prayers, by saying aloud, 
and so giving the Faithful the opportunity of express- 
ing their desire, that his supplications be granted : 

For ever and ever ! Per omnia ssecula sseculo- 


Answer him with faith, and in a sentiment of union 
with your holy Mother, the Church : 

Amen ! I believe the mys- Amen, 
tery which has just been ac- 
complished. I unite myself 
to the offering which has 
been made, and to the peti- 
tions of the Church. 

It is now time to recite the Prayer, taught us by 
our Saviour himself. Let it ascend up to heaven 
together with the sacrifice of the Body and Blood 
of Jesus Christ. How could it be otherwise than 
heard, when he himself who drew it up for us is in 
our very hands now whilst we say it? As this Prayer 

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belongs in common to all God's children, the Priest 
recites it aloud, and begins by inviting us all to join 
in it ; he says : 


Praeceptis salutaribus mo- Having been taught by a 
niti, et divina institutione saving precept, and following 
formati, audemus dicere : the form given us by divine 

instruction, we thus presume 

to speak : 


Pater noster, qui es in Our Father, who art in 

coe]is, sanctificetur nomen heaven, hallowed be thy 

tuum : adveniat regnum tu- name : tby kingdom come : 

urn : fiat voluntas tua sicut thy will be done on earth as 

in coelo, et in terra. Panem it is in heaven. Give us this 

nostrum quotidianum da no- day our daily bread : and 

bis hodie : et dimitte nobis forgive us our trespasses, as 

debita nostra, sicut et nos we forgive them that tres- 

dimittimus debitoribus nos- pass against us, and lead us 

tris : et ne nos inducas in not into temptation, 

Let us answer with .deep feeling of our misery: 

Sed libera nos a malo. But deliver us from evil 

The Priest falls, once more, into the silence of the 
holy Mysteries. His first word is an affectionate 
A men to your last petition — deliver us from evil— 
on which he forms his own next prayer : and, could 
he pray for anything more needed ? Evil surrounds 
us everywhere ; and the Lamb on our altar has been 
sent to expiate it, and deliver us from it. 

Libera nos, qusesumus, How many, O Lord, are the 

Domine, ab omnibus malis, evils which beset us ! Evils 

praeteritis, praesentibus et past, which are the wounds 

futuris : et intercedente bea- left on the soul by her sins, 

ta et gloriosa semper Virgi- and strengthen her wicked 

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ne Dei Genitrice Maria, cum 
beatis Apostolis tuis Fetro 
et Paulo, atque Andrea, et 
omnibus Sanctis, da propi- 
tius pacem in diebus nos* 
tris: ut ope misericordiae 
tuse adjuti, et a peccato si- 
mus semper liberi, et ab om- 
ni perturbatione securi. Per 
eumdem Dominum nostrum 
Jesum Christum Filium tu- 
um, qui tecum vivit et reg- 
nat in unitate Spiritus Sanc- 
ti Deus. 

propensities. Evils present, 
that is, the sins now, at this 
very time, upon our soul ; the 
weakness of this poor soul ; 
and the temptations which 
molest her. There are, also, 
future evils, that is, the chas- 
tisement which our sins de- 
serve from the hand of thy 
justice. In presence of this 
Host of our Salvation, we 
beseech thee, O Lord, to de- 
liver us from all these evils, 
and to accept in our favour 
the intercession of Mary the 
Mother of Jesus, of the holy 
Apostles, Peter and Paul and 
Andrew : Liberate us, break 
our chains, give us peace : 
through Jesus Christ, thy 
Son, who with thee, liveth 
and reigneth God. 

The Priest is anxious to announce the Peace, which 
he has asked and obtained ; he, therefore, finishes his 
prayer aloud, saying : 

World without end. 
1$. Amen. 

Then he says : 

May the peace of our Lord Paz Domini sit semper 
be ever with you. vobiscum. 

To this paternal wish, reply : 
. 1$. And with thy spirit. 1$. Et cum spiritu tuo. 

The Mystery is drawing to a close ; God is about 
to be united with man, and man with God, by means 
of Communion. But first, an imposing and sublime 
rite takes place at the altar. So far, the Priest has 
announced the death of Jesus ; it is time to proclaim 

Per omnia s»cula sseculo- 
Q. Amen. 

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his Resurrection. To this end, he reverently breaks 
the sacred Host ; and, having divided it into three 
parts, he puts one into the Chalice, thus re-uniting 
the Body and Blood of the immortal Victim. Do 
you adore, and say 

Hsec commixtio et conse- Glory be to thee, O Saviour 
cratio Corporis et Sanguinis of the world ! who didst, in 
Domini nostri Jesu Christi, thy Passion, permit thy pre- 
fiat accipientibus nobis in cious Blood to be separated 
vitam aeternam. Amen. from thy sacred Body, after- 
wards uniting them again to- 
gether by thy divine power. 

Offer now your prayer to the ever-living Lamb, 
whom St. John saw, on the Altar of Heaven, standing 
though slain : l say to this your Lord and King, who 
has taken upon himself all our iniquities, in order 
to wash them away by his Blood : 

Agnus Dei, qui tollis pee- Lamb of God, who takest 
cata mundi, miserere nobis. away the sins of the world, 

have mercy on us ! 
Agnus Dei, qui tollis pec- Lamb of God, who takest 
cata mundi, miserere nobis. away the sins of the world, 

have mercy on us ! 
Agnus Dei, qui tollis pec- Lamb of God, who takest 
cata mundi, dona nobis pa- away the sins of the world, 
cem. give us Peace! \ 

Peace is the grand object of our Saviour's coming 
into the world : he is the Prince of Peace. 1 The 
divine Sacrament of the Eucharist ought, therefore, 
to be the mystery of Peace and the bond of Catholic 
Unity; for, as the Apostle says, all we who partake 
of one Bread, are all one Bread and one Body? It 
is on this account that the Priest, now that he is on 
the point of receiving, in Communion, the Sacred 
Host, prays that fraternal Peace may be preserved 
in the Church, and more especially in this portion 

1 Apoc. t. 6. * la. ix. il * 1 Cor. x. 17. 

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of it, which is assembled around the altar. Pray 
with him, and for the same blessing. 

Lord Jesus Christ, who Domine Jesu Christe, qui 
saidstto thine Apostles," My dixisti Apostolis tuis : Pa- 
peace I leave with you, my cera relinquo vobis : pacem 

peace I give unto you :*' re- 
gard not my sins, but the 
faith of thy Church, and 
grant her that peace and 
unity which is according to 
thy will. Who livest and 
reignest God, for ever and 
ever. Amen. 

meam do vobis : ne respi- 
cias peccata mea, sed fidem 
Ecclesiae tuae : eamque se- 
cundum voluntatem tuam 
pacificare et coadunare dig- 
neris. Qui vivis et regnas 
Deus, per omnia saecula sae- 
cuiorum. Amen. 

If it be a High Mass, the Priest here gives the 
kiss of peace to the Deacon, who gives it to the Sub- 
deacon, and he to the Choir. During this ceremony, 
you should excite within yourself feelings of Chris- 
tian charity, an^ pardon your enemies, if you have 
any. Then continue to pray with the Priest: 

Lord Jesus Christ, Son of 
the living God, who accord- 
ing to the will of the Father, 
through the co-operation of 
the Holy Ghost, hast, by thy 
death, given life to the world ; 
deliver me, by this thy most 
sacred Body and Blood, from 
all mine iniquities, and from 
all evils; and make me always 
adhere to thy command- 
ments, and never suffer me 
to be separated from thee, 
who with the same God the 
Father and the Holy Ghost, 
livest and reignest God for 
ever and ever. Amen. 

If you are going to Communion at this Mass, say 
the following Prayer; otherwise, prepare yourself 
for a Spiritual Communion : 

Let not the participation . Perceptio Corporis tui, Do- 

Domine Jesu Christe, Fili 
Dei vivi, qui ex voluntate 
Patris, co-operante Spiritu 
Sancto, per mortem tuam 
mundum vivificasti : libera 
me per hoc sacrosanctum 
Corpus, et Sanguinem tuum, 
ab omnibus iniquitatibus 
meis, et universis malis, et 
fac me tuis semper inhaerere 
mandatis, et a te nunquam 
separari permittas. Qui cum 
eodem Deo Patre et Spiritu 
Sancto vivis et regnas, Deus, 
in ssBcula saeculbrum. Amen. 

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mine Jesu Christe, quod ego of thy Body, O Lord Jesus 

indignus sumere praesumo, Christ, which I, though un- 

non mihi proveniat in judi- worthy, presume to receive, 

cium et condemnation em : turn to my judgment and 

sed pro tua pietate prosit condemnation; but through 

mihi ad tutamentum mentis thy mercy, may it be a safe- 

et corporis, et ad medelam guard and remedy, both to 

percipiendam. Qui vivis et my soul and body. Who 

regnas cum Deo Patre, in with God the Father, in the 

unitate Spiritus Sancti, De- unity of the Holy Ghost, 

us, per omnia saecula saecu- livest and reignest God, for 

lorum. Amen. ever and ever. Amen. 

When the Priest takes the Host into his hands, in 
order to his receiving it in Communion, say : 

Panem coelestem accipiam, Come, my dear Jesus, come! 
et nomen Domini invocabo. 

When he strikes his breast, confessing his un- 
worthiness, say thrice with him thes% words, and in 
the same dispositions as the Centurion of the Gospel, 
who first used them : 

Domine, non sum dignus Lord! I am not worthy that 
ut intres sub tectum meum : thou enter under my roof ; 
sed tantum die verbo, et say it, only with one word 
sanabitur anima mea. of thine, and my soul shall 

be healed. 

Whilst the Priest is receiving the sacred Host, if 
you also are to communicate, profoundly adore your 
God, who is ready to take up his abode within you ; 
and again say to him with the Bride : Gome, Lord 
Jesus, come A 

' But should you not intend to receive sacramentally, 
make here a Spiritual Communion. Adore Jesus 
Christ, who thus visits your soul by his grace, and 
say to him : 

Corpus Domini nostri Jesu I give thee, O Jesus, this 
1 Apoc. xxii. 20, 

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heart of mine, that thou Christi custodiat animam 
mayest dwell in it, and do meam in vitam seternam, 
with me what thou wilt. Amen. 

Then the Priest takes the Chalice, in thanksgiving, 
and says : 

What return shall I make Quid retribuam Domino 

to the Lord for ail he hath pro omnibus quae retribuit 

given to me ? I will take the mihi 1 Calicem salutaris ac- 

Chalice of salvation, and will cipiam, et nomen Domini in- 

call upon the name of the vocabo. Laudans invocabo 

Lord. Praising, I will call Dominum, et ab inimicis 

upon the Lord, and I shall meis salvus ero. 
be saved from mine enemies. 

But if you are to make a Sacramental Communion, 
you should at this moment of the Priest's receiving 
the precious Blood, again adore the God who is 
coming to you, and keep to your prayer: Come, 
Lord Jesus, come ! 

If you are going to communicate only spiritually, 
again adore your divine Master, and say to him : 

I unite myself to thee, my Sanguis Domini nostri 
beloved Jesus ! do thou unite Jesu Christi custodiat ani- 
thyself to me and never let mam meam in vitam ster- 
ns be separated. nam. Amen. 

It is here that you must approach to the altar, if 
you are going to Communion. 

The Communion being finished, whilst the Priest 
is purifying the Chalice the first time, say: 

Thou hast visited me, O Quod ore sumpsimus, Do- 
God, in these days of my pil- mine, pura mente capiamus ; 
grimage: give me grace to et de munere temporali fiat 
treasure up the fruits of this nobis remedium sempiter- 
visit, and to make it tell num. 
upon my eternity. 

Whilst the Priest is purifying the Chalice the 
second time, say : 

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Corpus tuum, Domine, Be thou for ever blessed, O 
quod sumpsi, et Sanguis, my Saviour, fbr having ad- 
quem potavi, adhsereat vis- mitted me to the sacred mys- 
ceribus meis : et praesta ut tery of thy Body and Blood, 
in me non remaneat scele- May my heart and senses 
rum macula, quern pura et preserve, by thy ; grace, the 
sancta refecerunt Sacramen- purity thou hast imparted to 
ta. Qui vivis et regnas in them, and I be thus rendered 
saecula saeculorum. Amen. less unworthy of thy divine 


The Priest, having read the Anthem, called the 
Communion, which is the first part of his Thanks- 
giving for the favour just received from God, whereby 
he has renewed his divine presence among us, — turns 
to the people, greeting them with the usual saluta- 
tion ; and then recites the Prayer, called the Post- 
communion, which is the continuation of the 
Thanksgiving. You will join him here also, and 
thank God for the unspeakable gift he has just 
lavished upon you, of admitting you to the celebra- 
tion and participation of mysteries so divine. 

As soon as these Prayers have been recited, the 
Priest again turns to the people ; and, full of joy at 
the immense favour he and they have been receiving, 
he says ; 

Dominus vobiscum. The Lord be with you. 

Answer him : 
Et cum spiritu tuo. And with thy spirit. 

The Deacon, or (if it be not a High Mass), the 
Priest himself, then says : 

Ite, missa est. Go, the Mass is finished. 

1$. Deo gratias. 1$. Thanks be to God. 

The Priest makes a last Prayer, before giving you 
his blessing ; pray with him : 

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Eternal thanks be to thee, 
0 adorable Trinity, for the 
mercy thou hast shown to 
me, in permitting me to as- 
sist at this divine Sacrifice. 
Pardon me the negligence 
and coldness wherewith I 
have received so great a fa- 
vour • and deign to confirm 
the Blessing, which thy Minis- 
ter is about to give me in thy 

Placeat tibi, sancta Tri- 
nitas, obsequium servitutis 
niese, et prsesta ut sacrifi- 
cium, quod oculis tuse Ma- 
jestatis indignus obtuli, tibi 
sit acceptabile, mihique, et 
omnibus pro quibus illud 
obtuli, sit te miserante, pro- 
pitiabile. Per Christum Do- 
minum nostrum. Amen. 

The Priest raises his hand, and blesses you thus : 

May the Almighty God, 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, 
bless you ! 

1$. Amen. 

Benedicat vos omnipotens 
Deus, Pater, et Filius, et 
Spiritus Sanctus. 

He then concludes the Mass, by reading the first 
fourteen verses of the Gospel according to St. John, 
which tell us of the eternity of the Word, and of the 
mercy which led him to take upon himself our flesh, 
and to dwell among us. Pray that you may be of 
the number of those who received him, when he 
came unto his own people, and who, thereby, were 
made Sons of God. 

The Lord be with you. ft. Dominus vobiscum. 
1$. And with thy spirit. 1$. Et cum spiritu tuo. 


The beginning of the Holy 
Gospel according to John. 

Ch. J. 

In the beginning was the 
Word, and the Word was 
with God, and the Word was 
Qod. The same was in the 
beginning with God. All 
things were made . by him, 

Initium sancti Evangelii se- 
cundum Joannem. 

Cap. I. 

In principio erat Verbum, 
et Verbum erat apud Deum, 
et Deus erat Verbum. Hoc 
erat in principio apud Deum. 
Omnia per ipsum facta sunt : 
et sine ipso factum est nihil 

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quod factum est; in ipso 
vita erat, et vita erat lux 
hominum ; et lux in tenebris 
lucet, et tenebrse earn non 
comprehenderunt. Fuit ho- 
mo missus a Deo, cui nomen 
erat Joannes. Hie venit in 
testimonium, ut testimonium 
perhiberet de lumine, ut om- 
nescrederent per ilium. Non 
erat ille lux, sed ut testimo- 
nium perhiberet de lumine. 
Erat lux vera, quae illuminat 
omnem hominem venientem 
in nunc mundum. In mun- 
do erat, et mundus per ipsum 
factus est, et mundus eum 
non cognovit. In propria 
venit, et sui eum non recepe- 
runt Quotquot autem re- 
ceperunt eum, dedit eis po- 
testatem filios Dei fieri, his 
qui credunt in nomine ejus : 
qui non ex sanguinibus, ne- 
que ex voluntate carnis, ne- 
que ex voluntate viri, sed ex 
Deo, nati sunt, Et Verbum 
oabo factum est, et habi- 
tavit in nobis: et vidimus 
gloriam ejus, gloriam quasi 
Unigeniti a Fatre, plenum 
gratiK et veritatis. 

1$. - Deo gratias. 


and without him was made 
nothing that was made. In 
him was life, and the life was 
the light of men : and the 
light shineth in darkness, 
and the darkness did not 
comprehend it There was 
a man sent from God, whose 
name was John. This man 
came for a witness, to give 
testimony of the light, that 
all men might believe through 
him. He was not the light, 
but was to give testimony of 
the light. That was the true 
light which enlighteneth 
every man that cometh into 
this world. He was in the 
world, and the world was 
made by him, and the world 
knew him not. He came un- 
to his own, and his own re- 
ceived him not. But as many 
as received him, to them he 
gave power to be made the 
sons of God; to them that 
believe in his name, who are 
born, not of blood, nor of the 
will of the flesh, nor of the 
will of man, but of God. 
And the Word was made 
Flesh, and dwelt among us ; 
and we saw his glory, as it 
were the glory of the Only- 
Begotten of the Father, full 
of grace and truth, 
ft. Thanks be to God. 

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The Office of Vespers, or Even Song, consists firstly 
of the five following Psalms. For certain Feasts 
some of these Psalms are changed for others, which 
are more appropriate to the day ; but those we now 
give are the ones for Sunday's Vespers. 

After the Pater and Ave have been said in secret, 
the Church commences this Hour with her favourite 
supplication : 

y. Incline unto my aid, O ft. Deus, in adjutorium 

God. meum intende. 

1$. O Lord, make haste to 1$. Domine, ad adjuvan- 

help me. dum me festina. 

Glory be to the Father, and Gloria Patri, et Filio, et 

to the Son, and to the Holy Spiritui Sancto. 

As it was in the beginning, Sicut erat in principio, et 

is now, and ever shall be, nunc, et semper, et in s«- 

world without end. Amen. cula saeculorum. Amen. 

Alleluia. Alleluia. 

Ant. The Lord said. Ant. Dixit Dominus. 

The first Psalm is a prophecy of the future glory 
of the Messias. The Son of David shall sit on the 
right liand of the heavenly Father. He is King; 
he is Priest ; he is Son of Man ; and Son of God. 
His enemies will attack him, but he will crush them. 
He will be humbled ; but this voluntary humiliation 
will lead him to highest glory. 

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Dixit Dominus Domino 
meo: * Sede a dextris meis. 

Donee ponam inimicos 
tuos: * scabellum pedum 

Virgam virtutis tuae emit- 
tet Dominus ex Sion : * do- 
minare in medio inimicorum 

Tecum principium in die 
virtutis tuae in splendoribus 
sanctorum : * ex utero ante 
luciferum genui te. 

J uravit Dominus, et non 
poanitebit eum : * Tu es Sa- 
cerdos in aeternum secun- 
dum ordinem Melchisedech. 

Dominus a dextris tuis : * 
confregit in die irae suae re- 

Judicabit in nationibus, 
implebit ruin as: * conquas- 
sabit capita in terra multo- 

De torrente in via bibet : * 
propterea exaltabit caput. 

Ant. Dixit Dominus Do- 
mino meo: Sede a dextris 

Ant. Fidelia. 

The following Psalm 


The Lord said to my Lord, • 
his Son: Sit thou at my right 
hand, and reign with vie. 

Until, on the day of thy last 
coming, I make thy enemies 
thy footstool. 

0 Christ! the Lord thy 
Father will send forth the 
sceptre of thy power out of 
Sion: from thence rule thou 
in the midst of thy enemies. 

With thee is the principality 
in the day of thy strength, in 
the brightness of the saints : 
For the Father hath said to 
thee: From the womb before 
the day-star I begot thee. 

The Lord hath sworn, and 
he will not repent : he hath 
said, speaking to thee, the God' 
Man : Thou art a Priest for 
ever, according to the order 
of Melchisedech. 

Therefore, 0 Fattier, the 
Lord, thy Son, is at thy right 
hand: he hath broken kings 
in the day of his wrath. 

He shall also judge among 
nations : in tliat terrible com- 
ing, he shall fill the ruins of 
the world: he shall crush the 
heads in the land of many. 

He cometh now in humility: 
he shall drink in the way of 
the torrent of sufferings: there- 
fore, shall he lift up the head. 

Ant. The Lord said to my 
Lord: Sit thou at my right 
Ant. Faithful. 

commemorates the mercies 

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Sunday's vespers. 


of God to his people — the promised Covenant — the 
Redemption — his Fidelity to his word. But it also 
tells us that the Name of the Lord is terrible because 
it is holy ; and concludes by admonishing us, that 
the fear of the Lord is the beginning of Wisdom. 


I will praise thee, O Lord, 
with my whole heart : in the 
council of the just, and in the 

Great are the works of the 
Lord : sought out according 
to all his wills. 

His work is praise and mag- 
nificence : and his justice con- 
tinueth for ever and ever. 

He hath made a remem- 
brance of his wonderful works, 
being a merciful and gracious 
Lord: he hath given food to 
them that fear him. 

He will be mindful for ever 
of his covenant with men: he 
will show forth to his people 
the power of his works. 

That he may give them his 
Church, the inheritance of the 
Gentiles: the works of his 
hands are truth and judgment 

All his commandments are 
faithful, confirmed for ever 
and ever : made in truth and 

He hath sent Redemption 
to his people : he hath thereby 
commanded his covenant for 

Holy and terrible is his 
name : the fear of the Lord is 
the beginning of wisdom. 

A good understanding to all 


Confitebor tibi, Domine, 
in toto corde meo : * in con- 
silio justorum et congrega- 
tion e. 

Magna opera Domini: * 
exquisita in omnes volunta- 
tes ejus. 

Confessi o et magnificentia 
opus ejus : * et justitia ejus 
manet in saeculum saeculi. 

Memoriam fecit mirabi- 
liura suorum, misericors et 
miserator Dominus : * escam 
dedit timentibus se. 

Memor erit in saeculum 
testamenti sui: * virtutem 
operum suorum annuntia- 
bit populo suo. 

Ut det illis haereditatem 
Gentium : * opera manuum 
ejus Veritas et judicium. 

Fidelia omnia mandata 
ejus, confirmata in saecu- 
lum saeculi : * facta in veri- 
tate et aequitate. 

Redemptionem misit po- 
pulo suo: * mandavit in 
aeternum testamentum su- 

Sanctum et terribile no- 
men ejus: * initium sapien- 
tial timor Domini. 

Intellectus bonus omni- 

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baa facieutibus eura : * lau- 
datio ejus manet in specu- 
lum saeculi. 

Ant. Fidelia omnia man- 
data ejus; confirmata in 
sseculum sseculi. 

Ant. In mandatis. 

that do it: his praise con- 
tinueth for ever and ever. 

Ant. Faithful are all his 
commandments ; confirmed 
for ever and ever. 

Ant. In his command- 

The next Psalm sings the happiness of the just 
man, and his hopes on the day of bis Lord's coming. 
It tells us, likewise, of the confusion of the sinner, 
who shall have despised the mysteries of God's love 
towards mankind. 

PSALM 111. 

Beatus vir, qui timet Do- 
minum: * in mandatis ejus 
volet nimis. 

Potens in terra erit semen 
ejus: * generatio rectorum 

Gloria et divitiae in domo 
ejus : * et jufctitia ejus ma- 
net in sseculum saeculi. 

Exortum est in tenebris 
lumen rectis : * misericors, 
et miserator, et justus. 

Jucundus homo, qui mise- 
retur et commodat, disponet 
sermones suos in judicio: * 
quia in seternum non com- 

In memoria sterna erit 
justus: * ab auditione mala 
non timebit. 

Paratum cor ejus sperare 
in Domino, confirmatum est 
cor ejus : * non commovebi- 
tur donee despiciat inimicos 

Blessed is the man that 
feareth the Lord ; he shall 
delight exceedingly in his 

His seed shall be mighty 
upon earth; the generation 
of the righteous shall be 

Glory and wealth shall be 
in his house : and his justice 
remaineth for ever and ever. 

To the righteous a light is 
risen up in darkness : he is 
merciful, and compassionate, 
and just. 

• Acceptable is the man that 
showeth mercy and lendeth ; 
he shall order his words with 
judgment: because he shall 
not be moved for ever. 

The just shall be in ever- 
lasting remembrance : he shall 
not fear the evil hearing. 

His heart is ready to hope 
in the Lord ; his heart is 
strengthened : he shall not be 
moved until he look over his 

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He hath distributed, he 
hath given to the poor; his 
justice remaineth for ever 
and ever s his horn shall be 
exalted in glory. 

The wicked shall see, and 
shall be angry; he shall gnash 
with his teeth, and pine away : 
the desire of the wicked shall 

Ant. In his commandments 
he delighteth exceedingly. 

Ant. May the name of the 

Dispersit, dedit pauperi- 
bus, justitia ejus manet in 
sseculum saeculi : * cornu 
ejus exaltabitur in gloria. 

Peccator videbit,et irasce- 
tur, dentibus suis fremet et 
tabescet : * desiderium pec- 
cator urn peribit. 

Ant. In mandatis ejus 
cupit nimis. 
Ant. Sit nomen Domini. 

The Psalm Laudate pueri is a Canticle of praise 
to the Lord, who, from his high heaven, has taken 
pity on the human race, and has vouchsafed to hon- 
our it by the Incarnation of his own Son. 

PSALM 112. 

Praise the Lord, ye chil- 
dren: praise ye the name of 
the Lord. 

Blessed be the name of the 
Lord : from henceforth now 
and for ever. 

From the rising of the sun 
unto the going down of the 
same, the name of the Lord 
is worthy of praise. 

The Lord is high above all 
nations : and his glory above 
the heavens. 

Who is as the Lord our 
God, who dwelleth on high: 
and looketh down on the low 
things in heaven and in earth? 

Raising up the needy from 
the earth : and lifting up the 
poor out of the dunghill : 

That he may place him with 
princes: with the princes of 
his people. 

Laudate pueri, Domi- 
num : * laudate nomen Do- 

Sit nomen Domini bene- 
dictum: * ex hoc nunc et 
usque in saeculum. 

A solis ortu usque ad oc- 
casum: * laudabile nomen 

Excelsus super: omnes 
gentes Dominus: * et super 
ccelos gloria ejus. 

Quis sicut Dominus Deus 
noster qui in altis habitat: * 
et humilia respicit in colo 
et in terra ? 

Suscitans a terra inopem : 
* et de stercore erigens pau- 
pereni : ' 

Ut collocet eum cum prin- 
cipibu8 : * cum principibus 
populi suL 

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Qui habitare facit sterilem 
in domo : * matrem fiiiorum 
1® tan tern. 

Ant. Sit nomen Domini 
benedictum in ssecula. 

Ant. Nos qui vivimua. 

Who maketh a barren wo- 
man to dwell in a house, the 
joyful mother of children. 

Ant. May the name of the 
Lord be for ever blessed. 

Ant. We that live. 

The fifth Psalm, In exitu, recounts the prodigies 
witnessed under the ancient Covenant : they were 
figures, whose realities were to be accomplished in 
the mission of the Son of God, who came to deliver 
Israel from Egypt, emancipate the Gentiles from 
their idolatry, and pour out a blessing on every man 
who will consent to fear and love the Lord. 

PSALM 113. 

In exitu Israel de iEgyp- 
to: *domus Jacob de populo 

Facta est Judaea sanctifi- 
catio ejus : * Israel potestas 

Mare vidit, et f ugit : * Jor- 
danis conversus est retror- 

Montes exsultaverunt ut 
arietes : * et colles sicut agni 

Quid est tibi, mare, quod 
fugisti: * et tu, Jordanis, 
quia conversus es retror- 

Montes exsultastis sicut 
arietes : * et colles sicut agni 

A facie Domini mota est 
terra : * a facie Dei Jacob. 

Qui convertit petram in 
stagna aquarum : * et rupem 
in fontes aquarum. 

Non nobis, Domine, non 

When Israel went out of 
Egypt, the house of Jacob 
from a barbarous people. 

Judea was made his sanc- 
tuary, Israel his dominion. 

The sea saw and fled ; Jor- 
dan was turned back. 

The mountains skipped like 
rams: and the hills like the 
lambs of the flock. 

What ailed thee, O thou 
sea, that thou didst flee : and 
thou, O Jordan, that thou 
wast turned back ? 

Ye mountains that ye skip- 
ped like rams: and ye hills 
like lambs of the flock ? 

At the presence of the Lord 
the earth was moved, at the 
presence of the God of Jacob. 

Who turned the rock into 
pools of water, and the stony 
hills into fountains of waters. 

Not to us, O Lord, not to 

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us ; but to thy name give 

For thy mercy, and for thy 
truth's sake : lest the Gentiles 
should say: Where is their 

But our God is in heaven : 
he hath done all things what- 
soever he would. 

The idols of the Gentiles 
are silver and gold : the works 
of the hands of men. 

They have mouths, and 
speak not: they have eyes, 
and see not. 

They have ears, and hear 
not: they have noses, and 
smell not. 

They have hands, and feel 
not: they have feet, and walk 
not: neither shall they cry 
out through their throat. 

Let them that make them 
become like unto them: and 
all such as trust in them. 

The house of Israel hath 
hoped in the Lord : he is their 
helper and their protector. 

The house of Aaron hath 
hoped in the Lord: he is their 
helper and their protector. 

They that feared the Lord 
have hoped in the Lord : he 
is their helper and their pro- 

The Lord bath been mindful 
of us, and hath blessed us. 

He hath blessed the house 
of Israel : he hath blessed the 
house of Aaron. 

He hath blessed all that 
fear the Lord, both little and 

May the Lord add blessings 


nobis : * sed nomini tuo da 

Super misericordia tua, et 
veritate tua: * nequando 
dicant gentes: Ubi estDeus 
eorum 1 

Deus autem noster in 
coelo : * omnia quaecumque 
voluit fecit. 

Simulacra gentium ar- 
gentum et aurum : * opera 
manuum hominum. 

Os habent, et non loquen- 
tur: * oculos habent, et non 

Aures habent, et non au- 
dient : * nares habent, et non 

Manus habent, et non pal- 
pabunt; pedes habent, et non 
ambulabunt : * non clama- 
bunt in gutture suo. 

Similes illis fiant qui fa- 
ciunt ea : * et omnes qui 
confidunt in eis. 

Domus Israel speravit in 
Domino: * adjutor eorum 
et protector eorum est. 

Domus Aaron speravit in 
Domino : * adjutor eorum 
et protector eorum est. 

Qui timent Dominum, 
speraverunt in Domino: * 
adjutor eorum et protector 
eorum est. 

Dominus memor fuit nos- 
tri : * et benedixit nobis. 

Benedixit domui Israel: 
* benedixit domui Aaron . 

Benedixit omnibus qui ti- 
ment Dominum: * pusillis 
cum majoribus. 

Adjiciat Dominus super 

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vos: * super vos, et super 
filios vestros. 

Benedicti vos a Domino : 
* qui fecit coelum et terram. 

Coelum coeli Domino: * 
terram autem dedit filiis 

Non mortui laudabunt te, 
Domine : * neque omnes qui 
descendunt in infernum. 

Sed nos qui vivimus, be- 
nedicimus Domino: *ex hoc 
nunc et usque in sseculum. 

Ant. Nos qui vivimus, 
benedicimus Domino. 


upon you : upon you, and up- 
on your children. 

Blessed be you of the Lord, 
who made heaven and earth. 

The heaven of heaven is the 
Lord's: but the earth he has 
given to the children of men. 

The dead shall not praise 
thee, O Lord : nor any of 
them that go down to hell* 

But we that live bless the 
Lord: from this time now 
and for ever. 

Ant. We that live bless the 

After these five Psalms, a short Lesson from the 
holy Scriptures is then read. It is called Capitulum, 
because it is always very short. The ones for the 
several Festivals are given in the Proper of each. 
We here give the Capitulum common to the Sunday. 


(2 Cor. i.) 

Benedictus Deus et Pater Blessed be the God and 

Domini nostri Jesu Christi, Father of our Lord Jesus 

Pater misericordiarum et Christ, the Father of mercies 

Deus totius consolationis, and the God of all consola- 

qui consolatur nos in omni tion, who comf orteth us in all 

tribulatione nostra. our tribulations. 

1$. Deo gratias. IJ. Thanks be to God. 

Then follows the Hymn. We here give the one 
for Sundays. It was composed by St Gregory the 
Great. It sings of Creation, and celebrates the 
praises of that portion of it which was called forth 
on this first day, — the Light 

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O infinitely good Creator of 
the Light! by thee was pro- 
duced the Light of day, pro- 
viding thus the world's begin- 
ning with the beginning of the 
new-made Light. 

Thou biddest us call the 
time from morn till eve, Day; 
this Day is over ; dark Night 
comes on, — oh I hear our tear- 
ful prayers. 

Let not our soul, weighed 
down by crime, mis-spend thy 
gift of life: and, forgetting 
what is eternal, be earth- tied 
by her sins. 

Oh ! may we strive to enter 
our heavenly home, and bear 
away the prize of life: may we 
shun what would injure us, 
and cleanse our soul from her 

Most merciful Father! and 
thou, his Only Begotten Son, 
co-equal with him, reigning 
forever, with the Holy Para- 
clete! grant this our prayer. 


Lucis Creator optime, 
Lucem dierum proferens; 
Primordiis lucis novae, 
Mundi parans originem. 

Qui mane j unctum vesperi 
Diem vocari praecipis: 
Illabitur tetruin chaos, 
Audi preces cum fletibus. 

Ne mens gravata crimine, 
Vitae sit exsul munere : 
Dum nil perenne cogitat, 
Seseque culpis illigat. 

Coeleste pulset intimum, 
Vitale tollat premium : 
Vitemus omne noxium, 
Purgemus omne pessimum. 

Praasta, Pater piissime, 
Patrique compar Uuice, 
Cum Spiritu Paraclito, 
Regnans per omne saeculum . 


According to the Monastic Rite, it is as follows :— ■ 

R7. breve. Quam magnificata 
sunt. * Opera tua, Domine. 

9- Omnia in Sapientia fecis- 
ti. * Opera. Gloria Patri, &c. 

Lucis Creator optime, 
Lucem dierum proferens; 
Primordiis lucis novae, 
Mundi parans originem. 

Qui mane juctum vesperi 
Diem vocari praecipis, 
Tetrum chaos illabitur, 
Audi precee cum fletibus. 

Ne mens gravata crimine, 
Vitae sit exsul munere, 
Dum nil perenne cogitat, 
Seseque culpis illigat. 

Coeloruni pulset intimum, 
Vitale tollat premium : 
Vitemus omne noxium, 
Purgemus omne pessimum.^ 

Presta, Pater piissime, 
Patrique compar Unice, 
Cum Spiritu Paraclito, 
Regnans per omne swculum. 


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The Versicle which follows the Hyrnn, and which 
we here give, is that of the Sunday : those for the 
Feasts are given in their proper places. 

Dirigatur, Domine, ^. May my prayer, O Lord, 

oratio mea. ascend. 

]$. Sicut incensum in 1$. Like incense in thy sight, 
conspectu tuo. 

Then is said the Magnificat Antiphon, which is to 
be found in the Proper. After this, the Church 
sings the Canticle of Mary, the Magnificat, in which 
are celebrated the Divine Maternity and all its con- 
sequent blessings. This exquisite Canticle is an 
essential part of the Office of Vespers. It is the 
evening incense, just as the Canticle Benedictus, at 
Lauds, is that of the morning. 

our lady's canticle. 
(St. Luke i.) 

Magnificat : * anima mea My soul doth magnify the 
Dominura. Lord. 

Et exsultavit spiritus me- 'And my spirit hath rejoiced 
us: * in Deo saiutari meo. in God my Saviour. 

Quia respexit humilita- Because he hath regarded 
tern ancillae suae : * ecce the humility of his handmaid : 
enim ex hoc Beatam me di- for, behold from henceforth 
cent omnes generationes. all generations shall call me 


Quia fecit mihi magna Because he that is mighty 
qui potens est: * et sane- hath done great things to me : 
turn nomen ejus. and holy is his name. 

Et misericordia ejus a pro- And his mercy is from gene- 
genie in progenies :* timen- ration unto generation, to 
tibus eum. them that fear him. 

Fecit potentiam in brachio He hath showed might in 
suo : * dispersit superbos his arm : he hath scattered the 
mente cordis sui. " proud in the conceit of their 


Deposuit potentes de se- He hath put down the 
de : * et exaltavit humiles. mighty from their seat : and 

hath exalted the humble. 

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He bath filled the hungry Esurientes implevit bo- 

with good things : and the rich nis : * et divites dimisit 

he hath sent empty away. inanes. 

He hath received Israel his Suscepit Israel puerum 

servant, being mindful of his suum: * recordatus miseri- 

mercy. cordis suae. 

As he spoke to our fathers, Sicut locutus est ad pa- 

to Abraham and to his seed tres nostros: * Abraham et 

for ever. semini ejus in saecula. 

The Magnificat Antiphon is then repeated. The 
Prayer, or Collect, is given in the Proper of each 

T. Let us bless the Lord. Jjf. Benedicamus Domino. 

B. Thanks be to God. J$. Deo gratias. 

y. May the souls of the fa Fidelium animae per 

faithful departed, through the misericordiam Dei requies- 

mercy of God, rest in peace. cant in pace. 

1$. Amen. 

1$. Amen. 

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This Office, which concludes the day, commences by 
a warning of the dangers of the night: then imme- 
diately follows the public Confession of our sins, as 
a powerful means of propitiating the divine justice, 
And obtaining God's help, now that we are going to 
spend so many hours in the unconscious and there- 
fore dangerous state of sleep, which is also such an 
image of death. 

The Lector, addressing the Priest, says to him : 

Jube, Domne, benedicere. Pray, Father, give thy bless- 

The Priest answers : 

Noctem quietam et finem May the Almighty Lord 

perfectum concedat nobis grant us a quiet night and a 

Dominus omnipotens. perfect end. 

]$. Amen. IJ. Amen. 

The Lector then reads these words, from the first 
Epistle of St. Peter : 

Fratres: Sobrii estote, et Brethren, be sober and 

vigilate: quia adversarius watch; for your adversary 

vester diaboius, tamquam the devil goes about like a 

leo rugiens circuit quserens roaring lion, seeking whom he 

quern devoret : cui resistite may devour : resist him, being 

fortes in fide. Tu autem, strong in faith. But thou, 0 

Domine, miserere nobis. Lord, have mercy on us. 

The Choir answers : 
1$. Deo gratias. Q. Thanks be to God. 

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Then, the Priest: 

% Our help is in the name jf. Adjutorium nostrum 
of the Lord. in nomine Domini. 

The Choir: 

]$, Who hath made heaven 1$. Qui fecit ccelum et 
and earth. terrain. 

Then the Lord s Prayer is recited in secret ; after 
which the Priest says the Confiteor, and when he 
has finished, the Choir repeats it. 

The Priest, having pronounced the general form 
of absolution, says : 

Jt. Convert us, O God, our 

]$. And turn away thine 
anger from us. 

JT. Incline unto my aid, O 

1$. O Lord, make haste to 
help me. 
Glory, <fcc. 
Ant. Have mercy. 

Converte nos, Deus, 
salutaris noster. 

1$. Et averte iram tuam 
a nobis. 

*fT. Deus, in adjutorium 
meum intende. 

1$. Domine, ad adjuvan- 
dum me festina, 

Gloria Patri, <fcc. 

Ant. Miserere. 

The first Psalm expresses the confidence with 
which the just man sleeps in peace; but the wicked 
know not what calm rest is. 


When I called upon him, 
the God of my justice heard 
me: when I was in distress, 
thou hast enlarged me. 

Have mercy on me : and 
hear my prayer. 

O ye sons of men, how long 
will you be dull of heart t why 
do you love vanity, and seek 
after lying t 

• Cum invocarem exaudivit 
me Deus justitisa me«: * 
in tribulatione dilatasti 

Miserere mei : * et exaiudi 
orationem meam. 

Fiiii hominum, usquequo 
gravi corde ; * ut quid- dili- 
gitis vanitatem, et queritis 
mendacium ? 

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Et scitote quoniam miri- 
ficavit Dominua sanctum 
8uum : * Dominus exaudiet 
me, cum clamavero ad eum. 

Irascimini, et nolite pec- 
■care : * quae dicitis in cor- 
dibua vestris, in cubilibus 
vestris compungimiui. 

Sacrificate sacrificium jus- 
titise, et sperate in Domino : 

* multi dicunt : Quis osten- 
dit nobis bona 1 

Signatum est super nos 
lumen vultus tui, Domine : 

* dedisti laetitiam in corde 

A fructu f rumenti, vini et 
olei sui : * multiplicati sunt. 

In pace in idipsum : * 
dormiam et requiescam. 

Quoniam tu, Domine, sin- 
gulariter in spe : * constitu- 
isti me. 

Know ye also that the Lord 
hath made his Holy One won- 
derful : the Lord will hear me, 
when I shall cry unto him. 

Be ye angry, and sin not : 
the things you say in your 
hearts, be sorry for them upon 
your beds. 

Offer up the sacrifice of jus- 
tice, and trust in the Lord: 
many say, Who showeth us 
good things ? 

The Light of thy counte- 
nance, O Lord, is signed upon 
us : thou hast given gladness 
in my heart. 

By the fruit of their corn, 
their wine, and oil, they are 

In peace, in the self same I 
will sleep, and I will rest. 

For thou, O Lord, singularly 
hast settled me in hope. 

The Church has introduced here the first sir 
Verses of the thirtieth Psalm, because they contain 
the prayer which our Saviour made when dying: 
Into thy hands, 0 Lord, I commend my spirit I — 
words so beautifully appropriate in this Office of the 
close of the day. 

PSALM 30. 

In te, Domine, speravi, 
non confundar in seternum : 
* in just it ia tua libera me. 

Inclina ad me aurem tu- 
am : * accelera ut eruas me. 

Esto mini in Deum pro- 
tectorem, et in domum re- 
fugii: * ut salvum me fa- 

Quoniam fortitudo mea, 

In thee, O Lord, have I 
hoped, let me never be con- 
founded: deliver me in thy 

Bow down thine ear to me: 
make haste to deliver me. 

Be thou unto me a God, a 
protector and a house of re- 
fuge, to save me. 

For thou art my strength, 

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and my refuge: and for thy 
Name's sake, thou wilt lead 
me, and nourish me. 

Thou wilt bring me out of 
this snare, which they have 
hidden for me: for thou art 
' Bay protector. 

Into thy hands I commend 
myspirit: thou hast redeemed 
me,0 Lord, the God of truth. 

et refugium meum es tu : 
* et propter Nomen tuum 
deduces me, et enutries me. 

Educes me de laqueo hoc. 
quern absconderunt mihi : * 
quoniain tu es protector 

In manus tuas commen- 
do spiritum meum: * re- 
demisti me, Domine, Deus 

The third Psalm gives the motives of the just 
man's confidence, even during the dangers of the 
night. There is no snare neglected by the demons ; 
but the good Angels watch over us, with brotherly 
solicitude. Then, we have God himself speaking, 
and promising to send us a Saviour. 

psalm 90. 

He that dwelleth in the aid 
of the Most High, shall abide 
under the protection of the 
God of Heaven. 

He shall say unto the Lord : 
Thou art my protector, and 
my refuge: my God, in him 
will I trust. 

For he hath delivered me 
from the snare of the hunters: 
and from the sharp word. 

He will overshadow thee 
with his shoulders : and under 
his wings thou shalt trust. 

His truth shall compass thee 
with a shield : thou shalt not 
be afraid of the terror of the 
night : 

Of the arrow that flieth in 
the day : of the business that 
walketh about in the dark : of 
invasion, or of the noonday 

A thousand shall fall at thy 

Qui habitat in adjutorio 
Altissimi: * in protectione 
Dei cceli commorabitur. 

Dicet Domino : Susceptor 
meus es tu, et refugium 
meum: * Deus meus, spe- 
rabo in eum. 

Quoniam ipse liberavit 
me de laqueo venantium : * 
et a verbo aspero. 

Scapulis suis obumbrabit 
tibi: * et sub pennis ejus 

Scuto circumdabit te Ve- 
ritas ejus: * non time bis a 
timore nocturno : 

A sagitta volante in die, 
a negotio perambulante in 
tenebris: * ab incursu, et 
daemonio meridiano. 

Cadent a latere tuo mille, 

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•t decern millia a deztris 
tuis: * ad te autem non 

Verumtamen oculis tuis 
eonsiderabis : * et retribu- 
tionem peccatorum videbis. 

Quoniam tu es, Domine, 
apes mea : * Altisaimura po- 
sui8ti refugium tuum. 

Non accedet ad te malum: 
* et flagellum non appro- 
pinquabit tabernaculo tuo. 

Quoniam Angelis suis 
mandavit de te : * ut custo- 
diant te in omnibus viis tuis. 

In manibus portabunt 
te: * ne forte offendas ad 
lapidem pedem tuum. 

Super aspidem et basilis- 
cum ambulabis: * et con- 
culcabis leonem et draco- 

Quoniam in me speravit, 
liberabo eum : * protegam 
earn, quoniam cognovit 
Nomen meum. 

Clamabit ad me, et ego 
exaudiam eum : * cum ipso 
sum in tribulatione, eripiam 
euin, et glorificabo eum. 

Longitudine dierum re- 
plebo eum : * et ostendam 
illi Salutare meum. 

The fourth Psalm invites the Sewants of God to 
persevere,, with fervour, in the prayers they offer 
during the Night The Faithful should say ; this 
Psalm in a spirit of gratitude to God, for his raising 
up in the Church, adorers of his holy Name, whose 
grand vocation is to lift up their hands, day and 
night, for the safety of Israel. On such prayers, de- 
pend the happiness and destinies of the world. 

side, and ten thousand at thy 
right hand : but it shall not 
com* nigh thee. 

But thou shalt consider with 
thine eyes : and shalt see the 
reward of the wicked. 

Because thou hast said: 
Thou, O Lord, art my hope, 
Thou hast made the Most High 
thy refuge. 

There shall no evil come 
unto thee, nor shall the scourge 
come near thy dwelling. 

For he hath given his Angels 
charge over thee : to keep thee 
in all thy ways. 

In their hands they shall 
bear thee up : lest thou dash 
thy foot against a stone. 

Thou shalt walk upon the 
asp and basilisk: and thou 
shalt trample under foot the 
lion and the dragon. 

God will say of thee: Be- 
cause he hoped in me, I will 
deliver him: I will protect 
him, because he hath Known 
my name. 

He will cry unto me, and I 
will hear him : I am with him 
in tribulation, I will deliver 
him, and I will glorify him. 

1 will fill him with length 
of days: and I will show him 
my salvation. 

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PSALM 133. 

Behold ! now bless ye the 
Lord, all ye servants of the 

Who stand in the house of 
the Lord, in the courts of the 
house of our God. 

In the nights lift up your 
bands to the holy places, and 
bless ye the Lord. 

Say to Israel: May the Lord, 
out of Sion, bless thee, he that 
made heaven and earth. 

Ant. Have mercy on me, O 
Lord, and hear my prayer. 

Ecce nunc benedicite Do- 
minum: omnes servi Do- 

Qui statis in domo Do- 
mini: in atriis domus Dei 

In noctibus extollite ma- 
nus vestras in sanctat et 
benedicite Dominum. 

Benedicat te Dominus ex 
Sion : qui fecit ccelum et 
t err am. 

Ant. Miserere mini, Do- 
mine, et exaudi orationem 

• HYMN * 

Before the closing of the 
light, we beseech thee, Creator 
of all things ! that, in thy 
clemency, thou be our protec- 
tor and our guard. 

May the dreams and phan- 
toms of night depart far from 
us: and do thou repress our 
enemy, lest our bodies be pro- 

Most merciful Father ! and 
thou, his Only Begotten Son, 
co-equal with him ! reigning 
for ever, with the Holyrara- 
clete ! grant this our prayer. 


Te lucis ante terminum, 
Eerum Creator, poscimus, 
Ut pro tua dementia, 
Sis praasul et cu&todia. 

Procul recedant somnia, 
Et noctium phantasmata ; 
Hostemque nostrum corn- 
Ne polluantur corpora. 

Prsesta, Pater pnssime, 
Patrique compar Unice, 
Cum Spiritu Paraclito 
Regnans per omne sseculum. 


* According to the Monastic Rite, as follows: — 

Te lucis ante terminum, 
Rerum Creator, poscimus, 
Ut solita dementia 
Sis prasul ad custodiam. 

Procul recedant somnia 
Et noctium phantasmata ; 


Hostemque nostrum comprime, 
Ne polluantur corpora. 

Pr«sta, Pater omnipoteng, 
Per Jesum Christum Dominum, 
Qui tecum in perpetuum 
Regnat cum Sancto Spiritu. 



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(Jeremias xiv.) 

Tu autem in nobis es, Do- 
mine, et Nomen sanctum 
tuum invocatum est super 
nos: ne derelinquas nos, 
Domine Deus noster. 

1$. In manus tuas, Domi- 
ne: * Commendo spiritum 
meum. In manus tuas. 

Redemisti nos, Domine 
Deus veritatis.* Commendo. 

Gloria. In manus tuas. 

<fr. Custodi nos, Domine, 
ut pupillam oculi. 

]$. Sub umbra alarum 
tuarum protege nos. 

But thou art in us, O Lord, 
and thy holy Name hath been 
invoked upon us: forsake us 
not, O Lord our God. 

1$. Into thy hand8,0 Lord: * 
I commend my spirit. Into 
thy hands. 

y. Thou hast redeemed us, 
O Lord God of truth. * I com- 

Glory. Into thy hands. 

Preserve us, O Lord, as 
the apple of thine eye. 

Protect us under the 
shadow of thy wings. 

The Canticle of the venerable Simeon, — who, 
whilst holding the divine Infant in his arms, pro- 
claimed hiua to be the Light of the Gentiles, and then 
slept the sleep of the just, — is admirably appropriate 
to the Office of Compline. Holy Church blesses 
God for having dispelled the darkness of night by the 
rising of the Sun of Justice; it is for love of him 
that she toils the whole day through and rests during 
the night, saying : / sleep, but my heart watcheth. 1 

Luke ii.) 

Nunc dimittis servum 
tuum, Domine: secundum 
verbum tuum in pace. 

Quia viderunt oculi mei ; 
Salutare tuum. 

Quod parasti: ante fa- 
ciem omnium populorum. 

Lumen ad revelationem 

Now dost thou dismiss thy 
servant, O Lord, according to 
thy word, in peace. 

Because mine eyes have seen 
thy Salvation. 

Which thou hast prepared : 
before the face of all peoples. 

A light to the revelation of 

1 Cantic. v. 2. 

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the Gentiles, and the glory of 
thy people Israel 
Glory, <fcc. 

Ant. Save us, O Lord, whilst 
awake, and watch us, as we 
sleep, that we may watch with 
Christ and rest in peace. 


Visit, we beseech thee, O 
Lord, this house and family, 
and drive far from it all snares 
of the enemy: let thy holy 
Angels dwell therein, who may 
keep us in peace, and may thy 
blessing be always upon us. 
Through Jesus Christ oar 
Lord, thy Son, who liveth and 
reigneth with thee, in the 
unity of the Holy Ghost, God, 
world without end. 1$. Amen. 

The Lord be with you. 
1$. And with thy spirit. 

Let us bless the Lord. 
1$. Thanks be to God. 
May the almighty and mer- 
ciful Lord, Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost, bless and preserve 


Gentium : * et gloriam pie* 
bis tuae Israel. 

Ant. Salva nos, Domine, 
vigilantes : custodi nos dor- 
mi entes, ut vigilemus cum 
Christo, et requiescamus in 


Visita, qusesumus, Domi- 
ne, habitationem istam, et 
omnes insidias inimici ab ea 
longe repelle: Angeli tui 
sancti habitent in ea, qui 
nos in pace custodiant; et 
benedictio tua sit super nos 
semper. Per Dominum nos- 
trum Jesum Christum Fi- 
lium tuum, qui tecum vivit 
et regnat in unitate Spiritus 
Sancti Deus, per omnia spe- 
cula sseculorum. 1$. Amep. 

*T. Dominus vobiscum. 

J$. Et cum spiritu tuo. 

W. Benedicamus Domino. 

5, Deo gratias. 

Benedicat et custodiat nos 
omnipotens et misericors 
Dominus, Pater, et Filius, et 
Spiritus Sane tua. 

3$. Amen. 


Hail, holy Queen, Mother of 

Our Life, our Sweetness, 
and our Hope, all hail ! 

To thee we cry, poor 
banished children of Eve ; 

To thee we send up our 
sighs, mourning and weeping, 
in this vale of tears. 

Turn, then, most gracious 

Salve Regina, Mater mi- 

Vita, dulcedo, et spes no- 
stra, salve. 

Ad te clamamus, exsules 
filii Evae. 

Ad te suspiramus, gemen- 
tes et flentes in hac lacry- 
marum vaile. 

Eia, ergo, advocata nos- 

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tra, illos tuos misericord es 
oculos ad nos converte ; 

Et Jesum benedictum 
fructum ventris tui, nobis 
post hoc exilium ostende ; 

O clemens, 

O pia, 

Q dulcis Virgo Maria. 

(T. Ora pro nobis, sancta 
Dei Genitrbc. 

1J. Ut digni efficiamur 
promissionibus Christi. 


Qmnipotens, sempiterne 
Deiw, qui gloriosae Virginis 
Matris Manae corpus et ani- 
mam, ut dignum Filii tui 
habitaculum eflici merere- 
tur, Spiritu Sancto co-ope- 
rante, praeparasti: da ut 
cujus commemoratione lae- 
tamur, ejus pia intercession 
ab instantibus malis et a 
morte perpetua liberemur. 
Per eumdem Christum Do- 
minum nostrum. 1$. Amen. 

Divinum auxilium ma- 
neat semper nobiscum. 
B. Amen. 

Advocate ! thine eyes of mercy 
towards us ; 

And, after this our exile, 
show unto us the blessed Fruit 
of thy womb, Jesus ; 

O merciful, 

O kind, 

O sweet Virgin Mary ! 
Pray for us, O holy 
Mother of God, 

That we may be made 
worthy of the promises of 


O almighty and everlasting 
God, who, by the co-operation 
of the Holy Ghost, didst pre- 
pare the body and soul of 
Mary, glorious Virgin and 
Mother, to become the worthy 
habitation of thy Son : grant 
that we may be delivered 
from present evils and from 
everlasting death, by Her 
gracious intercession, in whose 
commemoration we rejoice. 
Through the same Christ our 
Lord. 1$. Amen. 

ft: May the divine assistance 
remain always with us. 

1$. Amen.* 

Then, in secret, Pater, Ave, and Credo. 

In the Monastic Rite this response is as follows : — 

R7. And with our absent Broth* 
ren. Amen. 

Et cum fratribus nostris 
absentibus. Amen. 

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July 8. 


In the footsteps of Margaret of Scotland and of 
Clotilde of France, a third Queen conies to shed her 
brightness on the sacred Cycle. Born at the south- 
ern extremity of Christendom, where it borders on 
Mussulman lands, she was destined by the Holy 
Ghost to seal with peace the victories of Christ, and 
prepare the way for fresh conquests. The blessed 
name of Elizabeth, which for half a century had 
been rejoicing the world with its sweet perfume, was 
given to her, foretelling that this new-born child, as 
though attracted by the roses which fell from the 
mantle of her Thuringian aunt, was to cause these 
same heavenly flowers to blossom in Iberia. 

There is a mysterious heirship among the saints 
of God. The same' year in which one niece of 
Elizabeth of Thuringia was born in Spain, another, 
the Blessed Margaret of Hungary, took her flight to 
heaven. She had been consecrated to God from her 
mother's womb, as a pledge for the salvation of her 
people, in the midst of terrible disasters; and the 

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hopes so early centred in her were not frustrated. 
A short life of twenty-eight years spent in innocence 
and prayer, earned for her country the blessings of 
peace and civilization ; and then Margaret bequeathed 
to our Saint of to-day the mission of continuing in 
another land tbe work of her holy predecessors. 

The time had come for our Lord to shed a ray 
of His grace upon Spain. The thirteenth century 
was closing, leaving the world in a state of dismem- 
berment and ruin. Weary of fighting for Christ, 
kings dismissed the Church from their councils, and 
selfishly kept aloof, preferring their own ambitious 
strifes to the common aspiration of the once great 
body of Christendom. Such a state of things was 
disastrous for the entire West ; much more, then r 
for that noble country where the Crusade had mul- 
tiplied kingdoms as so many outposts against the 
common enemy, the Moors. Unity of views and the 
sacrifice of all things to the great work of deliverance 
could alone maintain in the successors of Pelayo the 
spirit of the grand memories of yore. Unfortunately 
these princes, though heroes on the battle-field, had 
not sufficient strength of mind to lay aside their 
petty quarrels and take up the sacred duty entrusted 
to them by Providence. In vain did the Roman 
Pontiff strive to awaken them to the interests of 
their country and of the Christian name ; these 
hearts, generous in other respects, were too stifled 
by miserable passions to heed his voice; and the 
Mussulman looked on delightedly at these intestine 
strifes, which retarded his own defeat. Navarre, 
Castile, Aragon, and Portugal were not only at war 
with each other; but even within each of these king- 
doms, father and son were at enmity, and brother 
disputed with brother, inch by inch, the heritage of 
his ancestors. 

Who was to restore to Spain the still recent 

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traditions of her Ferdinand III.? Who was to 
gather again these dissentient wills into one, so as 
to make them a terror to the Saracen and a glory 
to Christ? James I. of Aragon, who rivalled St. 
Ferdinand both in bravery and in conquests, had 
married Yoland, daughter of Andrew of Hungary; 
whereupon the cultusof the holy Duchessof Thuringia, 
whose brother-in-law he had thus become, was in- 
troduced beyond the Pyrenees; and the name of 
Elizabeth, changed in most cases into Isabel, became, 
as it were, a family jewel with which the Spanish 

Erincesses have loved to be adorned. The first to 
ear it was the daughter of James and Toland, who 
married Philip III. of France, successor of St. Louis ; 

James I., the Saint whom the Church honours to- 
day, and of whom the old king, with prophetic 
insight, loved to say, that she would surpass all the 
women of the race of Aragon. 

Inheriting not only the name, but also the virtues 
of the "dear St. Elizabeth," she would one day 
deserve to be called " the mother of peace and of her 
" country." By means of her heroic self-renunciation 
and all-powerful prayer, she repressed the lamentable 
quarrels of princes. One day, unable to prevent 
peace being broken, she cast herself between two 
contending armies under a very hailstorm of arrows, 
and so forced the soldiers to lay down their fratricidal 
arms. Thus she paved the way for the happy event, 
which she herself was not to have the consolation of 
seeing : the re-organisation of that great enterprise for 
the expulsion of the Moors, which was not to close 
till the following century under the auspices of 
another Isabel, her worthy descendant, who would 
add to her name the beautiful title of "the Catholic." 
Four years after Elizabeth's death, the victory of 
Salado was gained by the united armies of all Spain 

the second 


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over 600,000 infidels, showing how a woman could, 
under most adverse circumstances, inaugurate a 
brilliant Crusade, to the immortal fame of her 

Elisabeth Aragoniae re- 
gibus ortam, Christi anno 
millesimo ducentesimo sep- 
tuagesimo primo, in praesa- 
gium futurae sanctimonies 
parentes, praeter morem, re- 
licto matris aviaeque nomi- 
ne, a magna ejus matertera, 
Thuringiae domina, sancta 
Elisabeth, in baptismo no- 
minatam voluere. Ubinata 
est, statim patuit, quam fe- 
lix regum regnorumque es- 
set futura pacatrix : natali- 
tia enim ejus laetitia perni- 
ciosas avi patrisque dissen- 
siones in concordiam con- 
vertit. Pater vero crescen- 
tis postea filiae admiratus 
indolem, affirmabat lore, ut 
una Elisabeth reliquas Ara- 
goniorum regum sanguine 
creatas feminas virtute lon- 
ge superaret. Sic coelestem 
insius vitam in contemnen- 
do corporis ornatu, in f ugi- 
endis voluptatibus, in jeju- 
niis frequentandis, in divi- 
nis precibus assidue reci- 
tandis, in caritatis operibus 
exercendis, veneratus, re- 
rum suarura regnique feli- 
citatem unius filiae meritis 
referebat acceptam. Tan- 
dem ubique nota, et a mul- 
tis principibus exoptata, 
Dionysio Lusitaniae regi 
christianis caeremoniis rite 
est in matrimonium collo- 

Elizabeth, of the royal race 
of Aragon, was born in the 
year of our Lord 1271. As a 
presage of her future sanctity, 
her parents, contrary to cus- 
tom, passing over the mother 
and grandmother, gave her 
in Baptism the name of her 
maternal great-aunt, St. Eliza- 
beth, Duchess of Thuringia. 
No sooner was she born, than 
it became evident what a bles- 
sed peacemaker she was to be 
between kings and kingdoms ; 
for the joy of her birth put 
a happy period to the miser- 
able quarrels of her father 
and grandfather. As she grew 
up, her father, admiring the 
natural abilities of his daugh- 
ter, was wont to assert that 
Elizabeth would far outstrip 
in virtue all the women de- 
scended of the royal blood of 
Aragon ; and so great was his 
veneration for her heavenly 
manner of life, her contempt 
of worldly ornaments, her ab- 
horrence of pleasure, her assi- 
duity in fasting, prayer, and 
works of charity, that he attri- 
buted to her merits alone the 
prosperity of his kingdom and 
estate. On account of her 
wide-spread reputation, her 
hand was sought by many 
princes : at length she was, 
with all the ceremonies of 
holy Church, united in matri- 
mony with Dionysius, king of 

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In the married state she 
gave herself up to the exer- 
cise of virtue and the educa- 
tion of her children, striving, 
indeed, to please her husband, 
but still more to please God. 
For nearly half the year she 
lived on bread and water 
alone; and, on one occasion 
when, in an illness, she had 
refused to take the wine 

Erescribed by the physician, 
er water was miraculously 
changed into wine. She in- 
stantaneously cured a poor 
woman of a loathsome ulcer 
by kissing it. In the depth 
of winter she changed the 
money she was going to dis- 
tribute to the poor into roses, 
in order to conceal it from 
the king. She gave sight to 
a virgin born blind, healed 
many other persons of griev- 
ous distempers by the mere 
sign of the Cross, and per- 
formed a great number of 
other miracles of a like na- 
ture. She built and amply 
endowed monasteries, hospi- 
tals, and churches. She was 
admirable for her zeal in com- 
posing the differences of kings, 
and unwearied in her efforts 
to alleviate the public and 
private miseries of mankind. 

After the death of King 
Dionysiu8, Elizabeth, who had 
been in her youth a model to 
virgins, and in her married 
life to wives, became in her 
solitude a pattern of all vir- 
tues to widows. She imme- 
diately put on the religious 
habit of St. Clare, assisted 
with the greatest fortitude at 


Juncta conjugio, non mi- 
norem excolendisvirtutibus, 
quam liberis educandis ope- 
ram dabat, viro placere stu- 
dens, sed magis Deo. Me- 
diam fere anni partem solo 
pane tolerabat et aqua : quae 
in quodam ipsius morbo di- 
vinitus versa est in vinum, 
cum id a medicis praescrip- 
tum bibere recusasset Pau- 
peris feminse ulcus horren- 
dum exosculata, derepente 
sanavit. Pecunias paupe- 
ribus distribuendas, ut re- 
gem laterent, hiberno tem- 
pore in rosas convertit. Vir- 
ginem caecam a nativitate 
llluminavit : multos alios 
solo crucis signo a gravissi- 
mis morbis hberavit: plu- 
rima id genus miracula pa- 
travit. Monasteria, collegia, 
et templa non modo exstru- 
xit, sed etiam magnifice do- 
tavit. In regum discordiis 
componendis admirabilisf u- 
it: in privatis publicisque 
mortalium sublevandis cala- 
mitatibus indefessa. 

Defuncto rege Dionysio, 
sicut virginibus in prima 
aetate, in matrimonio conju- 
gibus, ita viduis in solitu- 
dine fuit omnium virtutum 
exemplar. Ulico enim reli- 
giosis sanctae Claras vestibus 
induta,regio funeri constan- 
ter interfuit, ac paulo post 
Compostellam proficiscens, 

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multa ex holoserico, argento, 
auro, gemmisque donaria 

Sro regis anima obtulit. In- 
e reversa domum, quidquid 
sibi carum aut pretiosum 
supererat, in sacros ac pios 
usus con vertit : absolvendo- 
qne suo vere regio Conim- 
bricensi virginum ccenobio, 
et alendis pauperibus, et 
protegendis viduis, defend- 
endis pupillis, miseris omni- 
bus juvandis intenta, non 
gibi, sed Deo, et mortalium 
omnium commodis vivebat. 
Beges duos filium et gene- 
rum pacificatura. Stremo- 
tium nobile oppidum veni- 
ens, morbo ex itinere con- 
tracto, ibidem a Virgine Dei- 
para visitata sanctissime obi- 
it, anno millesimo trecen- 
tesimo trigesimo sexto, die 
quarta Jufii. Post mortem 
multis miraculis claruit, prae- 
sertim suavissimo corporis 
jam per annosferetrecentos 
incorrupti odore ; semper 
etiam reginae sanctae cogno- 
men to Celebris. Tandem 
anno jubilaei, et nostrae sa- 
lutis millesimo sexcentesi- 
mo vigesimo quinto, totius 
christiani orbis concursu et 
applausu, ab Urbano Octavo 
rite inter Sanctos adscripta 


the king's funeral, and then, 
proceeding to Compostella, 
offered there for the repose of 
his soul a quantity of silk, 
silver, gold, and precious 
stones. On her return home 
she consumed in holy and 
pious works all she had that 
was dear and precious to her ; 
she completed the building 
of her truly royal monastery 
of virgins at Coimbra; and, 
wholly engaged in feeding 
the poor, protecting widows, 
sheltering orphans, and assist- 
ing the afflicted in every way, 
she lived not for herself, but 
for the glory of God and the 
well-being of men. On her 
way to the noble town of 
Estremoz, whither she was 
going in order to make peace 
between the two kings, her 
son and son-in-law, she was 
seized with illness ; and, in 
that town, after having been 
visited by the Blessed Virgin, 
Mother of God, she died a 
most holy death, on the 4th 
day of July, in the year 1336. 
After death she was glorified 
by many miracles, especially 
by the sweet fragrance of her 
body, which has remained in- 
corrupt for nearly three hun- 
dred years ; and she is always 
distinguished by the name of 
the "holy queen." At length, 
in the year of jubilee, of our 
salvation 1625, with the una- 
nimous applause of the as- 
sembled Christian world, she 
was solemnly enrolled among 
the Saints by Pope Urban 

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O blessed Elizabeth ! we praise God for thy holy 
works, as the Church this day invites all her sods to 
do. 1 More valiant than those princes in whose 
midst thou didst appear as the angel of thy father- 
land, thou didst exhibit in thy private life a heroism 
which could equal theirs, when need was, even on 
the battle-field. God's grace was the motive-power 
of thy actions, and His glory their sole end. Often 
does God gain more glory by abnegations hidden 
from aU'eye8 but His, than by great works justly 
admired by a whole people. It is because the 
power of His grace shines forth the more ; and it is 
generally the way of His Providence to cause the 
most remarkable blessings bestowed on nations, to 
spring from these hidden sources. How many battles 
celebrated in history have first been fought and won 
in the sight of the Blessed Trinity, in some hidden 
spot of that supernatural world, where the elect are 
ever at war with hell, nay, struggle at times even 
with God Himself; how many famous treaties of 
peace have first been concluded between heaven and 
earth in the secret of a single soul, as a reward for 
those giant struggles which men misunderstand 
and despise! Let the fashion of this world pass 
away ; and those deep-thinking politicians, who are 
said to rule the course of events, the proud nego- 
tiators and warriors of renown, all, when judged by 
the light of eternity, will appear for what they are : 
mere deceptions screening from the sight of men the 
only names truly worthy of immortality. 

Glory then be to thee, through whom the Lord 
has deigned to lift a corner of the veil that hides 
from the world the true rulers of its destinies. In 
the golden book of the elect, thy nobility rests on 
better titles than those of birth. Daughter and 

1 Invitatory. 

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mother of kings, thyself a queen, thou didst rule over 
a glorious land ; but far more glorious is the family 
throne in heaven, where thou reignest with the first 
Elizabeth, with Margaret and with Hedwige, and 
where others will come to join thee, doing honour to 
the same noble blood which flowed in thy veins. 

Remember, O mother of thy country, that the 
power given thee on earth is not diminished now 
that the God of armies has called thee to thy 
heavenly triumph. True, the land of Iberia, which 
owes its independence principally to thee, is no 
longer in the same troubled condition ; but if at the 
present day there is no fear of the Moors, on the 

from their noble traditions : lead them back to the 
right path, that they may attain the glorious destiny 
marked out for them by Providence. Thy power in 
heaven is not restrained within the borders of a 
kingdom ; cast then a look of mercy on the rest of 
the world : see how nations, recognising no right 
but might, waste their wealth and their vitality in 
wholesale bloodshed; has the time come for those 
terrible wars, which are to be harbingers of the end, 
and wherein the world will work its own destruction ? 
O mother of peace! hear how the Church, the mother 
of nations, implores thee to make full use of thy 
sublime prerogative; put a stop to these furious 
strifes ; and make our life on earth a path of peace, 
leading up to the joys of eternity. 1 


Portugal have fallen away 

1 Collect of the day. 

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July 10. 



SS. RUFINA & SECUNDA, Virgins & Martyrs. 

Three times within the next few days will the 
number seven appear in the holy Liturgy, honouring 
the Blessed Trinity, and proclaiming the reign of the 
Holy Spirit with His sevenfold grace. Felicitas, 
Symphorosa, and the mother of the Machabees, each 
in turn will lead her seven sons to the feet of Eternal 
Wisdom. The Church, bereaved of her Apostolic 
founders, pursues her course undaunted, for the 
teaching of Peter and Paul is defended by the testi- 
mony of martyrdom, and when persecutions have 
ceased, by that of holy virginity. Moreover, "the 
"blood of martyrs is the seed of Christians:" 1 the 
heroes who in life were the strength of the Bride, 
give her fecundity by their death ; and the family of 
God's children continues to increase. 

Great indeed was the faith of Abraham, when he 
hoped against all hope that he would become the 
father of nations through that same Isaac whom he 
was commanded to slay : but did Felicitas show less 
faith, when she recognised in the immolation of her 
seven children the triumph of life and the highest 
blessing that could be bestowed on her motherhood ? 

1 Tkrtullian, Apolog. 50. 

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Honour be to her, and to those who resemble her ! 
The worldly-wise may scorn them ; but they are like 
noble rivers transforming the desert into a paradise 
of God, and fertilizing the soil of the gentile world 
after the ravages of the first age. 

Marcus Aurelius had just ascended the throne, 
to prove himself during a reign of nineteen years 
nothing but a second-rate pupil of the sectarian 
rhetors of the second century, whose narrow views 
and hatred of Christian simplicity he embraced alike 
in policy and in philosophy. These men, created by 
him prefects and proconsuls, raised the most cold- 
blooded persecution the Church has ever known. 
The scepticism of this imperial philosopher did not 
exempt him from the general rule that where dogma 
is rejected, superstition takes its place ; and monarch 
and people were of one accord in seeking a remedy 
for public calamities in the rites newly brought from 
the East, and in the extermination of the Christians. 
The assertion that the massacres of those days were 
carried on without the prince's sanction, not only 
does not excuse him, it is moreover false ; it is now a 
proven truth that, foremost among the tyrants who 
destroyed the flower of the human race, stands Marous 
Aurelius Antoninus, stained more than Domitian or 
even Nero with the blood of Martyrs. 

The seven sons of St. Felicitas were the first 
victims offered by the prince to satisfy the philosophy 
of his courtiers, the superstition of the people, and, be 
it said, his own convictions, unless we would have him 
to be the most cowardly of men. It was he himself 
who ordered the prefect Publius to entice to apostasy 
this noble family whose piety angered the gods ; it 
was he again who, after hearing the report of the 
cause, pronounced the sentence, and decreed that it 
should be executed by several judges in different 
places, the more publicly to make known the policy 

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of the new reign. The arena opened at the same 
time in all parts not only of Rome, but of the empire; 
the personal interference of the sovereign intimated 
to the hesitating magistrates the line of conduct to 
pursue if they wished to court the imperial favour. 
Felicitas soon followed her sons ; J ustin the philoso- 
pher found out by experience what was the sincerity 
of Caesar's love of truth; every class yielded its 
contingent of victims to the tortures which this 
would-be wise master of the world deemed necessary 
for the safety of the empire. At length, that his 
reign might close as it had begun in blood, a rescript 
of the so-called mild emperor sanctioned wholesale 
massacres. Humanity, lowered by the unjust flattery 
heaped upon this wretched prince even up to our own 
day, was thus duly rehabilitated by the noble courage 
of a slave such as Blandina, or of a patrician such as 

Never before had the south- wind swept so im- 
petuously through the gardeu of the Spouse, scatter- 
ing far and wide the perfume of myrrh and spices. 
Never before had the Church, like an army set in 
array, appeared, despite her weakness, so invincible 
as now, when she was sustaining the prolonged 
assault of Caesarism and false science from without, 
in league with heresy within. Want of space forbids 
us to enter into the details of a question which is 
now beginning to be more carefully studied, yet is far 
from being thoroughly understood. Under cover of 
the pretended moderation of the Antonines, hell was 
■exerting its most skilful endeavours against Chris- 
tianity at the very period which opened with the 
martyrdom of the Seven Brothers. If the Caesars of 
the third century attacked the Church with a fury and 
a refinement of cruelty unknown to Marcus Aurelius, 
it was but as a wild beast taking a fresh spring upon 
the prey that had well nigh escaped him. 

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Such being the case, no wonder that the Church 
has from the very beginning paid especial honour 
to these seven heroes, the pioneers of that decisive 
struggle which was to prove her impregnable to all 
the powers of hell. Was there ever a more sublime 
scene in that spectacle which the saints have to 
present to the world ? If there was ever a combat 
which angels and men could equally applaud, it was 
surely this of the 10th July 162; when in four 
different suburbs of the Eternal City, these seven 
patrician youths, led by their heroic mother, opened 
the campaign which was to rescue Rome from these 
upstart Caesars and restore her to her immortal des- 
tinies. After their triumph, four cemeteries shared 
the honour of gathering into their crypts the sacred 
remains of the martyrs ; and the glorious tombs have 
in our own day furnished the Christian archaeologist 
with matter for valuable research and learned 
writings. As far back as we can ascertain from the 
most authentic monuments, the 6th of the Ides of 
July was marked on the calendars of the Roman 
Church as a day of special solemnity, on account of 
the four stations where the faithful assembled round 
the tombs of " the Martyrs." This name, given by 
excellence to the seven brothers, was preserved to 
them even in time of peace — an honour by so much 
the greater as there had been torrents of blood shed 
under Diocletian. Inscriptions of the fourth century, 
found even in those cemeteries which never possessed 
their relics, designate the 11th July as the "day 
" following the feast of the Martyrs." 

The honours of this day whereon the Church sings 
the praises of true fraternity, are shared by two 
valiant sisters. A century had passed over the 
empire, and the Antonines were no more. Valerian, 
who at first seemed, like them, desirous of obtaining 
a character for moderation, soon began to follow them 

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along the path of blood. Id order to strike a decisive 
blow, he issued a decree whereby all the principal 
ecclesiastics were condemned to death without dis- 
tinction, and every Christian of rank was bound 
under the heaviest penalties to abjure his faith. It 
is to this edict that Rufina and Secunda owed the 
honour of crossing their palms with those of Sixtus 
and Lawrence, Cyprian and Hippolytus. They 
belonged to the noble family of the Turcii Asterii, 
whose history has been brought to light by modern 
discovery. According to the prescriptions of Valerian, 
which condemned Christian women to no more than 
confiscation and exile, they ought to have escaped 
death ; but to the crime of fidelity to God they 
added that of holy virginity, and so the roses of 
martyrdom were twined into their lily- wreaths. 
Their sacred relics lie in St. John Lateran's, close 
to the baptistery of Constantine; and the second 
Cardinalitial See, that of Porto, couples with this 
title the name of St Rufina, thus claiming the pro- 
tection of the blessed martyrs. 

Let us read the short account of their martyrdom 
given us in to-day's Liturgy, beginning with that of 
the Seven Brothers. 

At Rome, in the persecution Sep tern Fratres, filii san- 
of Marcus Aurelius Antonin us, c tse Felicitatis, Romae i n per- 
the prefect Publius tried first secutione Marci Aurelii An- 
by fair speeches and then by toniniaPublioprsefectopri- 
threats to compel seven bro- mum blanditiis, deinde ter- 
thers, the sons of St. Felicitas, roribus tentati, ut Christo 
to renounce Christ and adore renuntiantes, deos venerar- 
the gods. But, owing both to entur : et sua virtute, et 
their own valour and to their matre hortante, in fidei con- 
mother's words of encourage- fessione perseverantes, varie 
ment, they persevered in their necati sunt J anuarius plum- 
confession of faith, and were batis caesus ; Felix et Phi- 
all put to death in various lippus fustibus contusi: Sil- 
ways, J anuarius was scourged vanus ex altissimo loco prse- 
to death with leaded whips, ceps dejectus est : Alexan- 

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der, Vitalis, et Martialis ca- 
pita plectuntur. Mater eo- 
rum quarto post mense eam- 
dem martyrii palmam con- 
secuta est: illi sexto Idus 
Julii epiritum Domino red- 

Eufina et Secunda, so- 
rores virgines Eomanae, re- 
jecto connubio Armentarii 
et Verini, quibus a parenti- 
bus desponsae f uerant, quod 
Jesu Christo virginitatem 
vovissent, Valeriano et Gal- 
lieno imperatoribu8 compre- 
henduntur. Quas cum nec 
promissis, nec terrore J uni- 
us praefectus a proposito 
posset abducere, Bufinam 
primum virgis caadi jubet: 
in quibus verberibus Secun- 
da judicem sic interpellat : 
Quid est, quod sororem 
meam honore, me afficis ig- 
nominia? Jube ambas si- 
mul csedi, quae simul Christ- 
um Deum confitemur. Qui- 
bus verbis incensus judex 
imperat utramque detrudi 
in tenebricosum et foetidum 
carcerem. Quo loco statim 
clarissima luce et suavissimo 
odore completo, in ardente 
balnei solio includuutur. 
Et cum inde etiam integrse 
evasissent, mox saxo ad col- 
lum alligato in Tiberim pro- 
jectae sunt ; unde ab Angelo 
liberataa, extra Urbem via 
Aurelia milliario decimo, 
capite plectuntur. Quarum 
corpora a PlautOla matrona 
in ejus praadio sepulta, ac 


Felix and Philip were beaten 
with clubs, Silvanus was 
thrown headlong from a great 
height, Alexander, Vitalis, and 
Martial were beheaded. Their 
mother also gained the palm 
of martyrdom four months 
later. The brothers gave up 
their souls to our Lord on the 
6th of the Ides of July. 

Eufina and Secunda were 
sisters and Roman virgins. 
Their parents had betrothed 
them to Armentarius and 
Verinus, but they refused to 
marry, saying that they had 
consecrated tneir virginity to 
J esus Christ. They were, there- 
fore, apprehended during the 
reign of the Emperors Valerian 
and Gallienus. When J unius, 
the prefect, saw he could not 
shake their resolution either 
by promises or by threats, he 
first ordered Eufina to be 
beaten with rods. While she 
was being scourged, Secunda 
thus addressed the judge : 
" Why do you treat my sister 
" thus honourably, but me dis- 
" honourably ? Order us both 
" to be scourged, since we both 
"confess Christ to be God. 91 
Enraged by these words, the 
judge ordered them both to 
be cast into a dark and foetid 
dungeon; immediately a bright 
light and a most sweet odour 
filled the prison. They were 
then shut up in a bath, the 
floor of which was made red- 
hot ; but from this also they 
emerged unhurt. Next they 
were thrown into the Tiber 
with stones tied to their necks, 
but an Angel saved them from 

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the water, and they were fin- postea in Urbem translata, 

ally beheaded ten miles out in Basilica Constantiniana 

of the city on the Aurelian prope Baptisterium condita 

Way. Their bodies were bur- sunt. 

ied by a matron named Plau- 

tilla, on her estate, and were 

afterwards translated into 

Home, where they now repose 

in the Basilica of Constantino 

near the baptistery. 

" Praise the Lord, ye children, praise the Name of 
u the Lord : who maketh the barren woman to dwell 
"in a house, the joyful mother of children." Such 
is the opening chant of this morning's Mass. But say, 
O blessed ones ! was your admirable mother barren 
who gave seven martyrs to the earth ? Fecundity 
according to this world counts for nothing before 
God ; this is not the fruitfulness intended by that 
blessing which fell from the lips of the Lord when in 
the beginning he made man to his own image. 
" Increase and multiply " was spoken to a holy one, 
a son of God, bidding him propagate a divine off- 
spring. As the first creation, so was all future birth 
to be : man, in communicating his own existence to 
others, was to transmit to them at the same time 
the life of their Father in heaven ; the natural and 
the supernatural life were to be as inseparable as a 
building and its foundation; nature without grace 
would be but a frame without a picture. All too 
soon did sin destroy the harmony of the divine plan; 
nature violently separated from grace could produce 
only sons of wrath. Yet God was too rich in mercy 
to abandon the design of his immense love; and 
having in the first instance created us to be his 
children, he would now re-create us as such in his 
Word made Flesh. Reduced to a shadow of what 
it would have been, the union of Adam and Eve, 
unable to give birth straightway to sons of God, was 

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dismantled of that glory beside which the sublime 
privileges, of the Angels would have paled : never- 
theless it was still the figure of the great mystery of 
Christ and the Church. Sterile according to God 
and doomed to the death she had brought upon her 
race, it was only by participation in the merits of 
the second Eve, that the first could be called the 
mother of the living. Great honour indeed was still 
to be hers, and she would be able in part to repair 
her fall, but on condition of yielding to the rights of 
the Bride of the seeond Adam. Far better than 
Pharao's daughter rescuing Moses and confiding him 
to Jochabed, could the Church say to every mother 
on receiving her babe from the waters: "Take 
"this child and nurse him for me." And every 
Christian mother, anxious to correspond to the 
Church's trust in her and proud of being able to 
realize God's primitive intentions, might well repeat 
with regard to this second child-birth, those words 
uttered by a superhuman love : My little children, 
of whom I am in labour again y until Christ be 
formed in you. 1 Shame upon her that would forget 
the sublime destiny of her child to be a son of God T 
A far less crime would it be, were she, through 
negligence or by design, to stifle in him by an educa- 
tion exclusively directed to the senses, that intelli- 
gence which distinguishes man from the animals 
subjected to his power. For the attainment of 
man's true end, the supernatural life is more neces- 
sary than the life of reason ; for a mother to make 
no account of it, and to suffer the divine germ to 
perish after being planted in the infant's soul at 
its new birth from the sacred font, would be to do 
unto death the frail being that owed its existence to 

3 Gal ir. 19. 

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Far otherwise, 0 martyrs, did your illustrious 
mother understand her mission ! Hence, though her 
memory is honoured on the day when four months 
after you she quitted this earth, yet this present feast 
is the chief monument of her glory. She, more than 
yourselves, is celebrated in the readings and chants 
of the Holy Sacrifice and in the lessons of the Night 
Oflfice. And why is this? Because, says St. Gregory, 
being already the handmaid of Christ by faith, she 
has to-day become His mother, according to our 
Lord's own word, by giving him a new birth in each 
of her seven sons. After having made such a com- 
plete holocaust of you to your heavenly Father, what 
will her own martyrdom be, but the long-desired close 
of her widowhood, the happy hour which will reunite 
her in glory to you who are doubly her sons ? Hence- 
forward, then, on this day which was to her the day of 
suffering, but not of reward ; when after passing seven 
times over through tortures and death, she had yet 
to remain in banishment, it is but just that her 
children should rise and make over to her, as of right, 
the honours of the triumph. Henceforth, though 
still an exile, she is clothed with purple, dyed not 
twice, but seven times ; the richest daughters of Eve 
own that she has surpassed them all in the fruitful- 
ness of martyrdom ; her own works praise her in the 
assembly of the saints. On this day, O sons and 
mother, and ye two noble sisters who share in their 
glory, listen to our prayers, protect the Church, and 
make the whole world heedful of the teaching con- 
veyed by your beautiful example ! 

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July 11. 


A holy Pope of the second century, the first of the 
nine hitherto graced with the name of Pius, rejoices 
us to-day with his mild and gentle light Although 
Christian society was in a precarious condition under 
the edicts of persecution, which even the best of the 
pagan emperors never abrogated, our Saint profited 
by the comparative peace enjoyed by the Church 
under Antoninus Pius, to strengthen the foundations 
of the mysterious tower raised by the divine Shepherd 
to the honour of the Lord God. 1 He ordained by 
his supreme authority that, notwithstanding the con- 
trary custom observed in certain places, the feast of 
Easter should be celebrated on a Sunday throughout 
the entire Church. The importance of this measure 
and its effects upon the whole Church will be brought 
before us on the feast of St. Victor, who succeeded 
Pius at the close of the century. 

The ancient legend of St. Pius I., which has lately 
been altered, made mention of the decree, attributed 
in the Corpus juris to our Pontiff, 2 concerning those 
who should carelessly let fall any portion of the 
Precious Blood of our Lord. The prescriptions are 

1 Hermon. Pastor. 2 Cap. Si per negligentiam, 27, Dist. II 
de Consecratione. 

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such as evince the profound reverence the Pope would 
have to be shown towards the Mystery of the Altar. 
The penance enjoined is to be of forty days if the 
Precious Blood have fallen to the ground ; and where- 
soever It fell, It must if possible be taken up with 
the lips, the dust must be burned, and the ashes 
thereof thrown into a consecrated place. 

Pius, the first of this name, . Pius, hujus nominis pri- 

a citizen of Aquileia, and son mus, Aquileiensis, Rumni 

of Rnfinus, was priest of the Alius, ex presbytero sanctse 

holy Roman Church. During Romans Ecclesiae Summus 

the reign of Antoninus Pius Pontifex creatus est, Anto- 

and Marcus Aurelius he was nino Pio et Marco Aurelio 

chosen Sovereign Pontiff. In imperatoribus augustis. 

five ordinations which he held Q u i n q u e ordinationibus, 

in the month of December, he mense decembri, episcopos 

ordained twelve bishops and duodecim octodecim presby- 

extant ; in particular that tuta, praesertim ut Resur- 

which ordains that the Resur- rectio Domini nonnisi die 

rection of our Lord is always to Dominico celebraretur. Pu- 

be celebrated on a Sunday. He dentis domum in ecclesiam 

changed the house of Pudens mutavit, eamque ob prae- 

into a Church, and because it stautiam supra caeteros 

surpassed the other titles in titulos, utpote Romani Pon- 

dignity, inasmuch as the Ro- tificis mansionem, titulo 

man Pontiffs had made it their Pastoris dicavit, et in qua 

dwelling-place, he dedicated saepe rem sacram fecit, et 

it under the title of Pastor, multos ad fidem conversos 

Here he often celebrated the baptizavit, ac in fidelium 

holy Mysteries, baptized many numerum adscripsit. Dum 

who had been converted to vero boni Pastoris munus 

the faith, and enrolled them obiret, fuso pro suis ovibus 

in the ranks of the faithful, et Sum mo Pastore Christo 

While he was thus fulfilling sanguine, martyrio corona- 

the duties of a good shepherd, tus est quinto Idus Julii, ac 

he shed his blood for his sheep sepultus in Vaticano. 
and for Christ the Supreme 
Pastor, being crowned with 
martyrdom on the 5th of the 
Ides of July. He was buried 
in the Vatican. 

teros creavit. Exstant non- 
nulla ab eo praeclare insti- 

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We call to mind, 0 glorious Pontiff, those words 
written under thine eye, which seem to be a com- 
mentary on thy decree concerning the Sacred 
Mysteries: "We receive not," cried Justin the 
Philosopher to the world of that second century: " We 
"receive not as common bread, nor as common drink, 
"the food which we call the Eucharist; but just as 
" Jesus Christ our Saviour, being made flesh by the 
" word of God, had both flesh and blood for our salva- 
" tion, so have we been taught that the food made 
" Eucharist by the prayer formed of His own word, is 
"both the Flesh and the Blood of this Jesus who is made 
"flesh." 1 This doctrine, and the measures it so fully 
justifies, found, towards the close of the same century, 
other authentic witnesses who, in their turn, would 
almost seem to be quoting from the prescriptions at- 
tributed to thee. " We are in the greatest distress," 
said Tertullian, " if the least drop from our chalice, 
" or the least crumb of our Bread fall to the ground." 2 
And Origen appealed to the initiated to bear witness 
to " the care and veneration with which the sacred 
" gifts were surrounded, for fear the smallest particle 
" should fall; which, if it happened through negligence, 
"would be considered a crime." 3 And yet in our 
days heresy, as destitute of knowledge as of faith, 
pretends that the Church has departed from her 
ancient traditions by paying exaggerated homage to 
the divine Sacrament. Obtain for us, 0 Pius, the 
grace to return to the spirit of our fathers; not indeed 
with regard to their faith, for that we have kept in- 
violate ; but as to the veneration and love with which 
that faith inspired them for the Chalice of Inebria- 
tion, that richest treasure of earth. May the Pasch 
of the Lamb unite, as thou didst desire, in one 
uniform celebration, all who have the honour to bear 
the name of Christian ! 

1 Apolog. I. 66. 8 De Corona, iii. 3 In Er. Homil. xiii. 

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July 12. 

♦ - 

Never, from the day when Simon Magus was bap- 
tized at Samaria, had hell seemed so near to conquer- 
ing the Church, as at the period brought before us by 
to-day's feast Rejected and anathematised by Peter, 
the new Simon had said to the princes, as the former 
had said to the Apostles: "Sell me this power, that 
upon whomsoever I shall lay hands, he may receive 
the Holy Ghost." And the princes, ready enough to 
supplant Peter and fill their coffers at the same time, 
had taken upon themselves to invest men of their 
own choice with the government of the churches ; 
the bishops in their turn had sold to the highest 
bidders the various orders of the hierarchy ; and 
sensuality, ever in the wake of covetousness, had 
filled the sanctuary with defilement. 

The tenth century had witnessed the humiliation of 
the supreme Pontificate itself ; early in the eleventh, 
simony was rife among the clergy. The work of 
salvation was going on in the silence of the cloister ; 
but Peter Damian had not yet come forth from the 
desert ; nor had Hugh of Cluny, Leo IX., and Hilde- 
brand brought their united efforts to bear upon the 
evil A single voice was heard to utter the cry of alarm 
and rouse the people from their lethargy : it was the 
voice of a monk, who had once been a valiant soldier, 

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and to whom the crucifix had bowed its head in 
recognition of his generous forgiveness of an enemy. 
John Gualbert, seeing simony introduced into his 
own monastery of San Miniato, left it and entered 
Florence, only to find the pastoral staff in the hands 
of a hireling. The zeal of God's House was devouring 
his heart ; and going into the public squares, he de- 
nounced the Bishop and his own Abbot, that thus he 
might at least deliver his own soul. 

At the sight of this monk confronting single- 
handed the universal corruption, the multitude was 
for a moment seized with stupefaction ; but soon 
surprise was turned into rage, and John with difficulty 
escaped death. From this day his special vocation 
was determined : the just, who had never despaired, 
hailed him as the avenger of Israel, and their hope 
was not to be confounded. But, like all who are 
chosen for a divine work, he was to spend a long time 
under the training of the Holy Spirit. The athlete 
had challenged the powers of this world ; the holy 
war was declared : one would naturally have expected 
it to wage without ceasing until the enemy was 
entirely defeated. And yet, the chosen soldier of 
Christ hastened into solitude to "amend his life," 
according to the truly Christian expression used in 
the foundation-charter of Vallombrosa, 1 The pro- 
moters of the disorder, startled at the suddenness of 
the attack, and then seeing the aggressor as suddenly 
disappear, would laugh at the false alarm ; but, cost 
what it might to the once brilliant soldier, he knew 
how to abide, in humility and submission, the hour 
of God's good pleasure. 

Little by little other souls, disgusted with the state 
of society, came to join him ; and soon the army of 
prayer and penance spread throughout Tuscany. It 

1 Meliorandce vital gratia : Lit terse donation is Itta: Abbatissce \ 
Ughelli, III, 299 vd 231. 

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was destined to extend over all Italy, and even to 
cross the mountains. Settimo, seven miles from 
Florence, and San Salvi at the gates of the city, 
were the strongholds whence the holy war was to 
recommence in 1063. Another simoniac, Peter of 
Pavia, had purchased the succession to the episcopal 
see. John, with all his monks, was resolved rather 
to die than to witness in Silence this new insult 
offered to the Church of God. His reception this 
time was to be very different from the former, for 
the fame of his sanctity and miracles had caused 
him to be looked upon by the people as an oracle. 
No sooner was his voice heard once more in Florence, 
than the whole flock was so stirred, that the unworthy 
pastor, seeing he could no longer dissemble, cast off 
his disguise and showed what he really was : a thief 
who had come only to rob and kill and destroy. By 
his orders a body of armed men descended upon San 
Salvi, set fire to the monastery, fell upon the brethren 
in the midst of the Night-Office, and put them all to 
the 8 word; each monk continuing to chant till he 
received the fatal stroke. John Gualbert, hearing at 
Vallombrosa of the martyrdom of his sons, intoned a 
canticle of triumph. Florence was seized with horror, 
and refused to communicate with the assassin bishop. 
Nevertheless four years had yet to elapse before 
deliverance could come; and the trials of St. John 
had scarcely begun. 

St. Peter Damian, invested with full authority by 
the Sovereign Pontiff, had just arrived from the 
Eternal City. All expected that no quarter would 
be given to simony by its sworn enemy, and that 
peace would be restored to the afflicted Church. The 
very contrary took place. The greatest saints may 
be mistaken, and so become to one another the cause 
of sufferings by so much the more bitter as their will, 
being less subject to caprice than that of other men, 

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remains more firmly set upon the course they have 
adopted for the interests of God and His Church. 
Perhaps the great bishop of Ostia did not sufficiently 
take into consideration the exceptional position in 
which the Florentines were placed by the notorious 
simony of Peter of Pavia, and the violent manner in 
which he put to death, without form of trial, all who 
dared to withstand him: Starting from the indisput- 
able principle that inferiors have no right to depose 
their superiors, the legate reprehended the conduct 
of the monks, and of all who had separated themselves 
from the bishop. There was but one refuge for them, 
the Apostolic See, to which they fearlessly appealed ; 
a proceeding which no one could call uncanonical. 
But there, says the historian, many who feared for 
themselyes, rose up against them, declaring that these 
monks were worthy of death for having dared to 
attack the prelates of the Church; while Peter 
Damian severely reproached them before the whole 
Roman Council. The holy and glorious Pope Alex- 
ander II. took the monks under his own protection, 
and praised the uprightness of their intention. Yet 
he dared not comply with their request and proceed 
further, because the greater number of the bishops 
sided with Peter of Pavia ; the archdeacon Hildebrand 
alone was entirely in favour of the Abbot of Vallom- 
brosa. 1 

Nevertheless the hour was at hand when God 
Himself would pronounce the judgment refused them 
by men. While overwhelmed with threats and treated 
as lambs amongst wolves, John Gualbert and his sons 
cried to heaven with the Psalmist : " Arise, O Lord, 
" and help us; arise, why dost Thou sleep, O Lord ; 
"arise, O God, and judge our cause." At Florence 
the storm continued to rage. St. Saviour's at Settimo 

1 Vita S. J. Gualb. ap. Baron, ad an. 1063. 

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had become the refuge of such of the clergy as were 
banished from the town by the persecution ; the holy 
founder, who was then residing in that monastery, 
multiplied in their behalf the resources of his charity. 
At length the situation became so critical, that one 
day in Lent of the year 1067 the rest of the clergy 
and the whole population left the simoniac alone in 
his deserted palace, and fled to Settimo. Neither the 
length of the road, deep in mud from the rain, nor 
the rigorous fast observed by all, says the narrative 
written at that very time to the Sovereign Pontiff by 
the clergy and people of Florence, could stay the most 
delicate matrons, women about to become mothers, 
or even children. Evidently the Holy Ghost was 
actuating the crowd ; they called for the judgment of 
God. John Gualbert, under the inspiration of the 
same Holy Spirit, gave his consent to the trial ; and 
in testimony of the truth of the accusation brought 
by him against the Bishop of Florence, Peter, one of 
his monks, since known as Peter Igoeus, walked 
slowly before the eyes of the multitude through an 
immense fire, without receiving the smallest injury. 
Heaven had spoken : the Bishop was deposed by 
Rome, and ended his days a happy penitent in that 
Yery monastery of Settimo. 

In 1073, the year in which his friend Hildebrand 
was raised to the Apostolic See, John was called to 
God. His influence against simony had reached far 
beyond Tuscany. The Republic of Florence ordered 
his feast to be kept as a holiday, and the following 
words were engraved upon his tomb-stone : 


Let us read the notice which the Church conse- 

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crates to bin blessed memory, though with a few 
differences of detail. 

Joannes Gualbertus, Flo- 
rentise nobili genere ortus, 
dum patri obsequens rem 
militarem sequitur, Ugo, 
unicus ejus f rater, occiditur 
a consanguineo : quern cum 
solum et inermem sancto 
Parasceves die Joannes ar- 
mis ac militibus stipatus 
obvium haberet, ubi neuter 
alterum poterat declinare, 
ob sanctsB Crucis reveren- 
tiam, quam homicida sup- 
plex, mortem jam jam subi- 
turus, brachiis signabat, vi- 
tam ei clementer indulget 
Hoste in fratrem recepto, 
proximum sancti Miniatis 
templum oraturus ingredi- 
tur, ubi adoratam Crucifixi 
imaginem caput sibi flectere 
conspicitv Quo mirabili 
facto permotus J oannes, Deo 
exinde, etiam invito patre, 
militare decernit, atque ibi- 
dem propriis sibi manibus 
comam totondit, ac monas- 
ticumhabituminduit; adeo- 
que piis ac religiosis virtu- 
tibus brevi coruscat, ut mul- 
tis se perfections specimen 
ac normam pneberet; ita 
ut, ejusdem loci Abbate de- 
functo, communi omnium 
Toto in superiorem eligere- 
tur. At Dei famulus cupiens 
subesse potius, quam pre- 
esse,ad majora divina volun- 
tate servatus, ad CamaJdu- 
lensis eremi incolam Ro- 
mualdum proficiscitur : a 
quo coelicum sui instituti 

John Gualbert was born at 
Florence of a noble family. 
While, in compliance with his 
father's wishes, he was follow- 
ing the career of arms, it 
happened that his only brother 
Hugh was slain by a kinsman. 
On Good Friday, John, at the 
head of an armed band, met 
the murderer alone and un- 
armed, in a spot where they 
could not avoid each other. 
Seeing death imminent, the 
murderer, with arms out- 
stretched in the form of a 
cross, begged for mercy, and 
John, through reverence for 
the sacred sign, graciously 
spared him. Having thus 
changed his enemy into a 
brother, he went to pray iu 
the church of San Miniato, 
which was near at hand ; and 
as he was adoring the image 
of Christ crucified, he saw it 
bend its head towards him. 
John was deeply touched by 
this miracle, and determined 
thenceforward to fight for God 
alone, even against his father's 
wish ; so, on the spot he cut 
off his own hair and put on 
the monastic habit. Very soon 
his pious and religious man- 
ner of life shed abroad so great 
a lustre that he became to 
many a living rule and pattern 
of perfection. Hence on the 
death of the Abbot of the place 
he was unanimously chosen 
superior. But the servant of 
God, preferring obedience to 

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superiority, and moreoTer be- 
ing reserved by the divine Will 
for greater things, betook him- 
self to Romuald who was then 
living in the desert of Carnal - 
doli, and who, inspired by 
heaven, announced to him the 
institute he was to form; 
whereupon he laid the founda- 
tions of his Order under the 
Rule of St Benedict at V»l- 

Soon afterwards many, at- 
tracted by the renown of his 
sanctity, flocked to him from 
all sides. He received them 
into his society, and together 
with them he zealously de- 
voted himself to rooting out 
heresy and simony, and propa- 
gating the Apostolic faith ; on 
account of which devotedness 
both he and his disciples suf- 
fered innumerable injuries. 
Thus, his enemies in their 
eagerness to destroy him and 
his brethren, suddenly at- 
tacked the monastery of San 
Salvi by night, burned the 
church, demolished the build- 
ings, and mortally wounded 
all the monks. The man of 
God, however, restored them 
all forthwith to health by a 
single sign of the Cross. Peter, 
one of his monks, miraculous- 
ly walked unhurt through a 
huge blazing fire, and thus 
John obtained for himself and 
his sons the peace they so 
much desired. From that time 
forward every stain of simony 
disappeared from Tuscany; 
and faith, throughout all Italy, 
was restored to its former 

vaticinium accipit : turn 
fcuum Ordinem sub regula 
sancti Benedicti apud Um- 
brosam vallem instituit 

Deinde, plurimis ad eum 
ob ejus sanctitatis f amain 
undique convolantibus, una 
cum iis in socios adscitis, 
ad hasreticam et simoniacam 
pravitatem exstirpandam, et 
apo8tolicam fidem propa- 
gandam sedulo incumoit, 
innumera propterea in se et 
suis incommoda expertus. 
Nam ut eum ej usque socios 
adversarii perdant, noctu 
sancti Salvii ccenobium re- 
pente aggrediuntur, tem- 
plum incendunt, asdes de- 
moliuntur, et monachosom- 
nes lethali vulnere sauciant : 
quos vir Dei unico cruris 
signo incolumes protinus 
reddit ; et Petro ejus mon- 
acho per immensum arden- 
tissimumque ignem illaaso 
mirabiliter transeunte, op- 
tatam sibi et suis tranquilli- 
tatem obtinet. Inde simo- 
niacam labem ab Etruria 
expulit, ac in tota Italia 
fidem pristinae integritati 

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Multafunditus erexit mo- 
nasteria, eademque et alia 
aedificiis ac regulari obser- 
vantia instaurata, Sanctis 
legibus communivit. Ad 
egenos alendos sacram su- 
pellectilem vendidit : ad im- 
probos coercendos elementa 
sibi f amulari conspexit : ad 
dsemones comprimendos cru- 
cem quasi ensem adhibuit. 
Demum abstinentiis, vigi- 
liis, jejuniis, orationibus, 
carnis macerationibus, ac 
senio confectus,dum infirma 
valetudine gravaretur, Da- 
vidica ilia verba pereiepe re- 
petebat : Sitivit anima mea 
ad Deum fortem, vivum : 
quando veniam, et apparebo 
ante faciem Dei] Jamque 
morti proximus, convocatos 
discijpulos ad fraternam con- 
cordiam cohortatur, et in 
breviculo, cui consepeliri 
voluit, jussit hsec scribi : 
Ego Joannes credo, et con- 
fiteor fidem, quam sancti 
Apostoli praedicaverunt, et 
sancti Patres in quatuor 
conciliis confirmaverunt. 
Tandem triduano Angelo- 
rum obsequio dignatus, sep- 
tuagesimum octavum annu m 
agens, apud Passinianum, 
ubi summa veneratione co- 
litur,migravit ad Dominum, 
anno salutis millesimo sep- 
tuagesimo tertio,quartoIdus 
Julii. Quern Ccelestinus 
Tertius innumeris miracu- 
lis clarum in Sanctorum 
numerum retulit. 


John built many entirely 
new monasteries, and restored 
many others both as to their 
material buildings and as to 
regular observance, strengthen- 
ing them all with the bulwark 
of holy regulations. In order 
to feed the poor he sold the 
sacred vessels of the Altar. 
The elements were obedient to 
his will when he sought to 
check evil-doers ; and the sign 
of the Cross was the sword he 
used whereby to conquer the 
devils. At length worn out by 
abstinence, watchings, fasting, 
prayer, maceration of the flesh 
and finally old age, he fell into 
a grievous malady, during 
which he repeated unceasingly 
those words of David: "My 
"soul hath thirsted after the 
"strong living God: when 
" shall I come and appear be- 
" fore the face of God r When 
death drew near, calling to- 
gether his disciples, he exhor- 
ted them to preserve fraternal 
union. Then he caused these 
words to be written on a paper 
which he wished should be 
buried with him : " I, John, 
" believe and confess the faith 
">hich the holy Apostles 
"preached, and the holy Fa- 
"there in the four Councils 
" have confirmed." At length 
having been honoured during 
three days with the gracious 
presence of Angels, in the 
seventy-eighth year of his age, 
he departed to the Lord at 
Passignano, where he is hon- 
oured with the highest venera- 
tion. He died in the year of 
salvation 1073 on the 4th of 

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the Ides of July; and hav- 
ing become celebrated by in- 
numerable miracles, was en- 
rolled by Celestine III. in the 
number of the Saints. 

O true disciple of the New Law, who didst know 
how to spare an enemy for the love of the Holy Cross 1 
teach us to practise, as thou didst, the lessons con- 
veyed by the instrument of our salvation, which will 
then become to us, as to thee, a weapon ever victorious 
over the powers of hell. Could we look upon the 
Cross, and then refuse to forgive our brother an injury, 
when God Himself not only forgets our heinous 
offences against His Sovereign Majesty, but even 
died upon the Tree to expiate them ? The mo9t 
generous pardon a creature can grant is but a feeble 
shadow of the pardon we daily obtain from our Father 
in heaven. Still, the Gospel which the Church sings 
in thy honour, may well teach us that the love of 
our enemies is the nearest resemblance we can have 
to our heavenly Father, and the sign that we are 
truly His children. 

Thou hadst, 0 John, this grand trait of resemblance. 
He who in virtue of His eternal generation is the true 
Son of God by nature, recognised in thee the mark of 
nobility which made thee His brother. When He 
bowed His sacred Head to thee, He saluted in thee 
the character of a child of God, which thou hadst 
just so beautifully maintained : a title a thousand 
times more glorious than those of thy noble ancestry. 
What a powerful germ was the Holy Ghost planting 
at that moment in thy heart ! And how richly does 
God recompense a single generous act! Thy sancti- 
fication, the glorious share thou didst take in the 
Church's victory, the fecundity whereby thou livest 
still in the Order sprung from thee : all these choice 
graces for thy own soul and for so many others, hung 

PENT. IV. o 

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upon that critical moment. Fate, or the Justice of 
God, as thy contemporaries would have said, had 
brought thy enemy within thy power : how wouldst 
thou treat him ? He was deserving of death ; and 
in those days every man was his own avenger. 
Hadst thou then inflicted due punishment upon him, 
thy reputation would have rather increased than 
diminished. Thou wouldst have obtained the esteem 
of thy comrades; but the only glory which is of any 
worth before God, indeed the only glory which lasts 
long even in the sight of men, would never have been 
thine. Who would have known thee at the present 
day? Who would have felt the admiration and 
gratitude with which thy very name now inspires 
the children of the Church ? 

The Son of God, seeing that thy dispositions were 
conformable to those of His Sacred Heart, filled thee 
with His own jealous love of the holy City for whose 
redemption He shed His Blood. O thou that wert 
zealous for the beauty of the Bride, watch over her 
still ; deliver her from hirelings who would fain receive 
from men the right of holding the place of the Bride- 
groom. In our days venality is less to be feared than 
compromise. Simony would take another form ; 
there is not so much danger of bribery, as of fawning, 
paying homage, making advances, entering into 
implicit contracts ; all which proceedings are as 
contrary to the holy Canons, as are pecuniary trans- 
actions. And after all, is the evil any the less for 
taking a milder form, if it enables princes to bind the 
Church again in fetters such as thou didst labour to 
break? Suffer not, O John Gualbert, such a mis- 
fortune, which would be the forerunner of terrible 
disasters. Continue to support with thy powerful arm 
the common Mother of men. Save thy fatherland 
a second time, even in spite of itself. Protect, in 
these sad times, the Order of which thou art the 

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glory and the father; give it strength to outlive the 
confiscations and the cruelties it is suffering from 
that same Italy which once hailed thee as its deliverer. 
Obtain for Christians of every condition the courage 
required for the warfare in which all are hound to 

On this same day the whole Church unites in the 
solemn homage which Milan continues to pay, after a 
lapse of sixteen centuries, to two valiant witnesses of 
Christ. "Our martyrs Felix and Nabor," says St. 
Ambrose, " are the grain of mustard-seed mentioned 
" in the Gospel. They possessed the good odour of 
" faith, though it did not appear to men ; persecution 
" arose, they laid down their arms, and bowed their 
" heads to the sword, and immediately the grace that 
" was hidden within them was shed abroad even to 
" the ends of the world ; so that we can now in all 
"truth say of them: Their sound has gone forth 
" into all the earth" 

Let us honour them and ask their intercession by 
the prayer which the Church addresses to God in 
commemoration of their glorious combat. 

Grant, we beseech thee, O 
Lord, that as the festival of 
thy holy Martyrs, Nabor and 
Felix, returns for us to cele- 
brate, it may always be accom- 
panied by their intercession. 
Through our Lord, <fcc. 

Praesta, quaesumus Domi- 
ne : ut, sicut nos sanctorum 
Martyrum tuorum Naboris 
et Felicis natalitia celebran- 
da non deserunt, ita jugiter 
suffragiis comitentur. Per 

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July 13. 


The name of Anacletus sounds like a lingering echo 
of the solemnity of June 29th. Linus, Clement, and 
Cletus, the immediate successors of St. Peter, received 
from his hands the pontifical consecration ; Anacletus 
had a less but still inestimable glory of being ordained 
priest by the Vicar of the Man-God. Whereas the 
feasts of most of the martyr Pontiffs who came after 
him are only of simple rite, that of Anacletus is a 
semi-double, because of his privilege of being the last 
Pope honoured by the imposition of hands of the 
Prince of the Apostles. It was also during his ponti- 
ficate that the Eternal City had the glory of receiving 
within its walls the beloved disciple, who had come 
to fulfil his promise and drink of his Master's chalice. 
" O happy Church," exclaims Tertullian, " into whose 
"bosom the Apostles poured not only all their teach- 
" ing, but their very blood ; where Peter imitated his 
" Lord's Passion by dying on the cross ; where Paul, 
" like John the Baptist, received his crown by means 
" of the sword ; whence the Apostle John, after coming 
" forth safe and sound from the boiling oil, was sent 
" to the isle of his banishment." 1 
By the almighty power of the Spirit of Pentecost, 

1 De praescript. xxxvi. 

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the progress of the faith in Rome was proportionate 
to the bountiful graces of our Lord. Little by little 
the great Babylon, drunk with the blood of the 
martyrs, was being transformed into the Holy City. 
This new-born race, so full of promise for the future, 
could already reckon among its members representa- 
tives of every class of society. Beside the boiling 
cauldron where the Prophet of Patmos did homage 
to the New Jerusalem by offering within her walls 
his glorious confession, two consuls, one representing 
the ancient patrician rank, the other the more modern 
nobility of the Caesars, Acilius Glabrio, and Flavius 
Clemens, together fell by the sword of martyrdom. 
Anacletus adorned the tomb of the Prince of the 
Apostles, and provided a burial-place for the other 
pontiffs. Following his example, the distinguished 
families of Rome opened galleries for subterranean 
cemeteries, all along the roads leading to the imperial 
<rity. There rest innumerable soldiers of Christ, 
victorious by their blood ; and there, too, sleep in peace 
with the anchor of salvation beside them, the most 
illustrious names of earth. 

Anacletus, an Athenian by 
birth, governed the Church in 
the days of the Emperor Tra- 
jan. He decreed that a bishop 
should be consecrated by no 
fewer than three bishops ; that 
clerics should be publicly ad- 
mitted to Holy Orders, by their 
own bishop ; and that at Mass 
all should communicate after 
the Consecration. He adorned 
the tomb of blessed Peter, and 
set aside a place for the burial 
of the Pontiffs. He held two 
ordinations in the month of 
December, and made five 
priests, three deacons, and six 

Anacletus Atheniensis, 
Trajano imperatore, rexit 
Ecclesiam. Decrevit ut eoi- 
scopus, a tribus episcopis, 
neque a paucioribus conse- 
craretur, et clerici sacris Or- 
dinibus publice a proprio 
episcopo initiarentur : et ut 
in Missa, peracta consecra- 
tione, omnes communica- 
rent Beati Petri sepulcrum 
ornavjt, Pontificumque se- 
pulture locum attribuit. 
Fecit ordinationes duas 
mense Decembri,quibus cre- 
avit presbyteros quinque 
diaconos tres, episcopos sex. 

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Sedit annos novem, menses 
tres, dies decern. Martyrio 
coronatus, sepultus est in 

bishops. Having sat in St. 
Peters Chair nine years, three 
months, and ten days, he was 
crowned with martyrdom and 
buried on the Vatican. 

Glorious Pontiff ! thy memory is so closely linked 
with that of Peter, that many reckon thee under a 
somewhat different name, among the three august 
persons raised by the Prince of the Apostles to the 
highest rank in the hierarchy. Nevertheless, in dis- 
tinguishing thee from Cletus, who appeared on the 
sacred cycle in the month of April, we are justified 
by the authority of the holy Liturgy which appoints 
thee a separate feast, and by the constant testimony 
of Rome itself, which knows better than any the 
names and the history of its pontiffs. Happy art 
thou in being thus, as it were, lost sight of among 
the foundations whereon rest for ever the strength 
and beauty of the Church ! Give us all a special 
love for the particular positions assigned to us in 
the sacred building. Receive the grateful homage 
of all the living stones who are chosen to form the 
eternal temple, and who will all lean upon thee for 

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July 14. 


Four months after the Angel of the Schools, the 
Seraphic Doctor appears in the heavens. Bound by 
the ties of love when on earth, the two are now united 
for ever before the Throne of God. Bonaventure's 
own words will show us how great a right they both 
had to the heavenly titles bestowed upon them by 
the admiring gratitude of men. 

As there are three hierarchies of Angels in heaven, 
so on earth there are three classes of the elect. The 
Seraphim, Cherubim, and Thrones, who form the first 
hierarchy, represent those who approach nearest to God 
by contemplation, and who differ among themselves 
according to the intensity of their love, the plenitude 
of their science, and the steadfastness of their justice; 
to the Dominations, Virtues, and Powers, correspond 
the prelates and princes ; and lastly, the lowest choirs 
signify the various ranks of the faithful engaged in 
the active life. This is the triple division of men, 
which, according to St. Luke, will be made at the 
last day : Two shall be in the bed, two in the field, 
two at the mill ; that is to say, in the repose of divine 
delights, in the field of government, at the mill of 
this life's toil. As regards the two mentioned in each 
place, we may remark that in Isaias, the Seraphim, 
who are more closely united to God than the rest, 

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perform two together their ministry of sacrifice and 
praise ; for it is with the Angel as with man: the fulness 
of love, which belongs especially to the Seraphim, can- 
not be without the fulfilment of the double precept of 
charity towards God and one's neighbour. Again our 
Lord sent His disciples two and two before Hi§ face ; 
and in Genesis we find God sending two Angels where 
one would have sufficed. 1 It is better therefore, says 
Ecclesiastes, that two should be together than one ; 
for they have the advantage of their society. 2 

Such is the teaching of Bonaventure in his book of 
the Hierarchy, 8 wherein he shows us the secret work- 
ings of Eternal Wisdom for the salvation of the world 
and the sanctification of the elect. It would be 
impossible to understand aright the history of the 
thirteenth century, were we to forget the prophetic 
vision, wherein our Lady was seen presenting to her 
offended Son His two servants Dominic and Francis, 
that they might, by their powerful union, bring back 
to Him the wandering human race. What a spectacle 
for Angels when, on the morrow of the apparition, 
the two saints met and embraced: " Thou art my com- 
panion, we will run side by side," said the descendant 
of the Gusmans to the poor man of Assisi ; " let us 
" keep together, and no man will be able to prevail 
" against us." These words might well have been the 
motto of their noble sons, Thomas and Bonaventure, 
The star which shone over the head of St. Dominic, 
shed its bright rays on Thomas; the Seraph who 
imprinted the stigmata in the flesh of St. Francis, 
touched with his fiery wing the soul of Bonaventure ; 
yet both, like their incomparable fathers, had but one 
end in view : to draw men by science and love to that 
eternal life which consists in knowing the only true 
God and Jesus Christ whom He has sent. 

1 Of. Gen. xix. 1. > 2 Eecles. iv. 9. 

3 De Ecclesiastica Hierarchia, pars i„ caps, i., ii. 

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Both were burning and shining lamps, blending 
their flames in the heavens, in proportions which no 
mortal eye could distinguish here below; nevertheless, 
Eternal Wisdom has willed that the Church on earth 
should borrow more especially light from Thomas and 
fire from Bonaventure. Would that we might here 
show in each of them the workings of Wisdom, the 
one bond even on earth of their union of thoughts, — 
that Wisdom, who, ever unchangeable in her adorable 
unity, never repeats herself in the souls she chooses 
from among the nations to become the prophets and 
the friends of God. But to-day we must speak only 
of Bonaventure. 

When quite a child, he was saved by St. Francis 
from imminent death; whereupon his pious mother 
offered him by vow to the Saint, promising that he 
should enter the Order of Friars Minor. Thus, in the 
likeness of holy poverty, that beloved companion of 
the Seraphic Patriarch, did Eternal Wisdom prevent 
our Saint from his very cradle, showing herself first 
unto him. At the earliest awakening of his faculties 
he found her seated at the entrance of his soul, await- 
ing the opening of its gates, which are, he tells us, 
intelligence and love. Having received a good soul 
in an undefiled body, he preferred Wisdom before 
kingdoms and thrones, and esteemed riches nothing 
in comparison with the august friend, who offered 
herself to him in the glory of her nobility and beauty. 
From that first moment, without ever waning, she was 
his light. Peacefully as a sunbeam glancing through 
a hitherto closed window, Wisdom filled this dwelling, 
now become her own, as the bride on the nuptial day 
takes possession of the bridegroom's house, filling it 
with joy, in community of goods, and above all of love. 

For her contribution to the nuptial banquet, she 
brought the substantial brightness of heaven ; Bona- 
venture on his part offered her the lilies of purity, 

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so desired by her as her choicest food. Henceforth 
the feast in his soul was to be continual; and the 
light and the perfumes, breaking forth, were shed 
around, attracting, enlightening, and nourishing all. 
While still very young, he was, according to custom, 
sent, after the first years of his religious life, to the 
celebrated University of Paris, where he soon won all 
hearts by his angelic manners ; and the great Alex- 
ander of Hales, struck with admiration at the union 
of so nytny qualities, said of him that it seemed as if 
in him Adam had not sinned. As a lofty mountain 
whose head is lost in the clouds, and from whose foot 
run fertilizing waters far and wide, Brother Alexander 
himself, according to the expression of the Sovereign 
Pontiff, seemed at that time to contain within him- 
self the living fountain of Paradise, whence the river 
of science and salvation flowed over the earth. 1 
Nevertheless not only would he, the irrefragable 
Doctor, and the Doctor of doctors, give up his chair 
in a short time to the new-comer, but he would 
hereafter derive his greatest glory from being called 
father and master by that illustrious disciple. 3 Placed 
in such a position at so early an age, Bonaventure 
could say of Divine Wisdom, even more truly than 
of the great master who bad had little to do but 
admire the prodigious development of his soul : " It 
" is she that has taught me all things ; she taught me 
" the knowledge of God and of His works, justice and 
" virtues, the subtleties of speeches and the solutions 
" of arguments." 3 

Such indeed is the object of those Commentaries 
on the four Books of Sentences, first delivered as 
lectures from the chair of Paris, where he held the 
noblest intellects spell-bound by his graceful and 

1 Litt. Alexandri iv. : De fontibus paradisi flumen egrediens. 
2 Bonavent. in ii. Sent., dist. xxiii., art. 2, qu. 3, ad 7. 
* Cf. Wisd. vii. and viii. 

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inspired language. This masterpiece, while it is an 
inexhaustible mine of treasures to the Franciscan 
family, bears so great testimony to the science of thi» 
doctor of twenty-seven years of age, that, though so 
soon called from his chair to the government of a 
great Order, he was worthy on account of this single 
work to share with his friend Thomas of Aquin, 
who was fortunately freer to pursue his studies, the 
honourable title of prince of Sacred Theology. 1 

The young master already merited his name of 
Seraphic Doctor, by regarding science as merely & 
means to love, and declaring that the light which 
illuminates the mind is barren and useless unless it 
penetrates to the heart, where alone wisdom rests and 
feasts. 2 St. Antoninus tells us also, that in him every 
truth grasped by the intellect, passed through the 
affections, and thus became prayer and divine praise.* 
" His aim," says another historian, " was to burn with 
"love, to kindle himself first at the divine fire, and 
"afterwards to inflame others. Careless of praise or 
" renown, anxious only to regulate his life and actions, 
" he would fain burn and not only shine ; he would be 
"fire, in order to approach nearer to God by becoming 
" more like to Him who is fire. Albeit, as fire is not 
"without light, so was he also at the same time a 
" shining torch in the House of God ; but his special 
"claim to our praise is, that all the light at his com- 
" mand he gathered to feed the flame of divine love." 4 

The bent of his mind was clearly indicated when, 
at the beginning of his public teaching, he was called 
upon to give his decision on the question then dividing 
the Schools : to some theology was a speculative, to 

1 Litt. Sixti iv. Superna coelestis patriae civitas ; Sixti v. 
Triumphantis Hierusalem ; Leon is xiii. Mterni Pafcris. 

2 Exp. in Lib. Sap. viii. 9, 16. 
•Antonini, Chronic, p. in., tit. xxiv., cap. 8. 
4 H. Sidulius, Histor. seraph. 

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others a practical science, according as they were 
more struck by the theoretical or the moral side of 
its teaching. Bonaventure, uniting the two opinions 
in the principle which he considered the one universal 
law, concluded that " Theology is an affective science, 
" the knowledge of which proceeds by speculative con- 
" templation, but aims principally at making us good." 
For the wisdom of doctrine, he said, must be accord- 
ing to Tier name, 1 something that can be relished 
by the soul ; and he added, not without that gentle 
touch of irony which the saints know how to use.: 
"There is a difference, I suppose, in the impressions 
" produced by the proposition, Christ died for us, or 
" the like, and by such as this : the diagonal and the 
"side of a square cannot be equal to one another" 2 
The graceful speech and profound science of our 
saint were enhanced by a beautiful modesty. He 
would conclude a difficult question thus: "This is 
"said without prejudice to the opinions of others. If 
" anyone think otherwise, or better, as he may well do 
" on this point as on all others, I bear him no ill-will; 
" but if, in this little work, he find any thing deserving 
" approval, let him give thanks to God, the Author of 
"all good. Whatever, in any part, be found false, 
" doubtful or obscure, let the kind reader forgive the 
"incompetence of the writer, whose conscience bears 
" him unimpeachable testimony that he has wished to 
"say nothing but what is true, clear, and commonly 
" received." 3 On one occasion, however,Bonaventure s 
unswerving devotion to the Queen of Virgins modified 
with a gentle force bis expression of humility: "If 
"any one," he says, "prefers otherwise, I will not 
" contend with him, provided he say nothing to the 
" detriment of the Venerable Virgin, for we must take 

w * Eccli. vi. 23. 2 Bonavent. Proemium in I Sent., qu. 3. 

3 ii. Sent, disk xliv., art. 3, qu. 2, ad 6. 

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" the very greatest care, even should it cost us our life, 
"that do one lessen in any way the honour of our 
" Lady." 1 Lastly, at the end of the third book of this 
admirable Exposition of the Sentences, he declares 
that " charity is worth more than all science. It is 
" enough, in doubtful questions, to know what the wise 
" have taught ; disputation is to little purpose. We 
" talk much, and our words fail us. Infinite thanks- 
" be to the perfecter of all discourse, our Lord Jesus 
" Christ, who taking pity on my poverty of knowledge 
44 and of genius, has enabled me to complete this 
u moderate work. I beg of Him that it may procure 
*' me the merit of obedience, and may be of profit to 
" my brethren: the twofold purpose for which the task 
" was undertaken." 2 

But the time had come when obedience was to give 
place to another kind of merit, less pleasing to him- 
self, but not less profitable to the brethren. At thirty- 
five years of age, he was elected Minister General. 
Obliged thus to quit the field of scholastic teaching, 
he entrusted it to his friend, Thomas of Aquin, who, 
younger by several years, was to cultivate it longer 
and more completely than be himself had been 
suffered. The Church would lose nothing by the 
change ; for, Eternal Wisdom, who ordereth all things 
with strength and sweetness, thus disposed that these 
two incomparable geniuses, completing one another, 
should give us the fulness of that true science which 
not only reveals God, but leads to Him. 

Give an occasion to the wise man, and wisdom 
shall be added to him? This sentence was placed 
by Bonaventure at the head of his treatise on "the 
" Six Wings of the Seraphim," wherein he sets forth 
the qualifications necessary for one called to the cure 

1 iv. Sent., dist. xxviii., qu. 6, ad 5. 3 Prov. ix. 9. 

2 in. Sent., dist. xl., qu. 3, ad 6. 

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of souls; and well did he fulfil it himself in the govern- 
ment of his immense Order, scattered by its missions 
throughout the whole Church. The treatise itself, 
which Father Claud Aquaviva held in such high 
estimation as to oblige the Superiors of the Society 
of Jesus to use it as a guide, furnishes us with a 
portrait of our Saint at this period. He had reached 
the summit of the spiritual life, where the inward 
peace of the soul is undisturbed by the most violent 
agitations from without; where the closeness of their 
union with God produces in the saints a mysterious 
fecundity, displayed to the world, when God wills, by 
■a, multiplicity of perfect works incomprehensible to 
the profane. Let us listen to Bonaventure's own 
words: "The Seraphim exercise an influence over 
" the lower orders, to draw them upwards ; so the love 
" of the spiritual man tends both to his neighbour and 
" to God ; to God that he may rest in Him ; to his 
" neighbour to draw him thither with himself. Not 
" only then do they burn ; they also give the form of 
" perfect love, driving away darkness and showing how 
M to rise by degrees, and to go to God by the highest 
" paths." 1 

Such is the secret of that admirable series of opus- 
4ula> composed, as he owned to St. Thomas, without 
the aid of any book but his crucifix, without any 
preconceived plan, but simply as occasion required, 
at the request, or to satisfy the needs of the brethren 
and sisters of his large family, or again when he felt 
a desire of pouring out his soul. In these works 
Bonaventure has treated alike of the first elements of 
asceticism and of the sublimes t subjects of the mystic 
life, with such fulness, certainty, clearness, and per- 
suasive force, that Sixtus IV. declared the Holy Spirit 
seemed to speak in him. 2 On reading the Itinerary 

J Bonavent. De Eccle. hier., p. n., c. il 2 Litt. Superna coelestis. 

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of the soul to God, which was written on the height 
of Alvernia, as it were under the immediate influence 
of the Seraphim, the Chancellor Gerson exclaimed : 
"This opusculum, or rather this immense work, is 
"beyond the praise of a mortal mouth." 1 And he 
wished it, together with that wonderful compendium 
of sacred science, the Breviloquium, to be imposed 
upon theologians as a necessary manual. 8 " By his 
" words," says the great Abbot Trithemius in the name 
of the Benedictine Order, " the author of all these 
" learned and devout works inflames the will of the 
" reader no less than he enlightens his mind. Note 
" the spirit of divine love and Christian devotion in 
" his writings, and you will easily see that he surpasses 
" all the doctors of his time in the usefulness of his 
" works. Many expound doctrine, many preach devo- 
" tion, few teach the two together ; Bonaventure sur- 
*' passes both the many and the few, because he trains 
"to devotion by science, and to science by devotion. 
"If then you would be both learned and devout, you 
" must put his teaching in practice." 3 

But Bonaventure himself will tell us best the 
proper dispositions for reading him with profit. At 
the beginning of his Incendium amoris, wherein he 
teaches the three ways, purgative, illuminative, and 
unitive, which lead to true wisdom, he says: "I 
"offer this book not to philosophers, not to the 
" worldly-wise, not to great theologians perplexed 
"with endless questions, but to the simple and 
" ignorant who strive rather to love God than to know 
" much. It is not by disputing, but by activity, that 
44 we learn to love. As to these men full of questions, 
" superior in every science, but inferior in the love of 
" Christ, I consider them incapable of understanding 

1 Gerson Epist. cuidam Fratri Minori. Lugd. an. 1426. 
8 Tract de exam, doctrinarum. 
3 Trithem. de Scriptor. eccle. 

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" the contents of this book ; unless putting away all 
"vain show of learning, they strive, by humble self- 
-renunciation, prayer, and meditation, to kindle 
" within them the divine spark, which, inflaming their 
"hearts and dispelling all darkness, will lead them 
" beyond the concerns of time even to the throne of 
" peace. Indeed by the very fact of their knowing 
" more, they are better disposed to love, or at least 
"they would be, if they truly despised themselves 
" and could rejoice to be despised by others." 1 

Although these pages are already too long, we 
cannot resist quoting the last words left us by St. 
Bonaventure. As the Angel of the School was soon, 
at Fossa Nova, to close his labours and his life with 
the explanation of the Canticle of Canticles, so hi& 
seraphic rival and brother tuned his last notes to 
these words of the sacred Nuptial Song: "Ki/ng 
"Solomon has made him a litter of the wood of 
" Libanu8 : The pillars thereof he made of silver, 
" the seat of gold, the going-up of purple" 2 " The 
" seat of gold," added our Saint, " is contemplative 
" wisdom ; it belongs to those alone who possess the 
" column of silver, i.e. the virtues which strengthen 
"the soul; the going-up of purple is the charity 
" whereby we ascend to the heights and descend ta 
"the valleys/' 8 

It is a conclusion worthy of Bonaventure, the 
close of a sublime but incomplete work, which he had 
not even time to put together himself. " Alas ! alas ! 
"alas!" cries out with tears the loving disciple to 
whom we owe this last treasure, "a higher dignity,, 
"and then the death of our lord and master prevented 
" the continuation of this work." And then showing 
us, in a touching manner, the precautions taken by 

1 Inceod. amoris, Prologus. 
* Cant. iii. 9, 10. 

3 Illuminationes Ecclesiae in Hexaemeron, sermo xxiii. 

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the sons lest they should lose anything of their 
father's conferences: "What I here give," he says, 
" is what I could snatch by writing rapidly while he 
" was speaking. Two others took notes at the same 
*' time, but their papers are scarcely legible; whereas 
" several of the audience were able to read my copy, 
" and the master himself and many others made use of 
" it ; a fact for which I deserve some gratitude. And 
" now at length, permission and time having been 
" given to me, I have revised these notes, with the 
" voice and gestures of the master ever in my ear and 
" before my eyes; I have arranged them in order, with- 
" out adding anything to what he said, except the 
" indication of certain authorities." 1 

The dignity mentioned by the faithful secretary is 
that of Cardinal Bishop of Albano. After the death 
of Clement IV., and the succeeding three years of 
widowhood for the Church, our Saint, by his influence 
with the Sacred College, had obtained the election of 
Gregory X., who now imposed upon him in virtue of 
obedience the honour of the Cardinalate. Having 
been entrusted with the work of preparation for the 
Council of Lyons, convened for the Spring of 1274, 
Bonaventure had the joy of assisting at the re-union 
of the Latin and Greek Churches, which he, more 
than anyone else, had been instrumental in obtaining. 
But God spared him the bitterness of seeing how 
short-lived the re-union was to be: a union which 
would have been the salvation of that East which he 
loved, and where his name, translated into Eutychius, 
was still in veneration two centuries later at the time 
of the Council of Florence. On the 15th of July of 
that year, 1274, in the midst of the Council, and pre- 
sided at by the Sovereign Pontiff himself, took place 
the most solemn funeral the world has ever wit- 

1 Illuminat. Eccles., Additiones. 
PENT. iv. H 

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nessed. " 1 grieve for thee, my brother Jonathan," 
cried out before that mourning assembly gathered from 
East and West, the Dominican Cardinal Peter of 
Tarentaise. After fifty-three years spent in this 
world, the Seraph had cast off his robe of flesh, and 
spreading his wings had gone to join Thomas of 
Aquin, who had by a very short time preceded him 
to heaven. 

There are only two proper lessons consecrated to 
St. Bonaventure, but the elegant conciseness with 
which much is said in few words somewhat compen- 
sates for their shortness. 

Bonaventura, Balneoregii 
in Etruria natus, cum inf ans 
incidisset in vitae nericulum, 
mater ejus vovit, si inde eva- 
sisset, se eum Religioni bea- 
ti Francisci dicaturam. Ita- 
que adolescens in Ordinem 
Fratrum Minorum adscribi 
voluit: ubi Alexandra de 
Ales magistro, ad earn doc- 
trinse perfectionem brevi 
pervenit, ut septimo post 
anno libros Sententiarum 
Parisiis publice summa cum 
laude sit internretatus : quos 
etiam praeclans postea com- 
mentariis illustravit. Post 
sex annos sui Ordinis gene- 
ralis Minister Bomae factus, 
ea prudentiae ac sanctitatis 
laude mini8terium gessit, ut 
in omnium ore et admira- 
tions esset. 

Bonaventure was born at 
Bagnorea, in Tuscany. Dur- 
ing his childhood his life was 
once endangered, and his mo- 
ther vowed that if her son 
survived she would consecrate 
him to God in the Order of 
Blessed Francis. On this ac- 
count, while still a youth, 
Bonaventure begged to be 
admitted* among the Friars 
Minors. He had for master 
Alexander Hales, and became 
in a short time so eminent in 
learning that at the end of 
seven years he publicly, in 
Paris, explained the books of 
the Sentences, with great ap- 
plause. Later on he publish- 
ed also excellent commentar- 
ies on the same book. After 
the lapse of six years, he was 
elected Minister General of 
his Order, at Rome, and he 
became the object of univer- 
sal praise and admiration by 
the prudence and sanctity he 
displayed in the fulfilment of 
this office. 

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He wrote mauy works which, 
combining the greatest learn- 
ing with the most ardent piety, 
at once instruct and move the 
reader. Urged by the renown 
of his sanctity and wisdom, 
Gregory X. made him Cardinal 
Bishop of Albano. He was, 
while still living, called a 
Saint by Blessed Thomas of 
Aquin, who, finding him one 
day writing the life of St. 
Francis, said : " Let us allow 
" one saint to labour for an- 
" another." Bonaventure de- 
parted this life on the day be- 
fore the Ides of July, at the 
Council of Lyons, being fifty- 
three years of age. He per- 
formed many miracles, and 
was added to the number of 
the saints by the Sovereign 
Pontiff, Sixtus IV. 

ENTuSBfV/-, 101 

Multa scripsijj in quibus 
summam erudition em cum 
pari pietatis ardbf e cJbnjun- 
gens, lectorem docendo mo- 
vet. Q uem Gregorius J)eci» 
mus, ejus sanctimonias .•eV 
sapientiae fama commotusv 
Cardinalem et Episcopum 
Albanensem creavit. Eum- 
dem adhuc viventem beatus 
Thomas Aquinas sanctum 
appellavit. Cum enim vi- 
tam sancti Francisci scri- 
bentem comperisset: Sina- 
mus, inquit, sanctum pro 
sancto laborare. Migravit 
e vita pridie Idus Julii, in 
Concilio Lugdunensi, quin- 
quaginta tres annos natus, 
multis editis miraculis. 
Quern Sixtus Quartus Pon- 
tifex Maximus retulit in 
Sanctorum uumerum. 

Thou hast entered, O Bonaventure, into the joy 
of thy Lord, and what must thy happiness be now, 
since, as thou thyself didst say : " By how much a 
" man loves God on earth, by so much does he rejoice 
"in him in heaven?" 1 If the great St. Anselm, 
from whom thou didst borrow that word, added, that 
love is proportioned to knowledge, 2 O thou, who 
wast at the same time a prince of sacred science and 
the doctor of love, show us how all light, in the 
order of grace and of nature, is intended to lead us 
to love. God is hidden in everything ; 3 Christ is the 
centre of every science; 4 and the fruit of each of 
them is to build up faith, to honour God, to regulate 

1 Bonav. De perfectione vitae, ad Sorores, viii. 

2 Anselm. Proslogion, xxvi. 

3 Bonav. De reductions artium ad theologiam. 

4 Illuminatione8 Eccl., i. 

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102 -"iijiffe AFTER PENTECOST. 

our lifg/jfajct'to lead to divine union by charity, 
without ^fuch all knowledge is vain. 1 For, as thou 
didgt say, 2 all the sciences have their fixed and in- 
.ftJlible rules, which come down to our soul as so 
in&riy reflections of the eternal law ; and our soul, 
surrounded and penetrated with such brightness, is 
led, of her own accord, unless she is blind, to contem- 
plate that eternal light. Wonderful light, reflected 
from the mountains of our fatherland into the further- 
most valleys of our exile ! In the eyes of the Sera- 
phic Father Francis the world was truly noble, so that 
he called, as thou tellest us, even the lowest creatures 
by the name of brothers and sisters ; 3 in every beauty 
he discerned the Sovereign Beauty ; by the traces left 
in creation by its Author he found his Beloved every- 
where, and he made of them a ladder whereby to 
ascend to him. 4 

Do thou, too, 0 my soul, open 1 thine eyes, bend 
thine ear, unlock thy lips, and prepare thy heart, 
that in every creature thou raayest see thy God, hear 
him, praise him, love him, and honour him, lest the 
whole universe rise up against thee for not rejoicing 
in the works of his hands. Then from the world 
beneath thee, which has but the shadow of God and 
his presence, inasmuch as he is everywhere, pass on 
to thyself, his image by nature, reformed in Christ 
the Bridegroom. From the image rise to the truth 
of the first Beginning, in unity of Essence and trinity 
of Persons, that thou mayest attain the repose of that 
sacred night where both the shadow and the image 
are forgotten in an all-absorbing love. But first of all 
thou must know that the mirror of the external world 
will avail thee little, unless the interior mirror of thy 
soul be purified and bright, unless thy desire be aided 

1 De reduct. artiiim ad theolog. 3 Legenda Sti. Francisci, viii. 

2 Itinerarium mentis in Deum, iii. 4 Ihid. ix. 

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by prayer and contemplation in order to kindle love. 
Know that here, reading without unction, speculation 
without devotion, labour without piety, knowledge 
without charity, intelligence without humility, study 
without grace, are nothing ; and when at length, 
rising gradually by prayer, holiness of life, and the 
contemplation of truth, thou shalt have reached the 
mountain where the God of gods reveals himself, 1 
taught by the powerlessness of thy sight here on 
earth to endure splendours of which nature was too 
feeble to give thee an indication, let thy blind in- 
telligence remain asleep, pass beyond it in Christ, 
who is the gate and the way, question no longer the 
master but the Bridegroom, not man but God, not 
the light but the all-con<umiug fire; pass from this 
world with Christ to the Father, who will be shown 
to thee, and then say with Philip: "It is enough 
"for us." 2 

O Seraphic Doctor, lead us by this sublime ascent, 
of which every line of thy works discloses the secrets, 
the toils, the beauties, and the dangers. In the 
pursuit of that Divine Wisdom, which even in its 
feeblest reflections, no one can behold without 
ecstasy, guard us against mistaking for an end the 
satisfaction felt from the scanty rays sent down to 
us to draw us from the confusion of nothingness 
even to Itself. If these rays which proceed from the 
eternal Beauty be withdrawn from their focus and 
perverted from their object, there will be nothing 
but delusion, deception, vain knowledge, or false 
pleasures. Indeed, the more lofty the knowledge 
and the nearer it approaches to God as the object of 
speculative theory, the more in a certain sense is 
error to be feared. If a man in his progress towards 
true wisdom, which is possessed and relished for its 

1 Bonav. Itinerar. mentis in Deum, i. 8 Ibid. viL 

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own sake, is drawn aside by the charms of know- 
ledge, and rests therein, thou, O Bonaventure, hesi- 
tatest not to compare such knowledge to a vile 
deceiver, who would withdraw the affections of the 
king's son from his noble betrothed to fix them upon 
herself. 1 Such an insult to an august queen would 
be equally grievous whether offered by a servant or 
by a lady of honour. Hence thou didst declare that 
" the passage from science to wisdom is dangerous, 
"unless holiness intervene." 2 Help us to cross the 
perilous pass ; let science ever be to us a means of 
attaining sanctity and acquiring greater love. 

Thou hast still, O Bonaventure, the same thoughts 
in the light of God. Witness the predilection thou 
hast more than once shown in our time, for those 
centres, where, in spite of the fever of activity 
which must needs keep in motion every force of 
nature, divine contemplation is still appreciated as 
the better part, as the only end and aim of all 
knowledge. Deign to continue thy protection of thy 
devout and grateful clients. Defend, as heretofore, 
the life and prerogatives of all religious Orders which 
are now so persecuted. To thy own Franciscan 
family be still a cause of increase both in numbers 
and in sanctity ; bless the labours undertaken by it, 
to the joy of all the world, to bring to light as they 
deserve thy history and thy works. Bring back the 
East a third time to unity and life, and that for ever. 
May the whole Church be warmed by thy rays ; may 
the divine fire thou didst so effectually nurture, 
enkindle the earth anew ! 

1 Illuminationes Eccl., ii. 2 Ibid, xix. 

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July 15. 


Henbt of Germany, the second King, but the first 
Emperor of that name, was the last crowned repre- 
sentative of that branch of the house of Saxony 
descended from Henry the Fowler, to which God, in 
the tenth century, entrusted the mission of restoring 
the work of Charlemagne and Leo III. This noble 
stock was rendered more glorious by the flowers of 
sanctity adorning its branches, than for the deep and 
powerful roots it struck in the German soil by great 
and long-enduring institutions. 

The Holy Spirit, who divideth his gifts according 
as he will, was then calling to the loftiest destinies 
that land, which, more than any other, had witnessed 
the energy of his divine action in the transformation 
of nations. Won to Christ by St. Boniface and the 
continuators of his work, the vast country which 
extends beyond the Rhine and the Danube had 
become the bulwark of the West, and for many years 
had been the scene of devastation and ruin. Far 
from attempting to subjugate to her own rule the 
formidable tribes that inhabited it, pagan Rome, at 
the very zenith of her power, had had no higher 
ambition than to raise a wall of separation between 
them and the Empire : Christian Rome, more truly 
Mistress of the world, set up in their very midst the 

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seat of the Holy Roman Empire re-established by her 
Pontiffs. The new Empire was to defend the rights 
of the common Mother, to protect Christendom from 
new inroads of barbarians, to win over to the Gospel 
or else to crush the successive hordes that would come 
down on her frontiers — Hungarians, Sclaves, Mongols, 
Tartars, and Ottomans. Happy had it been for 
Germany if she had always understood her true glory, 
if the fidelity of her princes to the Vicar of the 
Man-God had been equal to their people's faith. 

God, on his part, hach not- closed his band. To- 
day's feast shows us the crowning point of the period 
of fruitful labour, when the Holy Ghost, having 
created Germany anew in the waters of the sacred 
font, would lead her up to the full development of a 
people's perfect age. The historian, who would 
know what Providence requires of nations, must 
study them at such a period of truly creative forma- 
tion. Indeed, when God creates, whether in the 
order of nature or of the supernatural vocation of 
men and societies, he first deposits in his work the 
principle of that grade of life for which it is destined: 
it is a precious germ, the development of which, unless 
thwarted, must lead that being to attain its end; and 
the knowledge of which, could we observe it before 
any alteration has taken place, would clearly indicate 
the divine intention with regard to that being. Now, 
many times already, since the coming of the Holy 
Ghost the Sanctifier, we have shown that the principle 
of life for Christian nations is the holiness of their 
beginnings : a holiness as manifold as is the Wisdom 
of God, whose instrument these nations are to be, and 
as peculiar to each as are their several destinies. This 
holiness, beginning as it does for the most part from 
the throne, possesses a social character. The crimes 
also of princes will but too often bear this same mark, 
from the very fact of the princes being the repre- 

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sentatives of their people before God. Then, too, we 
have seen, 1 how in the name of Mary, who, through 
her divine Maternity, is the channel of life to the 
whole world, a mission has been intrusted to women : 
the mission of bringing forth to God the families of 
nations ( families gentium), 2 which are to be the 
objects of his tenderest love. Whereas the princes, 
the apparent founders of Empires, stand with their 
mighty deeds in the foreground of history, it is she, 
that, by her secret tears and prayers, gives fruitful- 
ness, a loftier aim and stability to their undertakings. 

The Holy Ghost multiplies these imitators of the 
Mother of God ; like Clotilde, Radegond, and Bathil- 
dis, giving the Franks to the Church in the midst 
of troublous times, there arose in another land another 
three, in honour of the Blessed Trinity : Matilda, 
Adelaide, and Cunigund superadded to the diadem 
of Germany the aureola of sanctity. Over the chaos 
of the tenth century whence Germany was to spring, 
they shone out like three bright stars, shedding their 
peaceful light over the Church and the world in that 
dark night, and thus doing more to suppress anarchy 
than could even the sword of an Otho. The eleventh 
century opened : Hildebrand had not yet arisen, and 
the angels of the sanctuary were weeping over many 
a desecrated altar, when the royal succession was 
brought to a beautiful close by a virginal union, as 
though, weary of producing heroes for the world, it 
would now bear fruit for heaven alone. Was such a 
step against the interests of Germany ? No ; for it 
drew down the mercy of God upon the country, 
which, in the midst of universal corruption, could 
offer Him the perfume of such a holocaust. 

Let earth and heaven this day unite in celebrating 
the man who carried out to the full the designs of 

: 1 Time after Pentecost, Vol. m., St. Clotilde. *Ps. xxi. 28. 

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eternal Wisdom at this period of history. In his 
single person he discovered all the heroism and 
sanctity of the illustrious race, whose chief glory it 
is to have been for a century a worthy preparation 
for so great a man. Great before men, who knew 
not whether to admire more his bravery or the 
energetic activity which made bim seem to be every- 
where at once throughout his vast empire, he was 
ever successful, putting down internal revolts, con- 
quering the Sclaves on his Northern frontier, chastis- 
ing the insolence of the Greeks in southern Italy, 
assisting Hungary to rise from barbarism to Chris- 
tianity, concluding with Robert the Pious a lasting 
peace between the Empire and the eldest daughter 
of the Church. But the virgin spouse of the virgin 
Cunigund was greater still before God, who never 
had a more faithful lieutenant upon earth. God in 
His Christ was in Henry's eyes the only King ; the 
interest of Christ and the Church, the one principle 
of his administration ; the most perfect service of the 
Man-God, his highest ambition. He understood how 
the truest nobility was hidden in the cloister, where 
chosen souls, fleeing from the universal degradation, 
were averting the ruin and obtaining the salvation 
of the world. It was this thought that led him, on 
the morrow of his imperial coronation, to confide to 
the famous Abbey of Cluny the golden globe repre- 
senting the world, which he, as soldier of the Vicar 
of Christ, was commissioned to defend. It was with 
the desire of imitating those noble souls, that he 
threw himself at the feet of the Abbot of Saint 
Vannes at Verdun, begging admission into his com- 
munity, and then, constrained by obedience, returned 
with a heavy heart to resume the burden of govern- 

The following is the notice, necessarily incomplete, 
which the Church gives us concerning Saint Henry : 

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Henry, surnamed the Pious, 
Duke of Bavaria, became suc- 
cessively King of Germany, 
and Emperor of the Romans ; 
but not satisfied with a mere 
temporal principality, he strove 
to gain an immortal crown, 
by paying zealous service to 
the eternal King. As em- 
peror, he devoted himself 
earnestly to spreading reli- 
gion, and rebuilt with great 
magnificence the Churches 
which had been destroyed by 
the infidels, endowing them 
generously both with money 
and lands. He built Monas- 
teries and other pious estab- 
lishments, and increased the 
income of others ; the bishop- 
ric of Bamberg, which he had 
founded out of his family 
possessions, he made tributary 
to St. Peter and the Roman 
Pontiff. When Benedict VIIL, 
who had crowned him em- 
peror, was obliged to seek 
safety in flight,Henry received 
him and restored him to his 

Once when he was suffering 
from a severe illness in the 
Monastery of Monte Cassino, 
St Benedict cured him, by a 
wonderful miracle. He en- 
dowed the Roman Church 
with a most copious grant, 
undertook in her defence a 
war against the Greeks, and 
gained possession of Apulia, 
which they had held for some 
time. It was his custom to 
undertake nothing without 
prayer, and at times he saw 
the angel of the Lord, or the 
holy Martyrs, his patrons, 

NRY. 109 

Henricus, cognomento 
Pius, e duce Bavariae rex 
Germanise, ac postmodum 
Romanorum imperator, tern - 
poralis regni non contentus 
angustiis, pro adipiscenda 
immortalitatis corona sedu- 
lam aeterno Regi exhibuit 
servitutem. Adepto enim 
imperio, religiom amplifi- 
candae studiose incumbens, 
ecclesias ab infidelibus de- 
structas magnificentius re- 
para vit, plurimisque largi- 
tionibus et prediis locuple- 
tavit Monasteria, aliaque 
loca pia vel ipse aedificavit, 
vel assignatis redditibus 
auxit. Episcopatum Bam- 
bergensem, haereditariis opi- 
bus f undatum, beato Petro, 
Romanoque Pontifici vecti- 
galem fecit. Benedictum 
Octavum, a quo imperii 
coronam acceperat, profu- 
gum excepit, suaaque sedi 

In Cassinensi monasterio 
gravi detentus infirmitate, 
a Sancto Benedicto, insigni 
miraculo, sanatus est. Ro- 
manam Ecclesiam amplis- 
simo diplomate muneratus, 
eidem tuendae bellum ad- 
versus Graecos suscepit, et 
Apuliam, diu ab illis pos- 
sessam, recuperavit. Nihil 
sine precibus aggredi soli- 
tus, Angelum Domini san- 
ctosque Martyres tutelares 
pro se pugnantes ante aciem 
interdum vidit. Divina au- 
tem protectus ope, barbaras 

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nationes precibus magis 
quam armis expugnavit. 
Pannoniam adhuc infidelem, 
tradita Stephano regi sorore 
sua in uxorem, eoqua bapti- 
zato, ad Christi fidem per- 
duxit. Virginitatem, raro 
exemplo, matrimonio junxit, 
sanctamque Cimegundam, 
conjugem suam, propinauis 
ejus, morti proximus, ilhba- 
tam restituit. 

Denique rebus omnibus, 
quae ad imperii honorem et 
utilitatem pertinebant, sum- 
ma prudentia dispositis, et 
illustribus per Galliam, Ita- 
liam et Germaniam, religio- 
sae munificentiae vestigiis 
passim relictis, postquam 
heroicae virtutis suavissi- 
mum odorem longe lateque 
diffuderat, sanctitate quam 
sceptro clarior, ad regni 
coalestis praemia, consum- 
matis vitaa laborious, a Do- 
mino vocatus est, anno sa- 
lutis millesimo vigesimo 
quarto. Cujus corpus in 
ecclesia beat or um Aposto- 
lorum Petri et Pauli Bam- 
bergaa conditum fuit; sta- 
timque ad ejus tumulum 
multa miracula, Deo ipsum 
glorificante, patrata sunt : 
quibus postea rite probatis, 
Eugenius Tertius Sancto- 
rum numero ilium adscripsit. 


fighting for him at the head 
of his army. Aided thus by 
the Divine protection, he over- 
came barbarous nations more 
by prayer than by arms. 
Hungary was still pagan ; but 
Henry having given his sister 
in marriage to its King 
Stephen, the latter was bap- 
tized, and thus the whole na- 
tion was brought to the faith 
of Christ. He set the rare 
example of preserving virgin- 
ity in the married state, and 
at his death restored his wife, 
St. Cunigund, a virgin to her 

He arranged everything re- 
lating to the glory or advan- 
tage of his empire with the 
greatest prudence, and left 
scattered throughout Gaul, 
Italy, and Germany, traces of 
his munificence towards re- 
ligion. The sweet odour of 
iris heroic virtue spread far 
and wide, till he was more 
celebrated for his holiness than 
for his imperial dignity. At 
length his life's work was ac- 
complished and he was called 
by our Lord to the rewards of 
the heavenly kingdom, in the 
year of salvation, 1024. His 
body was buried in the Church 
of the blessed Apostles Peter 
and Paul at Bamberg. God 
wished to glorify his servant, 
and many miracles were 
worked at his tomb. These 
being afterwards proved and 
certified, Eugenius III. in- 
scribed his name upon the 
catalogue of the Saints. 

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By me kings reign, by me princes rule. 1 Thou, 
0 Henry, didst well understand this language of 
heaven. In an age of wickedness, thou knewesf 
where to find counsel and strength. Like Solomon 
thou didst desire wisdom alone, and like him thou 
didst experience that with her are riches and glory, 
glorious riches and justice; 2 but more blessed than 
David's son, thou didst not suffer thyself to be drawn 
away from Wisdom herself by those lower gifts, 
which were rather a test of thy love of God, than an 
expression of his love for thee. The test, O Henry, 
was decisive : thou didst walk to the very end in the 
right path, following up loyally every consequence of 
our Lord's teaching; not content to mount, with 
many even of the best, by the gentler slopes, thou 
didst run with the perfect, following closely the 
footsteps of adorable Wisdom, in the midst of the 
paths of judgment? 

Who can gainsay what God approves, what Christ 
counsels, what the Church has canonised in thee 
and thy noble spouse ? Surely kings are not placed 
in so pitiable a condition that the call of the Man- 
God cannot reach them on their thrones ? Christian 
equality requires that princes should not be less free 
than their subjects, to have higher ambitions thau 
those of earth. Thou didst prove to mankind that 
even for the world, the knowledge of the holy is true 
prudence.* By claiming the right to aspire to the 
highest mansions in our Heavenly Father's house 
(the baptismal birthright of every child of God), 
thou didst shine like a beacon-light under the dark- 
est sky that ever overspread the Church ; and thou 
didst rescue souls whom the salt of the earth, having 
lost its savour and being trodden under foot, could 
no longer preserve from corruption. It was not for 

1 Prov. viii. 15, 16. 2 Ibid. 18. 3 Ibid. 20. 4 Ibid. ix. 10. 

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thee in person to reform the sanctuary ; but as chief 
servant of Mother Church, thou didst not fear to 
respect both her ancient laws and recent decrees, 
which are ever worthy of the Spouse, and holy as 
the Spirit who in every age dictates them. Thy 
reign was a period of sunshine before the satanic 
fury which was all too soon to break as a storm over 
the Church. While seeking first the Kingdom of 
God and his justice, thou didst not abandon thy 
fatherland, nor the nation that had placed thee at 
its head. To thee, above all others, Germany owes 
the establishment in her midst of that Empire 
which was her glory until in our times it fell, never 
to rise again. Long after thy departure from this 
earth, thy holy works were of sufficient weight in the 
scales of Divine justice to over-balance the crimes 
of a Henry IV. or a Frederick II., which would have 
compromised for ever the future of Germany. From 
thy throne in heaven, cast down a look of pity on 
the extensive domain of the Holy Empire, which 
owed so much to thee, and which heresy has for ever 
dismembered. Put to confusion those principles, 
unknown to Germany in happier days, which would 
reconstruct, for the benefit of earthly prosperity, the 
grandeurs of the past without the cement of the 
ancient faith. Return, O emperor of glorious days ! 
return and fight for the Church; gather together 
the remains of Christendom upon the traditional 
ground of the interests common to all Catholic 
nations : then will the alliance, which thy able policy 
concluded, give to the world a security, a peace, a 
prosperity, which it can never enjoy so long as it 
remains on such a slippery footing, and exposed to 
the violence of every hostile agency. 

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July 16. 


Towering over the waves on the shore of the Holy 
Land, Mount Carmel, together with the short range 
of the same name, forms a connecting link to two 
other chains, abounding with glorious memories, 
namely : the mountains of Galilee on the north, and 
those of Judea on the south. 

"In the day of my love, I brought thee out of 
"Egypt into the land of Carmel, ,,1 said the Lord to 
the daughter of Sion, taking the name of Carmel to 
represent all the blessings of the Promised Land; 
and when the crimes of the chosen people were 
about to bring Judaea to ruin, the prophet cried out: 
" / looked, and behold Carmel was a wilderness : 
and all its cities were destroyed at the presence of 
the Lord, and at the presence of the wrath of 
his indignation. 9 ' 2 But from the midst of the 
Gentile world f} new Sion arose, more loved than the 
first; eight centuries beforehand Isaias recognised 
her by the glory of Libanus, and the beauty of 
Carmel and Saron which were given her. In the 
sacred Canticle, also, the attendants of the Bride 
sing to the Spouse concerning his well-beloved, that 
her head is like Carmel, and her hair like the 
precious threads of royal purple carefully woven and 

1 Cf. Jerem. ii. 2, 7. 2 Ibid. iv. 26. 3 Cant. vii. 5. 


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There was, in fact, around Cape Carmel an abund- 
ant fishery of the little shell-fish which furnished the 
regal colour. Not far from there, smoothing away 
the slopes of the noble mountain, flowed the torrent 
of Cison, that dragged the carcasses 1 of the Chanaan- 
ites, when Deborah won her famous victory. Here 
lies the plain where the Madianites were overthrown, 
and Sisara felt the power of her that was called the 
Mother in Israel? Here Gedeon, too, marched against 
Madian in the name of the Woman terrible as an 
army set in array? whose sign he had received in 
the dew-covered fleece. Indeed, this glorious plain 
of Esdrelon, which stretches away from the foot 
of Carmel, seems to be surrounded with prophetic 
indications of her who was destined from the 
beginning to crush the serpent's head : not far from 
Esdrelon, a few defiles lead to JBethulia, the city of 
Judith, type of Mary, who was the true joy of Israel 
and the honour of her people ; 4 while nestling among 
the northern hills lies Nazareth, the white city, the 
flower of Galilee. 5 

When Eternal Wisdom was playing in the world, 
forming the hills and establishing the mountains, 
she destined Carmel to be the special inheritance of 
Eve's victorious Daughter. And when the last thou- 
sand years of expectation were opening, and the desire 
of all nations was developing into the spirit of pro- 
phecy, the father of prophets ascended the privileged 
mount, thence to scan the horizon. The triumphs 
of David and the glories of Solomon were at an end ; 
the sceptre of Juda, broken by the schism of the ten 
tribes, threatened to fall from his hand ; the worship 
of Baal prevailed in Israel. A long-continued drought, 
figure of the aridity of men's souls, had parched up 

1 Judges v. 21. 2 Ibid. 7. 3 Cant. vi. 3, 9. 4 Judith xv. 10. 
6 Hieron. Epist. xlvi. I'aulae et Eustoohii ad Marcellam. 

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every spring, and men and beasts were dying beside 
the empty cisterns, when Elias the Thesbite gathered 
the people, representing the whole human race, on 
Mount Carmel, and slew the lying prophets of Baal. 
Then, as the Scripture relates, prostrating with his 
face to the earth, he said to his servant: Go up, 
look towards the sea. And he went up, and looked 
and said : There is nothing. And again he said 
to him : Return seven times. And at the seventh 
time : Behold, a little cloud arose out of the sea like 
a man's foot. 1 

Blessed cloud ! unlike the bitter waves from which 
it sprang, it was all sweetness. Docile to the least 
breath of heaven, it rose light and humble, above 
the immense heavy ocean ; and, screening the sun, 
it tempered the heat that was scorching the earth, 
and restored to the stricken world life and grace 
and fruitfulness. The promised Messias, the Son of 
Man, set his impress upon it, showing to the wicked 
serpent the form of the heel that was to crush him. 
The prophet, personifying the human race, felt his 
youth renewed; and while the welcome rain was 
already refreshing the valleys, he ran before the 
chariot of the king of Israel. Thus did he traverse 
the great plaiu of Esdrelon, even to the mysteriously- 
named town of Jezrahel, where, according to Osee, 
the children of Juda and Israel were again to have 
but one head, in the great day of Jezrahel (i.e., of 
the seed of God), when the Lord would seal his 
eternal nuptials with a new people. 2 Later on, from 
Sunam, near Jezrahel, the mother, whose son was 
dead, crossed the same plain of Esdrelon, in the 
opposite direction, and ascended Mount Carmel, to 
obtain from Eliseus the resurrection of her child, 
who was a type of us all. 3 Elias had alreadyjde- 

1 3 Reg. xviii. 2 Osee i. 11, and ii. 14-24. 3 4 Reg. iv. 8-37. 
pent. iv. 1 

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parted in the chariot of fire, to await the end of the 
world, when he is to give testimony, together with 
Henoch, to the son of her that was signified by the 
cloud ; l and the disciple, clothed with the mantle 
and the spirit of his father, had taken possession, in 
the name of the sons of the prophets, of the august 
mountain honoured by the manifestation of the 
Queen of prophets. Henceforward Carmel was sacred 
in the eyes of all who looked beyond this world. 
Gentiles as well as Jews, philosophers and princes, 
came here on pilgrimage to adore the true God ; 
while the chosen souls of the Church of the expecta- 
tion, many of whom were already wandering in 
deserts and in mountains, 2 loved to take up their 
abode in its thousand grottoes ; for the ancient tradi- 
tions seemed to linger more lovingly in its silent 
forests, and the perfume of its flowers foretokened 
the Virgin Mother. The cultus of the Queen of 
heaven was already established ; and to the family 
of her devout clients, the ascetics of Carmel, might 
be applied the words spoken later by God to the 
pious descendants of Rechab : There shall not be 
wanting a man of this race, standing before me 
for ever? 

At length figures gave place to the reality; the 
heavens dropped down their dew, and the Just One 
came forth from the cloud. When his work was 
done and he returned to his Father, leaving his 
blessed Mother in the world, and sending his Holy 
Spirit to the Church, not the least triumph of that 
Spirit of love was the making known of Mary to the 
new-born Christians of Pentecost. " What a happi- 
ness," we then remarked, "for those neophytes 
" who were privileged above the rest in being brought 
" to the Queen of heaven, the Virgin-Mother of him 

1 Apoc. xi. 3, 7. 2 Heb. xi. 38. 3 Jerem. xxxv. 19, 

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*' who was the hope of Israel ! They saw this second 
" Eve, they conversed with her, they felt for her that 
" filial affection wherewith she inspired all the dis- 
" ciples of Jesus. The Liturgy will speak to us at 
"another season of these favoured ones." 1 The pro- 
mise is fulfilled to-day. In the lessons of the feast 
the Church tells us how the disciples of Elias and 
Eliseus became Christians at the first preaching 
of the Apostles, and being permitted to hear the 
sweet words of the Blessed Virgin and enjoy an 
unspeakable intimacy with her, they felt their 
veneration for her immensely increased. Returning 
to the loved mountain, where their less fortunate 
fathers had lived but in hope, they built, on the very 
spot where Elias had seen the little cloud rise up out 
of the sea, an oratory to the purest of virgins ; hence 
they obtained the name of Brothers of Blessed Mary 
of Mount Carmel 2 

In the twelfth century, in consequence of the 
establishment of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 
many pilgrims from Europe came to swell the ranks 
of the solitaries on the holy mountain ; it therefore 
became expedient to give to their hitherto eremitical 
life a form more in accordance with the habits of 
western nations. The legate Aimeric Malafaida, 
patriarch of Antioch, gathered them into a com- 
munity under the authority of St. Berthold, who was 
thus the first to receive the title of Prior General. 
At the commencement of the next century, Blessed 
Albert, patriarch of Jerusalem and also Apostolic 
legate, completed the work of Aimeric by giving a 
fixed Rule to the Order, which was now, through the 
influence of princes and knights returned from the 
Holy Land, beginning to spread into Cyprus, Sicily, 
and the countries beyond the sea. Soon indeed, the 

1 Paschal Time., Vol. III., p. 314. 2 Lessons of 2nd Nocturn. 

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Christians of the East, being abandoned by God to 
the just punishment of their sins, the vindictiveness 
of the conquering Saracens reached such a height in 
this age of trial for Palestine, that a full assembly 
held on Mount Carmel under Alanus the Breton, 
resolved upon a complete migration, leaving only a 
few friars eager for martyrdom to guard the cradle 
of the Order. The very year in which this took 
place (1245), Simon Stock was elected Qeneral in 
the first Chapter of the West held at Aylesford in 

Simon owed his election to the successful struggle 
he had maintained for the recognition of the Order, 
which certain prelates, alleging the recent decrees 
of the Council of Lateran, rejected as newly intro- 
duced into Europe. Our Lady had then taken the 
cause of the Friars into her own hands, and had 
obtained from Honorius III. the decree of confir- 
mation, which originated to-day's feast. This was 
neither the first nor the last favour bestowed by the 
sweet Virgin upon the family that had lived so long 
under the shadow, as it were, of her mysterious cloud, 
and shrouded like her in humility, with no other 
bond, no other pretension than the imitation of her 
hidden works and the contemplation of her glory. 
She herself had wished them to go forth from the 
midst of a faithless people ; just as, before the close 
of that same thirteenth century, she would command 
her angels to carry into a Catholic land her blessed 
house of Nazareth. Whether or not the men of 
those days, or the short-sighted historians of our own 
time, ever thought of it: the one translation called 
for the other, just as each completes and explains 
the other, and each was to be, tor our own Europe, 
the signal for wonderful favours from heaven. 

In the night between the 15th and 16th of July, 
of the year 1251, the gracious Queen of Carmel con- 

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firmed to her sons by a mysterious sign ihe right of 
citizenship she had obtained for them in their newly 
adopted countries: as mistress and mother of the 
entire Religious state she conferred upon them with 
her queenly hands, the scapular, hitherto the distinc- 
tive garb of the greatest and most ancient religious 
family of the West. On giving St. Simon Stock 
this badge, ennobled by contact with her sacred 
fingers, the Mother of God said to him : " Whosoever 
"shall die in this habit, shall not suffer eternal 
" flames." But not against hell fire alone was the 
all-powerful intercession of the Blessed Mother to be 
felt by those who should wear her scapular. In 1316, 
when every holy soul was imploring heaven to put a 
period to that long and disastrous widowhood of the 
Church, which followed on the death of Clement V., 
the Queen of Saints appeared to James d'Euse, whom 
the world was soon to hail as John XXII.; she 
foretold to him his approaching elevation to the 
Sovereign Pontificate, and at the same time recom- 
mended him to publish the privilege she had obtained 
from her Divine Son for her children of Carmel, viz., 
a speedy deliverance from Purgatory. "I, their 
"Mother, will graciously go down to them on the 
"Saturday after their death, and all whom I find 
" in Purgatory I will deliver and will bring to the 
" mountain of life eternal." These are the words of 
our Lady herself, quoted by John XXII. in the Bull 
which he published for the purpose of making known 
the privilege, and which was called the Sabbatine 
Bull on account of the day chosen by the glorious 
benefactress for the exercise of her mercy. 

We are aware of the attempts made to nullify the 
authenticity of these heavenly concessions; but our 
extremely limited time will not allow us to follow 
up these worthless struggles in all their endless 
details. The attack of the chief assailant, the too 

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famous Launoy, was condemned by the Apostolic 
See ; and after, as well as before, these contradictions, 
the Roman Pontiffs confirmed, as much as need be, 
by their supreme authority, the substance and even 
the letter of the precious promises. The reader may 
find in special works the enumeration of the many 
indulgences with which the Popes have, time after 
time, enriched the Carmelite family, as if earth 
would vie with heaven in favouring it. The munifi- 
cence of Mary, the pious gratitude of her sons for the 
hospitality given them by the West, and lastly, the 
authority of St. Peter's successors, soon made these 
spiritual riches accessible to all Christians, by the 
institution of the Confraternity of the holy Scapular, 
the members whereof participate in the merits and 
privileges of the whole Carmelite Order. Who shall 
tell the graces, often miraculous, obtained through 
this humble garb? Who could count the faithful 
now enrolled in the holy militia? When Benedict 
XIII., in the eighteenth century, extended the feast 
of the 16th July to the whole Church, he did but 
give an official sanction to the universality already 
gained by the cultus of the Queen of Carmel. 

The holy Liturgy gives the following account of 
the history and object of the feast : 

Cum sacra Pentecostes When on the holy day of 

die Apostoli, ccelitus afflati, Pentecost the Apostles, 

variis Unguis loquerentur, through heavenly inspiration, 

et invocato augustissimo spoke divers tongues and 

Jesu nomine, mira multa worked many miracles by the 

patrarent : viri plurimi (ut invocation of the most holy 

tertur), qui vestigiis sancto- name of Jesus, it is said that 

rum Prophetarum Elise ac many men who were walking 

Elisei institerant, et Johan- in the footsteps of the holy 

•nis Baptistaa praeconio ad prophets Elias and Eliseus, 

Chri8ti adven turn com parati and had been prepared for 

fuerant, renim veritate per- the coming of Christ by the 

specta atque probata, Evan- preaching of John the Baptist, 

gelicam fidem confestim taw and acknowledged the 

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truth, and at once embraced amplexati sunt, ac peculiari 

the faith of the Gospel. These quodam affectu beatissimam 

new Christians were so happy Virginem (cujus colloquiis 

aa to be able to enjoy familiar ac familiaritate f eliciter frui 

intercourse with the Blessed potuere) adeo venerari cce- 

Yirgin, and venerated her perunt, ut primi omnium in 

with so special an affection, eo montis Carmeli loco, ubi 

that they, before all others, Elias olim ascendentem ne- 

built a chapel to the purest of bulam, Virginis typo insig- 

Virgins on that very spot of nem, conspexerat, eidem 

Mount Carmel where Elias purissimae Virgini sacellum 

of old had seen the cloud, a construxerint. 
remarkable type of the Virgin 

Many times each day they Ad novum ergo sacellum 

came together to the new ora- saspe quotidie convenientes, 

tory, and with pious cere- ritibus piis, precationibus 

monies, prayers, and praises ac laudibus beatissimam 

honoured the most Blesse 1 Virginem, velut singularem 

Virgin as the special pro tec- Ordinis tutelam colebant. 

tress of their Order. For this Quamobrem Fratres beats 

reason, people from all parts Marise de Monte Carmelo 

ren of the Blessed Mary of lari coaperunt, eumque titu- 
Mount Carmel; andtheSove- lum Summi Pontifices non 
reign Pontiffs not only con- modo confirmarunt, sed et 
firmed this title, but also indulgentias peculiares iis, 
granted special indulgences qui eo titulo vel Ordinem, 
to whoever called either the vel Fratres singulos nuncu- 
whole Order or individual parent, concessere. Nec 
Brothers by that name. But vero nomenclaturam tan- 
the most noble Virgin not turn magnificentissima 
only gave them her name and Virgo tribuit et tutelam ; 
protection, she also bestowed verum et insigne sacri Sea- 
upon Blessed Simon the pularis, quod beato Simoni 
Englishman the holy Scapu- Anglico praebuit, ut coelesti 
lar as a token, wishing the hac veste Ordo ille sacer 
holy Order to be distinguished dignosceretur, et a malis 
by that heavenly garment and ingruentibus protegeretur. 
to be protected by it from the Ac demum cum olim in 
evils that were assailing it. Europa Ordo esset ignotus, 
Moreover, as formerly the et ob id apud Honorium 
Order was unknown inEurope, Tertium non pauci pro iliius 
and on this account many were exstinctione instarent, ad- 
importuning Honorius 111. for stitit Honorio noctu piissi- 
its abolition, the loving Virgin ma Virgo Maria, planeque 

ab omnibus appel- 

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iussit, ut institutum et 
homines benigne complec- 

Non in hoc tantum saeculo 
Ordinem sibi tarn acceptum 
multis prserogativis beatis- 
sima Virgo insignivit; ve- 
rum et in alio (cum ubique 
et potentia et misericordia 
plurimum valeat) filios in 
Scapularis societatem rela- 
tos, qui abstinentiam modi- 
cam, precesque paucas eis 
praescriptas frequentarunt, 
ac pro sai status ratione 
castitatem coluerunt, mater- 
no plane affectu, dum igne 
purgatorii expiantur, solari, 
ac in ccelestem patriam ob- 
tentu suo quantocius pie 
creditur efferre. Tot ergo 
tantisque beneficiis Ordo 
cumulatus, solemnem beatis- 
simae Virginis Commemora- 
tionem ritu perpetuo ad 
ejusdem Virginis gloriam 
quotannis celebrandam in- 

Mary appeared by night to 
Honorius and clearly bade him 
receive both the Order and its 
members with kindness. 

The Blessed Virgin has en- 
riched the Order so dear to 
her with many privileges, not 
only in this world, but also in 
the next (for everywhere she 
is most powerful and merciful). 
For it is piously believed that 
those of her children, who, 
having been enrolled in the 
Confraternity of the Scapular, 
have fulfilled the small absti- 
nence and said the few prayers 
prescribed, and have opserved 
chastity as far as their state 
of life demands, will be con- 
soled by our Lady while they 
are being purified in the fire 
of Purgatory, and will through 
her intercession be taken 
thence as soon as possible to 
the heavenly country. The 
Order, thus laden with so 
many graces, has ordained 
that this solemn commemora- 
tion of the Blessed Virgin 
should be yearly observed for 
ever, to her greater glory. 

Queen of Carmel, hear the voice of the Church 
as she sings to thee on this day. When the world 
was languishing in ceaseless expectation, thou wert 
already its hope. Unable as yet to understand thy 
greatness, it nevertheless, during the reign of types, 
loved to clothe thee with the noblest symbols. In 
admiration, and in gratitude for benefits foreseen, it 
surrounded thee with all the notions of beauty, 
strength, and grace suggested by the loveliest land- 
scapes, the flowery plains, the wooded heights, the 
fertile valleys, especially of Carmel, whose very 

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name signifies " the plantation of the Lord." On 
its summit our fathers, knowing that Wisdom had 
set her throne in the cloud, hastened by their 
burning desires the coming of the saving sign 5 there 
at length was given to their prayers, what the 
Scripture calls perfect knowledge, and the know- 
ledge of the great paths of the clouds. 1 And when 
he who maketh his chariot and his dwelling in the 
obscurity of a cloud had therein shown himself, in a 
nearer approach, to the practised eye of the father 
of prophets, then did a chosen band of holy persons 
gather in the solitudes of the blessed mountain, as 
heretofore Israel in the desert, to watch the least 
movements of the mysterious cloud, to receive from 
it their guidance in the paths of life, and their light 
in the long night of expectation. 

O Mary, who from that hour didst preside over 
the watches of God's army, without ever failing for 
a single day: now that the Lord has truly come 
down through thee, it is no longer the land of Judaea 
alone, but the whole earth that thou coverest as a 
cloud, shedding down blessings and abundance. 
Thine ancient clients, the sons of the prophets, 
experienced this truth when, the land of promise 
becoming unfaithful, they were forced to transplant 
into other climes their customs and traditions; they 
found that even into our far West, the cloud of 
Carmel had poured its fertilizing dew, and that 
nowhere would its protection be wanting to them. 
This feast, O Mother of our God, is the authentic 
attestation of their gratitude, increased by the fresh 
benefits wherewith thy bounty accompanied the new 
exodus of the remnant of Israel. And we, the sons 
of ancient Europe, we too have a right to echo the 
expression of their loving joy ; for since their tents 

1 Job xxxvii. 16. 

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have been pitched around the hills where the new 
Sion is built upon Peter, the cloud has shed all 
around showers of blessing more precious than ever, 
driving back into the abyss the flames of hell, and 
extinguishing the fire of purgatory. 

Whilst, then, we join with them in thanksgiving to 
thee, deign thyself, O Mother of divine grace, to pay 
our debt of gratitude to them. Protect them ever. 
Guard them in these unhappy times, when the hypo- 
crisy of modern persecutors has more fatal results 
than the rage of the Saracens. Preserve the life in 
the deep roots of the old stock, and rejoice it by the 
accession of new branches, bearing, like the old ones, 
flowers and fruits that shall be pleasing to thee, O 
Mary. Keep up in the hearts of the sons, that 
spirit of retirement and contemplation which ani- 
mated their fathers under the shadow of the cloud ; 
may their sisters too, wheresoever the Holy Spirit 
has established them, be ever faithful to the tradi- 
tions of the glorious past ; so that their holy lives 
may avert the tempest and draw down blessings from 
the mysterious cloud. May the perfume of penance 
that breathes from the holy mountain purify the 
now corrupted atmosphere around ; and may Carmel 
ever present to the Spouse the type of the beauties 
he loves to behold in his Bride ! 

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July 17. 


Although we are not commanded to follow the 
Saints to the extremities where their heroic virtue 
leads them, nevertheless, from their inaccessible 
heights, they still guide us along the easier paths of 
the plain. As the eagle upon the orb of day, they 
fixed their unflinching gaze upon the Sun of Justice; 
and, irresistibly attracted by his divine splendour, 
they poised their flight far above the cloudy region 
where we are glad to screen our feeble eyes. But 
however varied be the degrees of brightness for them 
and for us, the light itself is unchangeable, provided 
that, like them, we draw it from the authentic 
source. When the weakness of our sight would 
lead us to mistake false glimmerings for the truth, 
let us think of these friends of God ; if we have not 
courage enough to imitate them, where the com- 
mandments leave us free to do so or not, let us at 
least conform our judgments and appreciations to 
theirs: their view is more trustworthy, because 
farther reaching ; their sanctity is nothing but the 
rectitude wherewith they follow up unflinchingly, 
even to its central focus, the heavenly ray, whereof 
we can scarcely bear a tempered reflection. Above 
all, let us not be led so far astray by the will-o'-the- 
wisps of this world of darkness, as to wish to direct, 

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by their false light, the actions of the saints : can 
the owl judge better of the light than the eagle? 

Descending from the pure firmament of the holy 
Liturgy even to the humblest conditions of Christian 
life, the light which led Alexius to the highest point 
of detachment, is thus subdued by the Apostle to 
the capacity of all : " If any man take a wife, he hath 
"not einned, nor the virgin whom he marrieth; 
"nevertheless, such shall have tribulation of the 
"flesh, which I would fain spare you. This, 
" therefore, I say, brethren : the time is short ; it 
" remaineth, therefore, that they also who have 
" wives, be as if they had none ; and they that weep, 
"as though they wept not; and they that rejoice, 
"as if they rejoiced not; and they that buy, as 
" though they possessed not ; and they that use this 
"world, as if they used it not: for the fashion of 
"this world passeth away." 1 

Yet it passes not too quickly for our Lord to show 
that His words never pass away. Five centuries 
after the glorious death of Alexius, the eternal God, 
to whom distance and time are as nothing, gave him 
a hundredfold the posterity he had renounced for 
the love of Him. The monastery on the Aventine, 
which still bears his name together with that of the 
martyr Boniface, had become the common patrimony 
of East and West in the eternal City ; tbe two great 
monastic families of Basil and Benedict united under 
the roof of Alexius, and the seed taken from his tomb 
by the monk-bishop St. Adalbert brought forth the 
fruit of faith among the noithern nations. The 
Church gives us the following very short notice of 
our hero : 

Alexius Romanorum no- Alexius was the son of one 
bilissimu8, propter eximium of Rome's noblest families. 
Jesu Christi amorem prima Through his exceeding love 

J Cf. 1 Cor. vii. 28-31. 

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for Jesus Christ, he, by a spe- 
cial inspiration from God, left 
his wife still a virgin on the 
first night of his marriage, and 
undertook a pilgrimage to the 
most illustrious Churches all 
over the world. For seventeen 
years he remained unknown, 
while performing these pilgri- 
mages, and then his name was 
revealed at Edessa,' a town of 
Syria, by an image of the most 
holy Virgin Mary. He there- 
fore left Syria by sea and sailed 
to the port of Kome, where he 
was received as a guest by his 
own father who took him for 
a poor stranger. He lived in 
his father's house, unknown 
to all, for seventeen years, and 
then passed to heaven, leaving 
awritten paper which revealed 
his name, his family, and the 
story of his whole life. His 
death occurred in the Pontifi- 
cate of Innocent I. 

nocte nuptiarum peculiari 
Dei monitu relinquens in- 
tactam sponsam, illustrium 
orbis terrae ecclesiarum pe- 
regrinationemsuscepit. Qui- 
bus in itineribus cum igno- 
tus septemdecim annos f uis- 
set, aliquando apud Edes- 
sam, Syriae urbem, per ima- 
ginem sanctissimae Maria? 
Virginia, ejus nomine divul- 
gate, inde navi discessic. 
Ad portum Komanum ap- 
pulsus, a patre suo tamquam 
alienus pauper hospitio ac- 
cipitur: apud quern omni- 
bus incognitus, cum decern 
et septem annos vixisset, 
relicto scripto sui nominis, 
sanguinis, ac totius vitae 
cursu, migravit in coelum, 
Innocentio Primo Summo 

Man of God! such is the name given thee, O 
Alexius, by heaven; the name whereby thou art 
known in the East ; and which Rome sanctions by 
her choice of the Epistle to be read in this day's 
Mass. 1 The Apostle there applies this beautiful 
title to his disciple Timothy, while recommending to 
him the very virtues thou didst practise in so 
eminent a degree. This sublime designation, which 
shows us the dignity of heaven within the reach of 
men, thou didst prefer to the proudest titles earth 
could bestow. These latter were indeed offered 
thee, together with all the honours permitted by 
God to those who are satisfied with merely not 

1 1 Tim. vi. 11. 

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offending him ; but thy great soul despised the 
transitory gifts of the world. In the midst of the 
splendours of thy marriage-feast, thou didst hear a 
music which charms the soul from eartb ; that music 
which, two centuries before, the noble Cecilia, too, 
had heard in another palace of the queen city. The 
hidden God, who left the joys of the heavenly 
Jerusalem and on earth had not where to lay his 
head, discovered himself to thy pure heart; and 
being filled with his love, thou hadst also the mind 
which was in Christ Jems. 1 With the freedom, 
which yet remained to thee, of choosing between the 
perfect life, and the consummation of an earthly 
union, thou didst resolve to be a pilgrim and a 
stranger on the earth, 2 that thou mightest merit to 
possess eternal Wisdom in thy heavenly fatherland. 
O wonderful paths ! 0 unsearchable ways whereby 
that Wisdom of the Father guides all those who are 
won by love. The Queen of heaven, as if applauding 
this spectacle worthy of Angels, revealed to the East 
the illustrious name thou wouldst fain conceal under 
the garb of holy poverty. A second flight brought 
thee back, after seventeen years' absence, to the land 
of thy birth, and even there thou wert able, by thy 
valiant faith, to dwell as in a strange land. Under 
that staircase of thy home, now held in loving 
veneration, thou wert exposed to the insults of thy 
own slaves, being but an unknown beggar in the 
eyes of thy father and mother, an<j of the bride who 
still mourned for thee. There didst thou spend, 
without ever betraying thyself, another seventeen 
years, awaiting thy happy passage to thy true home 
in heaven. God himself made it an honour to be 
called thy God, when at the moment of thy precious 
death a mighty voice resounded through Rome, 

1 Philip, ii. 5. 8 Hcb. xi. 13. 

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bidding all seek the " man of God." Remember, O 
Alexius, what the voice added concerning that man 
of God: "He shall pray for Rome, and shall be 
"heard." Pray, then, for the illustrious city of thy 
birth, which owed to thee its safety under the 
assault of the barbarians, and which now surrounds 
thee with far greater honours than it would have 
done, hadst thou but upheld within its walls the 
traditions of thy noble ancestors. Hell boasts of 
having snatched that city from the successors of 
Peter and of Innocent : pray, and may heaven hear 
thee once more, against the modern successors of 
Alaric. Guided by the light of thy sublime actions, 
may the Christian people rise more and more above 
the earth ; lead us all safely by the narrow way to 
the home of our heavenly Father ! 

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July 18. 



The Holy Spirit, who desires to raise our souls 
above this earth, does not therefore despise our 
bodies. The whole man is his creature and his 
temple, and it is the whole man he must lead to 
eternal happiness. The Body of the Man-God was 
his masterpiece in material creation ; the Divine 
delight he takes in that perfect Body he extends in 
a measure to ours ; for that same Body, framed by 
him in the womb of the most pure Virgin, was from 
the very beginning the model on which ours are 
formed. In the re-creation which followed the Fall, 
the Body of the Man-God was the means of the 
world's redemption ; and the economy of our salva- 
tion requires that the virtue of his saving Blood 
should not reach the soul except through the body, 
the Divine Sacraments being all applied to the soul 
through the medium of the senses. Admirable is 
the harmony of nature and grace; the latter so 
honours the material: part of our being, that she will 
not draw the soul without it to the light and to 
heaven. For in the unfathomable mystery of sancti- 
fication, the senses do not merely serve as a passage ; 
they themselves experience the power of the Sacra- 
ments, like the higher faculties of which they are 
the channels; and the sanctified soul finds the 

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humble companion of her pilgrimage already asso- 
ciated with her in the dignity of Divine adoption, 
which will cause the glorification of our bodies after 
the resurrection. Hence the care given to the very 
body of our neighbour is raised to the nobleness of 
holy charity; for being inspired by this charity, 
such acts partake of the love wherewith our heavenly 
Father surrounds even the members of his beloved 
children. / was sick, and ye visited me, 1 our Lord 
will say on the last day, showing that even the 
infirmities of our fallen state in this land of exile, 
the bodies of those whom he deigns to call his 
brethren, share in the dignity belonging by right to 
the eternal, only-begotten Son of the Father. The 
Holy Spirit, too, whose office it is to recall to the 
Church all the words of our Saviour, has certainly 
not forgotten this one; the seed, falling into the 
good earth of chosen souls, has produced a hundred- 
fold the fruits of grace and heroic self-devotion. 
Camillu8 of Lellis received it lovingly, and the 
mustard-seed became a great tree offering its shade 
to the birds of the air. The Order of Regular 
Clerks, Ministering to the sick, or of happy death, 
deserves the gratitude of mankind ; as a sign of 
heaven's approbation, Angels have more than once 
been seen assisting its members at the bedside of the 

The Liturgical account of St. Camillas' life is so 
full that we need add nothing to it. 

Camillas was born at Bac- Camillus Bucclanici The- 

chianico, a town of the diocese atinae dicecesis oppido ex 

of Chieti. He was descended nobUi Lelliorum familia na- 

from the noble family of the tus est matre sexagenaria, 

Lellis, and his mother was cui gravidas visum est per 

sixty years old at the time of quietein, puerulum Crucis 

his birth. While she was signo in pectore munitum, 

1 St. Matth. ixv. 36. 

PENT. IV. - K 

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et agmini puerorum idem 
signum gestantium praeeun- 
tem, so peperisse. Ado- 
lescens rem militarem secu- 
tu.«, saeculi vitiis aliquamdiu 
indulsit, donee vigesimum 
quintum agens aetatis an- 
num, tanto supernae gratiae 
lumine, divinaeque offensae 
dolore correptus fuit, ut 
uberrimo lacrymarum imbre 
illico perfusus, anteactae vi- 
tae sordes indesinenter ab- 
stergere, novumque induere 
hominem firmiter decreve- 
rit. (juare ipso, quo id con- 
tigit, Purificationis beatis- 
simae Virginia festo die, ad 
Fratres Minores, quos Ca- 
puccinos vocant, convolans, 
ut eorum numero adscribe- 
retur, summis precibus exo- 
ravit. Voti compos semel 
atque iterum factus est ; sed 
fcedo ulcere, quo aliquando 
laboraverat, in ejus tibia 
iterato recrudescente, divi- 
nae Providentiae majora de 
eo disponentis consilio hu- 
militer se subjecit, suique 
victor, illius Religionis bis 
«xpetitum, et susceptum ha- 
bitum bis dimisit. 

Romam profectus, in no- 
socomium, quod Insanabi- 
lium dicitur, receptus est: 
cujus etiam administratio- 
nem, ob perspectas ejus vir- 


with child with him, she 
dreamt that she gave birth to 
a little boy, who was signed 
on the breast with the cross, 
and was the leader of a band 
of children, wearing the same 
sign. As a young man he 
followed the career of arms, 
and gave himself up for a time 
to worldly vices, but in his 
twenty-sixth year he was so 
enlightened by heavenly grace, 
and seized with so great a 
sorrow for having offended 
God, that on the spot, shed- 
ding a flood of tears, he firmly 
resolved unceasingly to wash 
away the stains of his past 
life, and to put on the new 
man. Therefore on the very 
day of his conversion, which 
happened to be the feast of 
the Purification of the Blessed 
Virgin, he hastened to the 
Friars Minors, who are called 
Capuchins, and begged most 
earnestly to be admitted into 
their number. His request 
was granted on this and on a 
subsequent occasion, but each 
time a horrible ulcer, from 
which he had suffered before, 
broke out again upon his leg ; 
wherefore he humbly sub- 
mitted himself to the designs 
of Divine Providence, which 
was preparing him for greater 
things, and conquering him- 
self he twice laid aside the 
Franciscan habit, which he 
had twice asked for and ob- 

He set out for Rome and 
was received into the hospital 
called " Of Incurables.'' His 
virtues became so well known 
that the management of the 

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institution was intrusted to 
him and he discharged it with 
the greatest integrity and a 
truly paternal solicitude. He 
esteemed himself the servant 
of all the sick, and was ac- 
customed to make their beds, 
to wash them, to heal their 
sores, and to aid them in their 
last agony with his prayers 
and pious exhortations. In 
discharging these offices he 
gave striking proofs of his 
wonderful patience, uncon- 
quered fortitude, and heroic 
charity. But when he per- 
ceived how great an advantage 
the knowledge of letters would 
be to him in assisting those in 
danger of death, to whose 
service he had devoted his 
life, he was not ashamed at 
the age of thirty-two to return 
again to school and to learn 
the first elements of grammar 
among children. Being after- 
wards promoted in due order 
to the Priesthood, he was 
joined by several companions, 
and in spite of the opposition 
attempted by the enemy of 
the human race, laid the foun- 
dations of the Congregation 
of Begular Clerks, Servants of 
the sick. In this work Camil- 
lus was wonderfully strength- 
ened by a heavenly voice 
coming from an image of 
Christ crucified, which, by an 
admirable miracle loosing the 
hands from the wood, stretched 
them out towards him. He 
obtained the approbation of 
his Order from the Apostolic 
See. Its members bind them- 
selves by a fourth and very 
arduous vow, namely, to min- 


tutes sibi demandatam, sum- 
ma integritate ac sollicitu- 
dine vere paterna peregit. 
Omnium segrorum servum 
se reputans, eorum sternere 
lectulos, sordes tergere, ul- 
ceribus mederi, agonique 
extremo piis precibus et co- 
hortationibus opem ferre 
solemne habuit; quibus in 
muneribus prseclara praebuit 
admirabilis patientiae, in- 
victae fortitudinis, et heroi- 
cae charitatis exempla. Ve- 
rum cum animarum in ex- 
tremis periclitantium, quod 
unice intendebat, levamini 
subsidium litterarum pluri- 
mum conferre intelligeret, 
triginta duos annos natus, 
in primis grammaticae de- 
mentis tirocinium inter pu- 
eros iterum subire non eru- 
buit Sacerdotio postea 
rite initiatus, nonnullis sibi 
adjunctis sociis, prima jecit 
Congregationis Clericorum 
Begularium infirmis Minis- 
trantium f undamenta, irrito | 
conatu obnitente humani 
generis hoste ; nam Camil- 
las coelesti voce e Christi 
crucifixi, manus etiam de 
ligno avulsas admirando pro- 
digio protendentis, simula- 
cro emissa mirabiliter con- 
firmatus, Ordinem suum a 
Sede Apostolica approbari 
obtinuit; sodalibus quarto 
obstrictis maxime arduo vo- 
to, infirmis, quos etiam pes- 
tis infecerit, ministrandi. 
Quod institutum, quam 
foret Deo acceptum, et ani- 
marum saluti proficuum, 
sanctus Philippus Nerius, 
qui Camillo a sacris confes- 

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sionibus erat, coniprobavit, 
dam ejus alumnis deceden- 
tiura agoni opem ferentibus 
Angelos suggerentes verba 
ssepius se vidisse testatus 

Arctioribus hisce yincu- 
lis segrotantium ministerio 
mancipatus, mirum est qua 
alacritate, nullis fractus la- 
boribus, nullis deterritus vi- 
tse periculis, diu noctuque 
ad supremum usque spiri- 
tum, eorum com mod is vi- 
gilaverit. Omnibus omnia 
factus, vilissima qua3que of- 
ficia demississimo obsequio, 
flexisque plerumque geni- 
bus, veluti Christum ipsum 
cerneret in infirmis, nilari 
promptoque animo arripie- 
bat ; utque omnium indi- 
gentiis prassto esset, gener- 
alem Ordinis praefecturam, 
coelique delicias, quibus in 
contemplatione defixus af- 
fluebat, sponte dimisit. Pa- 
ternus vero illius erga mi- 
seros amor turn maxime ef- 
fulsit, dum et Urbs conta- 
gioso morbo primum, dein- 
de extrema annonae labora- 
ret inopia, et NolaB in Cam- 
pania dira pestis grassare- 
tur. Tantadenique in Deum 
et proximum charitate exar- 
sit, ut Angelus nuncupari, 
et Angelorum opem in vario 
itinerum discrimine experi- 
ri promereretur. Prophe- 
tise dono, et gratia sanita- 


ister to the sick, even those 
infected with the plague. St. 
Philip Neri, who was his Con- 
fessor, attested how pleasing 
this institution was to God, 
and how greatly it attributed 
towards the salvation of souls ; 
for he declared that he often 
saw Angels suggesting words 
to disciples of Camillus, when 
they were assisting those in 
their agony. 

When he had thus bound 
himself more strictly than be- 
fore to the service of the sick, 
he devoted himself with mar- 
vellous ardour to watching 
over their interests, by night 
and by day, till his last breath. 
No labour could tire him, no 

Eeril of his life could affright 
im. He became all to all, 
and claimed for himself the 
lowest offices, which he dis- 
charged promptly and joy- 
fully, in the humblest man- 
ner, often on bended knees, 
as though he saw Christ him- 
self present in the sick. In 
order to be more at the com- 
mand of all in need, he of his 
own accord laid aside the gen- 
eral government of the Order, 
and deprived himself of the 
heavenly delights, with which 
he was inundated during con- 
templation. His fatherly love 
for the unfortunate shone out 
with greatest brilliancy when 
Eome was suffering first from 
a contagious distemper, and 
then from a great scarcity of 
rovisions ; and also when a 
readful plague was ravaging 
Nola in Campania. In a word, 
he was consumed with so 
great a love of God and his 

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neighbour that he was called 
an Angel, and merited to be 
helped by the Angels in dif- 
ferent dangers which threat- 
ened him on his journeys. He 
was endowed with the gift of 
prophecy and the grace of 
healing, and he could read 
the secrets of hearts. By his 
prayers he at one time mul- 
tiplied food, and at another 
changed water into wine. At 
length, worn out by watching, 
fasting, and ceaseless labour, 
he seemed to be nothing but 
skin and bone. He endured 
courageously five long and 
troublesome sicknesses, which 
he used to call the " Mercies 
44 of the Lord ; M and, strength- 
ened by the Sacraments, with 
the sweet names of Jesus and 
Mary on his lips, he fell asleep 
in our Lord, while these words 
were being said : "May Christ 
44 Jesus appear to thee with a 
44 sweet and gracious counte- 
" nance." He died at Rome, 
at the hour he had foretold, 
on the day before the Ides of 
July, in the year of salvation 
1614, the sixty-fifth of his 
age. He was made illustrious 
by many miracles, and Bene- 
dict XIV. solemnly enrolled 
him upon the calendar of the 
Saints. Leo XIII., at the 
desire of the Bishops of the 
Catholic world, and with the 
advice of the Congregation of 
Kites, declared him the hea- 
venly Patron of all nurses and 
of the sick in all places, and 
ordered his name to be in- 
voked in the Litanies for the 

turn praeditus, arcana quo- 
que cordium inspexit; ej us- 
que precibus nunc cibaria 
multiplicata sunt, nunc a- 
qua in vinum conversa. Tan* 
dem vigiliis, jejuniis, et as- 
siduis attritus laboribus, 
cum pelle tan turn et ossibus 
constare videretur, quyique 
molestis seque ac diutinis 
morbis, quos misericordias 
Domini appellabat, fortiter 
toleratis, Sacramentis mu- 
nitus, Komae inter suavissi- 
ma Jesu et Marise nomina, 
ad ea verba: Mitis atque 
festivus Christi Jesu tibi ad- 
spectus appareat : qua prse- 
dixerat hora, obdorraivit in 
Domino, pridie Idus Julii, 
anno salutis millesimo sex- 
centesimo decimo quarto, 
setatis suae sexagesimo quin- 
to : quern pluribus illustrem 
miraculis Benedictus Deci- 
musquartus solemni ritu 
Sanctorum fastis adscript 
sit ; et Leo decimus tertius, 
ex sacrorum Catholici orbis 
Antistitum voto, ac Bituum 
Congregationis Consulto 
coelestem omnium hospita- 
lium et infirmorum ubique 
degentium Patronum decla- 
ravit, ipsiusque nomen in 
agonizantium Litaniis in- 
vocari praecepit. 

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Angel of charity, by what wonderful paths did the 
Divine Spirit lead thee! The vision of thy pious 
mother remained long unrealized ; before taking on 
thee the holy Cross and enlisting comrades under 
that sacred sign, thou didst serve the odious tyrant, 
who will have none but slaves under his standard, 
and the passion of gambling was well nigh thy ruin. 

0 (5amillu8, remembering the danger thou didst 
incur, have pity on the unhappy slaves of passion ; 
free them from the madness wherewith they risk, 
to the caprice of chance, their goods, their honour, 
and their peace in this world and in the next. Thy 
history proves the power of grace to break the 
strongest ties and alter the most inveterate habits : 
may these men, like thee, turn their bent towards 
God, and change their rashness into love of the 
dangers to which holy charity may expose them! 
For charity, too, has its risks, even the peril of life, 
as the Lord of charity laid down his life for us : a 
heavenly game of chance, which thou didst play so 
well that the very Angels applauded thee. But 
what is the hazarding of earthly life compared with 
the prize reserved for the winner ? 

According to the commandment of the Gospel read 
by the Church in thy honour, may we all, like thee, 
love our brethren as Christ has loved us ! Few, says 
St. Augustine, love one another to this end, that 
God may be all in all. 1 Thou, O Camillus, having 
this love, didst exercise it by preference towards those 
suffering members of Christ's mystic Body, in whom 
our Lord revealed himself more clearly to thee, and 
in whom his kingdom was nearer at hand. There- 
fore, has the Church in gratitude chosen thee, to- 
gether with John of God, to be guardian of those 
homes for the suffering which she has founded 

1 Homily on the Gospel of the day. In Johann. Tract, lxxxiii. 

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with a mother's thoughtful care. Do honour to that 
Mother's confidence. Protect the hospitals against 
the attempts of an odious and incapable seculariza- 
tion, which, in its eagerness to lose the souls, sacri- 
fices even the corporal well-being of the unhappy 
mortals committed to the care of its evil philan- 
thropy. In order to meet our increasing miseries, 
multiply thy sons, and make them worthy to be 
assisted by Angels. Wherever we may be in this 
valley of exile when the hour of our last struggle 
sounds, make use of thy precious prerogative which 
the holy Liturgy honours to-day ; help us, by the 
spirit of holy love, to vanquish the enemy and attain 
unto the heavenly crown ! 

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For the second time in July a constellation of 
.seven stars shines in the heavens. More fortunate 
than Felicitas, Symphorosa preceded in the arena 
the Seven Sons she was offering to God. From the 
throne where he was already reigning crowned with 
the martyr's diadem, Getulius, the tribune, father of 
this illustrious family, applauded the combat where- 
by his race earned a far greater nobility than that of 
patrician blood, and gave to Rome a grander glory 
than was ever dreamed of by her heroes and poets. 
The Emperor Adrian, corrupt yet brilliant, sceptical 
yet superstitious like the society around him, pre- 
sided in person at the defeat of his gods. Threaten- 
ing to burn the valiant woman in sacrifice to the 
idols, he received this courageous answer: "Thy 
"gods cannot receive me in sacrifice; but if thou 
" burn me and my sods for the name of Christ, my 
" God, I shall cause thy demons to burn with more 
"cruel flames!" The execution of the mother and 
her sons was, indeed, the signal for a period of peace, 
during which the Kingdom of our Lord was con- 
siderably extended. Jerusalem, having under the 
leadership of a last false Messias revolted against 
Rome, was punished by being deprived of her very 


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name ; but the Church received the glory which th^ 
Synagogue once possessed, when she produced the 
mother of the Machabees. 

Another glory was reserved for this 18th day of 
July, in the year 1870: the (Ecumenical Council of 
the Vatican, presided over by the immortal Pius IX., 
defined in its Constitution, Pastor JUterrius, the full, 
supreme, and immediate power of the Roman Pontiff 
over all the Churches, and pronounced anathema 
against all who should refuse to recognise the per- 
sonal infallibility of the same Roman Pontiff, speak- 
ing ex cathedra, i.e. t defining, as universal Pastor, 
any doctrine concerning faith or morals. We may 
also remark that during these same days, viz., on 
Sunday in the middle of July, the Greeks make a 
commemoration of the first six general councils, 
Nicea, Constantinople, Ephesus, Chalcedon, and 
second and third of Constantinople. Thus, during 
these midsummer days, we are in the midst of feasts 
of heavenly light ; and let us not forget that it is 
martyrdom, the supreme act of faith, that merits 
and produces light. Doubtless, Divine Wisdom, who 
plays in the world with number, weight, and mea- 
sure, planned the beautiful coincidence which unites 
together these two days, the 18th July, 136, and 
that of the year of 1870. If in these latter days the 
word of God has been set free, it is owing to the 
blood shed by our fathers in its defence. The 
Liturgy gives but a very short account of the im- 
mortal combat which glorifies this day. 


Symphorosa, a native of Symphorosa Tiburtina, 
Tivoli, was the wife of the Getulii martyris uxor, ex eo 
martyr Getulius. She bore septem filios peperit, Cre- 
him seven sons, Crescentius, scentium, Julianum, Neme- 
J ulian, Nemesius, Primitivus, sium, Primitivum, Justin- 
Justin, Stacteus. and Euge- um, Stacteum, et Eugeni- 
nius. Under the Emperor um : qui omnes propter 

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chrtetianae fidei profession- 
em una cum matre, Adria- 
no imperatore, comprehensi 
sunt Quorum pietas mul- 
tis variisque tentata suppli- 
ciis, cum stabilis permane- 
ret, mater, quae filiis fidei 
magistra fuerat, dux eis- 
dem ad martyrium exstitit. 
Nam saxo ad collum alliga- 
to, in profluentem dejicitur: 
cujus corpus conquisitum a 
fratre ejus Eugenio sepeli- 
tur. Postridie ejus diei, 
qui fuit decimoquinto ca- 
lendas augusti, septem fra- 
tres singuli ad palum alli- 
gati, varie sunt interfecti. 
Crescentio guttur ferro 
transfigitur: Juliano pec- 
tus confoditur : Nemesio 
cor transverberatur : Pri- 
mitivo trajicitur umbilicus : 
Justinus membratim seca- 
tur: Stacteus telis configi- 
tur : Eugenius a pectore in 
duas partes dividitur. Ita 
octo hostise Deo gratissimae 
sunt immolatae. Corpora 
in altissimam foveam pro- 
ject a sunt via Tiburtina, 
nono ab Urbe lapide : quae 
postea Romam translata, 
condita sunt in Ecclesia 
sancti Angeli in Piscina. 

Adrian, they were all arrested, 
together with her, on account 
of their profession of the 
Christian faith. Their piety 
was tried by many different 
tortures, and, on their re- 
maining constant, the mother, 
who had taught her sons, led 
the way to martyrdom. She 
was thrown into the river, 
with a huge stone tied round 
her neck. Her brother Eu- 
genius searched for her body 
and gave it burial. The next 
day, which was the 15 th of 
the Calends of August, the 
Seven Brothers were tied to 
stakes and put to death in 
different ways. Crescentius 
had his throat transfixed ; 
Julian was wounded in the 
breast ; Nemesius was pierced 
in the heart, and Primitivus 
in the stomach; Justin was 
cut to pieces, limb by limb ; 
Stacteus was pierced with 
darts, and Eugenius was cut 
in two from the breast. Thus 
eight victims most pleasing 
to God were immolated. Their 
bodies were thrown into a 
deep pit on the Tiburtian 
Way, nine miles from Rome ; 
but they were afterwards 
translated into the city and 
buried in the Church of " the 
"holy Angel in the fish- 
" market." 

O Sympborosa, thou wife, sister, and mother of 
martyrs, thy desires are amply fulfilled ; followed by 
thy seven children, thou rejoinest in the court of the 
Eternal King thy husband Getulius and his brother 
Amantius, brave combatants in the imperial army, 

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but far more valiant soldiers of Christ. The words 
of our Lord : A man's enemies shall be they of his 
own household, 1 are abrogated in heaven; nor can 
this other sentence be there applied: He that loveth 
father and mother more than me, is not worthy of 
me ; he that loveth son or daughter more than me, 
is not worthy of me. 2 There, the love of Christ our 
King predominates over all other loves ; yet, far 
from extinguishing them, it makes them ten times 
stronger by putting its own energy into them ; and, 

his father, and the daughter against her mother? it 
sets a divine seal upon the family and rivets its bonds 
for all eternity. 

What nobility, O heroes, have ye conferred upon 
the world ! Men may look up with more confidence 
towards heaven, for the Angels will not despise a 
race that can produce such valiant combatants. 
The perfume of your holocaust accompanied your 
souls to the throne of God, and an effusion of grace 
was poured down in return. From the luminous 
track left by your martyrdom, have sprung forth 
new splendours in our own days. With joyful 
gratitude we hail the providential reappearance, 
immediately after the Vatican Council, of the tomb 
which first received your sacred relics on the morrow 
of your triumph. Soldiers of Christ ! preserve in us 
the gifts ye have bestowed on us ; convince the 
many Christians who have forgotten it, that faith is 
the most precious possession of the just. 

1 St. Matth. x. 36. 2 Ibid. 37. 3 Ibid. 35. 

man at variance against 

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July 19. 


Vincent was a man of faith that ivorketh by charity. 1 
At the time he came ioto the world, viz., at the close 
of the same century in which Calvin was born, the 
Church was mourning over many nations separated 
from the faith; the Turks were harassing all the coasts 
of the Mediterranean. France, worn out by forty years 
of religious strife, was shaking off the yoke of heresy 
from within, while by a foolish stroke of policy she 
gave it external liberty. The Eastern aod Northern 
frontiers were suffering the most terrible devastations, 
and the West and centre were the scene of civil 
strife and anarchy. In this state of confusion, the 
condition of souls was still more lamentable. In the 
towns alone was there any sort of quiet, any possi- 
bility of prayer. The country people, forgotten, 
sacrificed, subject to the utmost miseries, had none 
to support and direct them but a clergy too often 
abandoned by their bishops, unworthy of the ministry, 
and well-nigh as ignorant as their flocks. • Vincent 
was raised up by the Holy Spirit to obviate all these 
evils. The world admires the works of the humble 
shepherd of Buglose, but it knows not the secret of 

1 Gal. v. 6. 

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their vitality. Philanthropy would imitate them; 
but its establishments of to-day are destroyed to- 
morrow, like castles built by children in the sand, 
while the institution it would fain supersede remains 
strong and unchanged, the only one capable of 
meeting the necessities of suffering humanity. The 
reason of this is not far to seek : faith alone can 
understand the mystery of suffering, having pene- 
trated its secret in the Passion of our Lord; and 
charity that would be stable must be founded on 
faith. Vincent loved the poor because he loved the 
God whom his faith beheld in them. "O God !" he 
used to say, " it does us good to see the poor, if we 
"look at them in the light of God, and think of the 
"high esteem in which Jesus Christ holds them. 
" Often enough they have scarcely the appearance or 
"the intelligence of reasonable beings, so rude and 
"so earthly are they. But look at them by the 
" light of faith, and you will see that they represent 
" the Son of God, who chose to be poor ; he in his 
" Passion had scarcely the appearance of a man ; he 
"seemed to the Gentiles to be a fool, and to the 
" Jews a stumbling-block, moreover he calls himself 
" the evangelist of the poor: evangelizare pauperibus 
"mi8it me. 9 ' 1 This title of evangelist of the poor, is 
the one that Vincent ambitioned for himself; the 
starting point and the explanation of all that he did 
in the Church. His one aim was to labour for the 
poor and the outcast ; all the rest, he said, was but 
secondary. And he added, speaking to his sons of St. 
Lazare: "We should never have laboured for the 
"candidates for priesthood, nor in the ecclesiastical 
"seminaries, had we not deemed it necessary in 
"order to keep the people in good condition, to 
" preserve in them the fruits of the missions, and to 

1 St. Luke iv. 18. 

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"procure them good priests." That he might be 
able to consolidate his work in all its aspects, our 
Lord inspired Ann of Austria to make him a member 
of the Council of Conscience, and to place in his hands 
the office of extirpating the abuses among the higher 
clergy and of appointing pastors to the churches of 
France. We cannot here relate the history of a man 
in whom universal charity was, as it were, personified. 
But from the bagnio of Tunis where he was a slave, 
to the ruined provinces for which he found millions 
of money, all the labours he underwent for the relief 
of every physical suffering, were inspired by his zeal 
for the apostolate : by caring for the body, he strove 
to reach and succour the soul. At a time when men 
rejected the Gospel while striving to retain its bene- 
fits, certain wise men attributed Vincent's charity to 
philosophy. Now-a-days they go further still, and 
in order logically to deny the author of the works, 
they deny the works themselves. But if any there 
be who still hold the former opinion, let them listen 
to his own words, and then judge of his principles : 
" What is done for charity's sake, is done for God. 
" It is not enough for us that we love God ourselves ; 
" our neighbour also must love him ; neither can we 
" love our neighbour as ourselves unless we procure 
" for him the good we are bound to desire for our- 
" selves, viz.: divine love, which unites us to our 
" Sovereign Good. We must love our neighbour as 
" the image of God and the object of his love, and 
" must try to make men love their Creator in return, 
"and love one another also with mutual charity for 
" the love of God, who so loved them as to deliver 
" his own Son to death for them. But let us, I beg 
"of you, look upon this Divine Saviour as a per- 
fect pattern of the charity we must bear to our 
" neighbour." 
The theophilanthropy of a century ago had no more 

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right than had an atheist or a deist philosophy to 
rank Vincent, as it did, among the great men of its 
Calendar. Not nature, nor the pretended divinities 
of false science, but the God of Christians, the God 
who became Man to save us by taking our miseries 
upon himself, was the sole inspirer of the greatest 
modern benefactor of the human race, whose favour- 
ite saying was: "Nothing pleases me except in Jesus 
"Christ." He observed the right order of charity, 
striving for the reign of his Divine Master, first in 
his own soul, then in others ; and, far from acting of 
his own accord by the dictates of reason alone, he 
would rather have remained hidden for ever in the 
face of the Lord, and have left but an unknown name 
behind him. 

" Let us honour," he wrote, " the hidden state of 
"the Son of God. There is our centre: there is 
"what he requires of us for the present, for the 
" future, for ever ; unless his Divine Majesty makes 
"known in his own unmistakable way that he de- 
"mands something else of us. Let us especially 
" honour this Divine Master's moderation in action. 
" He would not always do all that he could do, in 
"order to teach us to be satisfied when it is not expe- 
" dient to do all that we are able, but only as much as 
" is seasonable to charity and conformable to the Will 
"of God. How royally do those honour our Lord 
" who follow his holy Providence and do not try to 
" be beforehand with it ! Do you not, and rightly, 
"wish your servant to do nothing without your 
"orders? and if this is reasonable between man and 
" man, how much more so between the Creator and 
"the creature !" Vincent then was anxious, accord- 
ing to his own expression, to " keep alongside of Pro- 
" videDce," and not to outstep it. Thus he waited 
seven years before accepting the offers of the General 
de Gondi's wife, and founding his establishment of 

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the Missions. Thus, too, when his faithful coadju- 
trix, Mademoiselle Le Gras, felt called to devote 
herself to the spiritual service of the Daughters of 
Charity, then living without any bond or common 
life, as simple assistants to the ladies of quality 
whom the man of God assembled in his Confraterni- 
ties, he first tried her for a very long time. " As to 
"this occupation," he wrote, in answer to her re- 
peated petitions, "I beg of you, once for all, not to 
" think of it until our Lord makes known his Will. 
" You wish to become the servant of these poor girls, 
"and God wants you to be his servant." For God's 
"sake, Mademoiselle, let your heart imitate the tran- 
" quillity of our Lord's heart, and then it will be fit 
" to serve him. The Kingdom of God is peace in the 
" Holy Ghost ; he will reign in you if you are in 
" peace. Be so then, if you please, and do honour to 
" the God of peace and love." 

What a lesson given to the feverish zeal of an age 
like ours, by a man whose life was so full! How 
often, in what we can call good works, do human 
pretensions sterilize grace by contradicting the Holy 
Ghost ! Whereas, Vincent de Paul, who considered 
himself "a poor worm creeping on the earth, not 
"knowing where he goes, but only seeking to be 
" hidden in thee, my God, who art all his desire," — 
the humble Vincent saw his work prosper far more 
than a thousand others, and almost without his being 
aware of it. Towards the end of his long life, he said 
to his daughters: "It is Divine Providence that set 
" your Congregation on its present footing. Who else 
" was it, I ask you ? I can find no other. We never 
" had such an intention. I was thinking of it only 
"yesterday, and I said to myself: Is it you who 
"had the thought of founding a Congregation of 
" Daughters of Charity ? Oh ! certainly not. It is 
" Mademoiselle De Gras ? Not at all. O my daugh- 

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"ters, I never thought of it, your ' smur servante 9 
" never thought of it, neither did M. Portail (Vincent's 
" first and most faithful companion in the Mission). 
" Then it is God who thought of it for you ; Him 
" therefore we must call the Founder of your Con- 
" gregation, for truly we cannot recognise any other." 

Although with delicate docility, Vincent could 
no more forestall the action of God than an instru- 
ment the hand that uses it, nevertheless, once the 
Divine impulse was given, he could not endure the 
least delay in following it, nor suffer any other 
sentiment in his soul but the most absolute con- 
fidence. He wrote again, with his charming 
simplicity, to the helpmate given him by God : 
" You are always giving way a little to human feel- 
ings, thinking that everything is going to ruin as 
"soon as you see me ill. O woman of little faith, 
" why have you not more confidence, and more sub- 
" mission to the guidance and example of Jesus 
"Christ? This Saviour of the world entrusted the 
" well-being of the whole Church to God his Father ; 
" and you, for a handful of young women, evidently 
" raised up and gathered together by his Providence, 
"you fear that he will fail you! Come, come, 
"Mademoiselle, you must humble yourself before 

No wonder that faith, the only possible guide of 
such a life, the imperishable foundation of all that 
he was for his neighbour and in himself, was, in the 
eyes of Vincent de Paul, the greatest of treasures. 
He who compassionated every suffering, even though 
well deserved; who, by an heroic fraud, took the 
place of a galley-slave in chains, was a pitiless foe to 
heresy, and could not rest till he had obtained either 
the banishment or the chastisement of its votaries. 
Clement XII. in the Bull of canonization bears 
witness to this, in speaking of the pernicious error of 


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Jansenism, which our Saint was one of the first to 
denounce and prosecute. Never, perhaps, were these 
words of Holy Writ better verified : The simplicity 
of the just snail guide them : and the deceitjulmess 
of the wicked shall destroy them} Though this sect 
expressed, later on, a supreme disdain for Monsieur 
Vincent, it had not always been of that mind. " I 
"am," he said to a friend, "most particularly obliged 
" to bless and thank God, for not having suffered the 
" first and principal professors of that doctrine, men 
" of my acquaintance and friendship, to be able to 
" draw me to their opinions. I cannot tell you what 
" pains they took, and what reasons they propounded 
"to me; I objected to them, amongst other things, 
' 'the authority of the Council of Trent, which is 
" clearly opposed to them ; and seeing that they still 
"continued, I, instead of answering them, quietly 
" recited my Credo ; and that is how I have remained 
"firm in the Catholic faith." 

But it is time to give the full account which Holy 
Church reads to-day in her Liturgy. We will only 
remind our readers that in the year 1883, the fiftieth 
anniversary of the foundation of the St. Vincent de 
Paul Conferences at Paris, the Sovereign Pontiff Leo 
XIII. proclaimed our Saint the Patron of the societies 
of charity in France. 2 

Vincentius a Paulo, na- Vincent de Paul, a French- 

tione Gallus, Podii non pro- man, was born at Pouy, near 

cul ab Aquis Tarbellis in Dax, in Aquitaine, and from 

Aquitania natus, jam turn a his boyhood was remarkable 

puero eximiam in pauperes for his exceeding charity 

charitatem pro se tulit. A towards the poor. As a child 

custodia paterni gregis ad he fed his father's flock, but 

^rov. xi. 3. 

8 Since this was written, viz., in July 1894, the Holy Father 
extended this patronage to the like societies throughout the 
world, and ordered a few words to this effect to be appended to 
the Lessons. The same remark applies to St. Camillus. — (TV.) 

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afterwards pursued the study 
of humanities at Dax, and of 
divinity first at Toulouse, then 
at Saragossa. Having been 
ordained priest, he took his 
degree as Bachelor of Theo- 
logy; but falling into the 
hands of the Turks was led 
captive by them into Africa. 
While in captivity he won his 
master back to Christ, by the 
help of the Mother of God, and 
escaped together with him 
from that land of barbarians, 
and undertook a journey to the 
shrines of the Apostles. On 
his return to France he govern- 
ed in a most saintly manner 
the parishes first of Clichy and 
then of Ch&tillon. The king 
next appointed him Chaplain 
of the French galleys, and 
marvellous was his zeal in 
striving for the salvation of 
both officers and convicts. St 
Francis of Sales gave him as 
superior to his nuns of the 
Visitation, whom he ruled for 
forty years with such pru- 
dence, as to amply justify the 
opinion the holy Bishop had 
expressed of him, that Vincent 
was the most worthy priest he 

He devoted himself with 
unwearying zeal, even in ex- 
treme old age, to preaching to 
the poor, especially to country 
people ; and to this Apostolic 
work he bound both nimself 
and the members of the Con- 
gregation which he founded, 
called the Secular Priests of 
the Mission, by a special vow 
which the Holy See confirmed. 
He laboured greatly in pro- 

DE PAUL. 149 

litteras evocatus, humanas 
Aquis, divinas cum Toloase, 
turn Caesaraugustae didicit. 
Sacerdotio initiatus ac 
theologies laurea insignitus, 
in Turcas incidit, qui capti- 
vumin Africamadduxerunt. 
Sed in captivitate positus 
herum ipsum Christo rursus 
lucrifecit Cum eo igitur 
ex barbaris oris, opitulante 
Deipara, sese proripiens, ad 
apostolica limina iter insti- 
tuit Unde in Galliam re- 
versiis, Clippiaci primum, 
mox Castellionis paroecias 
sanctissime rexit. Renun- 
tiatus a rege primarius Sac- 
rorum minister in Galliae 
triremibus, mirum quo zelo 
et ducum et remigum saluti 
operam posuerit. Moniali- 
bus Visitationis a sancto 
Francisco Salesio proposi- 
tus, tanta prudentia per 
annos circiter quadraginta 
earn curam sustinuit, ut 
maxime comprobaverit j udi- 
cium sanctissimi prsesulis, 
qui sacerdotem Vincentio 
digniorem nullum se nosse 

Evangelizandis pauperi- 
bus, prsesertim ruricolis, ad 
decrepitam usque aetatem 
indefessus incubuit, eique 
apostolico operi turn se, turn 
alumnos Congregationis, 
quam sub nomine Presby- 
terorum saecularium Missio- 
nis instituit, perpetuo voto 
a sancta Sede confirmato, 
speciatim obstrinxit. Quan- 
tum autem augend* cieri 

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discipline allaboraverit, tes- 
tantur erecta majorum Cle- 
ricorum seminaria, collatio- 
num de divinis inter sacer- 
dotes frequentia, et sacra 
ordinationi praemittenda 
exercitia, ad quae, sicut et 
ad pios laicorum secessus, 
instituti sui domicilia liben- 
ter patere voluit. Insuper 
ad amplificandam fidem et 
pietatem, evangelicos misit 
operarios, non in solas Gal- 
liae provincias, sed et in 
Italiara, Poloniam, Scotiam, 
Hiberniam, atque ad Bar- 
baras, et Indos. Ipse vero, 
vita functo Ludovico deci- 
motertio, cui morienti hor- 
tator adstitit, a regina Anna 
Austriaca, matre Ludovici 
decimiquarti, in sanctius 
consilium accitus, studiosis- 
sime egit, ut non nisi dig- 
niores ecclesiis ac monas- 
teriis praeficerentur ; civiles 
discordias, singularia cer- 
tamina, serpentes errores, 
quoa simul sensit et exhor- 
ruit, amputarentur; debita- 
que judiciis Apostolicis obe- 
dientia praestaretur ab om- 

Nullum fuit calamitatis 
genus, cui paterae non oc- 
currerit. Fideles sub Tur- 
carum jugo gementes, infan- 
tes expositos, juvenes dys- 
colos, virgines periclitantes, 


moting regular discipline 
among the clergy, as is proved 
by the seminaries for clerics 
which he built, and by the 
establishment, through his 
care, of frequent Conferences 
for priests, and of exercises 
preparatory to Holy Orders. 
It was his wish that the houses 
of his institution should always 
lend themselves to these good 
works, as also to the giving 
of pious retreats for laymen. 
Moreover, with the object of 
extending the reign of faith 
and love, he sent evangelical 
labourers not only into the 
French provinces, but also 
into Italy, Poland, Scotland, 
Ireland, and even to Barbary, 
and to the Indies. On the 
demise of Louis XIII., whom 
he had assisted on his death- 
bed, he was made a member 
of the Council of conscience, 
by Queen Anne of Austria, 
mother of Louis XIV. In this 
capacity, he was most careful 
that only worthy men should 
be appointed to ecclesiastical 
and monastic benefices, and 
strove to put an end to civil 
discord and duels, and to the 
errors then creeping in, which 
had alarmed him as soon as 
he knew of their existence ; 
moreover, he endeavoured to 
enforce upon all a due obe- 
dience to the judgments of 
the Apostolic See. 

His paternal love brought 
relief to every kind of mis- 
fortune. The faithful groaning 
under the Turkish yoke, des- 
titute children, incorrigible 
young men, virgins exposed 

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to danger, nuns driven from moniales dispersas, raulieres 

their monasteries, fallen lapsas, ad triremes damna- 

women, convicts, sick stran- tos, peregrinos infirmos, 

gers, invalided workmen, even artifices invalidos, ipsosque 

madmen, and innumerable mente captos, ac innumeros 

beggars. All these he aided mendicos subsidiis et hospi- 

and received with tender tiis etiamnum superstitious 

charity into his hospitable in- excepit ac pie fovit. Lo- 

stitutions which still exist, tharingiam, Campaniam, 

When Lorraine, Campania, Picardiam, aliasque regio- 

Picardy, and other districts nes peste, fame, belloque 

were devastated by pestilence, vastatas, prolixe refecit. 

famine, and war, he supplied Plurima ad perquirendos et 

their necessities with open sublevandos miseros sodali- 

hand. He founded other as- tia fundavit, inter quae cele- 

sociations for seeking out bris matronarum ccetus, et 

and aiding the unfortunate: late diffusa sub nomine Cha- 

amongst others the celebrated ritatis puellarum societas. 

Society of Ladies, and the Puellas quoque turn de 

now widespread institution of Cruce, turn de Providentia 

the Sisters of Charity. To ac Sanctae Genovefo ad 

him also is due the foundation sequioris sexus educationem 

of the Daughters of the Cross, erigendas curavit Haec 

of Providence, and of St. inter et alia gravissima ne- 

Genevieve, who are devoted to gotia, Deo iugiter intentus, 

the education of girls. Amid cunctis affabifis, ac sibi sem- 

all these and other important per constans, simplex, rec- 

undertakings his heart was tus, humilis, ab honoribus, 

always fixed on God ; he was divitiis ac deliciis semper 

affable to every one, and al- abhorruit; auditus dicere: 

ways true to himself, simple, rem nuliam sibi placereprae- 

upright, humble. He ever terquam in Christo Jesu, 

shunned riches and honours, quern in omnibus studebat 

\nd was heard to say that imitari. Corporis demum 

nothing gave him any pleasure, afflictatione, laborious se- 

except in Christ Jesus, whom nioque attribus, die vigesi- 

he strove to imitate in all ma septima Septembris, an- 

things. Worn out at length, no salutis supra millesimum 

by mortification of the body, sexcentesimo sexagesimo, 

labours, and old age, on the aetatis suae octogesimo quin- 

27th September, in the year to, Parisiis, in domo Sancti 

his age, he peacefully fell gregationis Missionis, pla- 

adeep, at Paris, at Saint cide obdormivit. Quern vir- 

Lazare, the mother-house of tutibus, mentis ac miraculls 

the Congregation of the Mis- clarum Clemens duodecimus 

Lazari, quae caput est Con- 

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inter Sanctos retulit, ipsius 
celebritati die decima nona 
mensis J alii qaotannis as- 
signata. Hunc autem cari- 
tatis eximium heroem, de 
unoquoque hominum genere 
optime meritum, Leo tertius 
decimus, instantibus pluri- 
bus Sacrorum Antistitibus, 
omnium Societatum carita- 
tis in toto catholico orbe 
existentium, et ab eo quo- 
modocumque promanan- 
tium, peculiarem apud 
Deum Patronum declaravit 
et constituit. 

sion. His virtues, merits, and 
miracles having made his 
name celebrated, Clement XII. 
enrolled him among the Saints, 
assigning for his annual feast 
the 17th July. Leo XI1L, at 
the request of several Bishops, 
declared and appointed tnis 

treat hero of charity, who has 
eserved so well of the human 
race, the peculiar patron be- 
fore God of all the charitable 
societies existing throughout 
the Catholic world, and of all 
such as may hereafter be es- 

How full a sbeaf dost thou bear, 0 Vincent, as 
thou ascendest laden with blessings from earth to 
thy true country ! O thou, the most simple of men, 
though living in an age of splendours, thy renown 
far surpasses the brilliant reputation which fascinated 
thy contemporaries. The true glory of that century, 
and the only one that will remain to it when time 
shall be no more, is to have seen, in its earlier part, 
Saints powerful alike in faith and love, stemming 
the tide of Satan's conquests, and restoring to the 
soil of France, made barren by heresy, the fruitful- 
ness of its brightest days. And now, two centuries 
and more after thy labours, the work of the harvest 
is still being carried on by thy sons and daughters, 
aided by new assistants who also acknowledge thee 
for their inspirer and father. Thou art now in the 
kingdom of heaven where grief and tears are no 
more, yet day by day thou still receivest the grateful 
thanks of the suffering and the sorrowful. 

Reward our confidence in thee by fresh benefits. 
No name so much as thine inspires respect for the 
Church in our days of blasphemy. And yet those 
who deny Christ, now go so far as to endeavour to 

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stifle the testimony which the poor have always 
rendered to him on thy account. Wield, against 
these ministers of hell, the two-edged sword, where- 
with it is given to the Saints to avenge God in the 
midst of the nations: treat them as thou didst the 
heretics of thy day; make them either deserve 
pardon or suffer punishment, be converted or be 
reduced by heaven to the impossibility of doing 
harm. Above all, take care of the unhappy beings 
whom these satanic men deprive of spiritual help in 
their last moments. Elevate thy daughters to the 
high level required by the present sad circumstances, 
when men would have their devotedness to deny its 
Divine origin and cast off the guise of religion. If 
the enemies of the poor man can snatch from his 
deathbed the sacred sign of salvation, no rule, no 
law, no power of this world or the next, can cast out 
Jesus from the soul of the Sister of Charity, or 
prevent his name from passing from her heart to her 
lips: neither death nor hell, neither fire nor flood 
can stay him, says the Canticle of Canticles. 

Thy sons, too, are carrying on thy work of evan- 
gelization ; and even in our days their apostolate is 
crowned with the diadem of sanctity and martyrdom. 
Uphold their zeal ; develop in them thy own spirit 
of unchanging devotedness to the Church and sub- 
mission to the supreme Pastor. Forward all the 
new works of charity springing out of thy own, and 
placed by Borne to thy credit and under thy 

Bttronage. May they gather their heat from the 
ivine fire which thou didst rekindle on the earth ; 
may they ever seek first the kingdom of God and 
his justice, never deviating, in the choice of means, 
from the principle thou didst lay down for them of 
"judging, speaking, and acting, exactly as the Eternal 
" Wisdom of God, clothed in our weak flesh, judged, 
" spoke, and acted." 

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July 20. 


Sprung from the powerful aristocracy which won for 
Venice twelve centuries of splendour, Jerome came 
into the world when that city had reached the 
height of its glory. At fifteen years of age he be- 
came a soldier; and was one of the heroes in that 
formidable struggle wherein his country withstood 
the united powers of almost all Europe in the 
League of Cambrai. The golden city, crushed for a 
moment, but soon restored to her former condition, 
offered her honours to the defender of Castelnovo, 
who like herself had fallen bravely and risen again. 
But our Lady of Tarviso had delivered him from his 
German prison, only to make him her own captive ; 
she brought him back to the city of St. Mark, there 
to fulfil a higher mission than the proud Republic 
could have entrusted to him. The descendant of 
the iEmiliani, captivated, as was Lawrence Justinian 
a century before, by Eternal Beauty, would now live 
only for the humility which leads to heaven, and for 
the lofty deeds of charity. His title of nobility will 
be derived from the obscure village of Somascha, 
where he will gather his newly recruited army ; and 
his conquests will be the bringing of little children 
to God. He will no more frequent the palaces of his 
patrician friends, for he now belongs to a higher 

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rank: they serve the world, he serves heaven; his 
rivals are the Angels, whose ambition, like his own, is 
to preserve unsullied for the Father the service of 
those innocent souls whom the greatest in heaven 
mast resemble. 

"The soul of the child," as the Church tells us 
to-day by the golden mouth of St. John Ohrysostom, 
"is free from all passions. He bears no ill will 
" towards them that have done him harm, but goes 
" to them as friends just as if they had done nothing. 
" And though he be often beaten by his mother, yet 
" he always seeks her and loves her more than any 
" one else. If you show him a queen in her royal 
"crown, he prefers his mother clad in rags, and 
" would rather see her unadorned than the queen in 
" magnificent attire ; for he does not appreciate ac- 
cording to riches or poverty, but by love. He seeks 
" not for more than is necessary, and as soon as he 
" has had sufficient milk he quits the breast. He is 
"not oppressed with the same sorrows as we, nor 
" troubled with care for money and the like ; neither 
"is he rejoiced by our transitory pleasures, nor 
"affected by corporal beauty. Therefore our Lord 
" said, Of mch is the kingdom of heaven, wishing 
" us to do of our own free will what children do by 
"nature." 1 

Their Guardian Angels, as our Lord himself said, 
gazing into those pure souls, are not distracted from 
the contemplation of their heavenly Father : for he 
rests in them as on the wings of Cherubim, since 
baptism has made them his children. Happy was 
our Saint to have been chosen by God to share the 
loving cares of the Angels here below, before par- 
taking of their bliss in heaven. The following 
detailed account is given by Holy Church : 

1 Chrys. in Matth. Horn. lxii. al. lxiii. 

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Hieronymus, e gente pa- 
tricia iEmiliana Venetiis or- 
tus, a prima adolescentia 
militias addictus, dim'cilli- 
mis Beipublicaa temporibus 
Castro Novo ad Quarum in 
montibus Tarvisinia praefici- 
tur. Arce ab hostibus cap- 
ta, ipse in teterrimum car- 
cerem detniditur, manibus 
ac pedibus vinctus; cui 
omni humana ope destitute 
beatissima Virgo ejus preci- 
bus exorata, clemens adest, 
vincula solvit, et per medios 
hoste8, qui vias omnes obse- 
derant, in Tarvisii conspec- 
tum incolumem ducit. U r- 
bem ingressus, ad Deiparae 
aram, cui se voverat, mani- 
cas, compedes, catenas, quas 
secum detulerat, in accepti 
beneficii testimonium sus- 
pendit. Beversus Venetias, 
coepit pietatis studia impen- 
8ius colere, in pauperes mire 
effusus, sea puerorum prae- 
sertim misertus, qui par en - 
tibus orbati, egeni et sordi- 
di per urbem vagabantur, 
quos in aedes a se conductas 
recepit de suo alendos, et 
Chnstianis moribus imbu- 

Per eos dies Yenetias ap- 
pulerant beatus Cajetanus, 
et Petrus Caraffa postmo- 

Jerome was born at Venice, 
of the patrician family of the 
iEmiliani, and from his boy- 
hood embraced a military life. 
At a time when the Republic 
was in great difficulty, he was 
placed in command of Castel- 
novo,in the territory of Quero, 
in the mountains of Tarviso. 
The fortress was taken by 
the enemy, and Jerome was 
thrown, bound hand and 
foot, into a horrible dungeon* 
When he found himself thus 
destitute of all human aid, he 
prayed most earnestly to the 
Blessed Virgin, who merci- 
fully came to his assistance. 
She loosed his bonds, and led 
him safely through the midst 
of his enemies, who had pos- 
session of every road, till he 
was within sight of Tarviso. 
He entered the town ; and, in 
testimony of the favour he 
had received, he hung up at 
the altar of our Lady, to whose 
service he bad vowed himself, 
the manacles, shackles, and 
chains which he had brought 
with him. On his return to 
Venice he gave himself with 
the utmost zeal to exercises 
of piety. His charity towards 
the poor was wonderful ; but 
he was particularly moved to 
pity for the orphan children 
who wandered poor and dirty 
about the town ; he received 
them into houses which he 
hired, where he fed them at 
his own expense and trained 
them to lead Christian lives. 

At this time Blessed Cajetan 
and Peter Caraffa, who was 
afterwards Paul IV., disem- 

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barked at Venice. They com- 
mended Jerome's spirit and 
his new institution for gather- 
ing orphans together. They 
also introduced him into the 
hospital for incurables, where 
he would be able to devote 
himself with equal charity to 
the education of orphans, and 
to the service of the sick. 
Soon, at their suggestion, he 
crossed over to the Continent 
and founded orphanages, first 
at Brescia, then at Bergamo 
and Como. At Bergamo his 
zeal was specially prolific, for 
there, besides two orphanages, 
one for boys and one for girls, 
he opened a house, an unpre- 
cedented thing in those parts, 
for the reception of fallen wo- 
men who had been converted. 
Finally he took up his abode 
at Somascha, a small village 
in the territory of- Bergamo, 
near to the Venetian border, 
and this he made his head- 
quarters; here, too, he defi- 
nitely established his Congre- 
gation, which for this reason 
received the name of Somas- 
ques. In course of time it 
spread and increased, and for 
the greater benefit of the 
Christian republic it under- 
took, besides the ruling and 
guiding of orphans and the 
taking care of sacred build- 
ings, the education both liberal 
and moral of young men in 
colleges, academies, and semi- 
naries. Pius V. enrolled it 
among religious Orders, and 
other Eoman Pontiffs have 
honoured it with privileges. 
Entirely devoted to his work 

/EMILIAN. 157 

dum Paulus Quartus, qui 
Hieronymi spintu, novoque 
instituto colligendi orphan- 
os probato, ilium in incura- 
bilium hospitale adduxe- 
runt, in quo orphanos simul 
educaret, atque segrotis pari 
charitate inserviret. Mox 
eorumdem hortatu in proxi- 
mam Continentem profec- 
tus, Brixiae primum, deinde 
Bergomi, atque Novocomi 
orphanotrophia erexit : Ber- 

§omi prresertim, ubi prseter 
uo, pro pueris unum, et 
pro puellis alteram, domum 
excipiendis, novo in illis re- 
gionibus exemplo mulieri- 
bus a turpi vita ad poeni- 
tentiam conversis, aperuit. 
Somaschse demum subsis- 
tens, in humili pago agri 
Bergomensis ad Venetse di- 
tioms fines, sibi, ac suis ibi 
sedem constituit, formam- 
que induxit Congregationis, 
cui propterea a Somascha 
nomen factum : quam sub- 
inde auctam et propagatam, 
nedum orphanorum regimi- 
ni, et Ecclesiarum cultui, 
sed ad majorem Christians? 
reipublicae utilitatem, ado- 
lescentium in litteris et bo- 
nis moribus institutioni in 
collegiis, academiis, et se- 
minarus addictam sanctus 
Pius Quintus inter Keligio- 
sos Ordines adscripsit, cae- 
terique Pontifices privile- 
giis ornarunt. 

Orphanis 'colligendis in- 

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tentus Mediolanum proficis- 
citur atque Ticinum ; et 
utrobique collectis agmini- 
bus puerorum tectum, vic- 
tum, vestem, magistros, no- 
bilibus viri8 faventibus, pro- 
vide constituit. Inde So- 
mascham redux, omnibus 
omnia factus, a nullo abhor- 
rebat opere, quod in proxi- 
mi bonum cedere prsevide- 
ret Agricolis immixtus per 
agros sparsis, dum se i Ilia 
ad ju tor em in metendis fru- 
gibus praebet, mysteria fidei 
explicabat, puerorum capita 
porrigine foeda abstergens, 
et patienter tractans cura- 
bat ; putridis rusticorum 
vulneribus medebatur eo 
successu, ut gratia curatio- 
num donatus censeretur. In 
monte, qui Somaschse im- 
minet, reperta specu, in il- 
lam se abdidit, ubi se fla- 
gellis caedens, dies integros 
jejunus transigens, oratione 
in plurimam noctem pro- 
tracta, super nudo saxo bre- 
yem somnum carpens, sui 
aliorumque noxarum poenas 
luebat . In huj us specus in- 
teriori recessu ex arido si- 
lice exstillat aqua, precibus 
seryi Dei, ut constans tra- 
ditio est, impetrata, quae 
usque in hodiernam diem 
jugiter manans, et in varias 
regiones delata segris sani- 
tatem plerumque conciliat. 
Tandem ex contagione, quaB 
per omnem vallem serpebat, 
dum segrotantibus inservit, 
et vita f uncto8 propriis hu- 
meris ad sepulturam defert, 
contracto morbo, annos na- 


of rescuing orphans, Jerome 
journeyed to Milan and Pa via, 
and in both cities he collected 
numbers of children and pro- 
vided them, through the assist- 
ance given him by noble per- 
sonages, with a home, food, 
clothing, and education. He 
returned to Somascha, and, 
making himself all to all, he 
refused no labour which he 
saw might turn to the good 
of his neighbour. He asso- 
ciated himself with the peas- 
ants scattered over the fields, 
and while helping them with 
their work of harvesting, he 
would explain to them the 
mysteries of faith. He used 
to take care of children with 
the greatest patience, even 
going so far as to cleanse their 
heads, and he dressed the cor- 
rupt wounds of the village 
folk with such success that it 
was thought he had received 
the gift of healing. On the 
mountain which overhangs 
Somascha he found a cave in 
which he hid himself, and 
there scourging himself, spend- 
ing whole days fasting, pass- 
ing the greater part of the 
night in prayer, and snatch- 
ing only a short sleep on the 
bare rock, he expiated his own 
sins and those of others. In 
the interior of this grotto, 
water trickles from the dry 
rock, obtained, as constant 
tradition says, by the prayers 
of the servant of God. It still 
flows, even to the present day, 
and being taken into different 
countries, it often gives health 
to the sick. At length, when 

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a contagious distemper was tus sex et quinquaginta, 

spreading over the whole val- quam paulo ante prsedixe- 

ley, and he was serving the rat, pretiosam mortem obiit 

sick and carrying the dead to anno millesimo quingen- 

the grave on his own should- tesimo trigesimo septimo : 

era, ne caught the infection, quern pluribus in vita, et 

and died at the age of fifty- post mortem miraculis illus- 

six. His precious death, which trem Benedictus Decimus 

he had foretold a short time quartus Beatorum, Clemens 

before, occurred in the year vero Decimo tertius Sancto- 

1537. He was illustrious both rum fastis solemniter ad- 

in life and death for many scripsit. 
miracles. Benedict XIV. en- 
rolled him among the Blessed, 
and Clement XI1L solemnly 
inscribed his name on the 
catalogue of the Saints. 

With Vincent de Paul and Camillus of Lellis, thou, 
0 Jerome iEmilian, completest the triumvirate of 
charity. Thus does the Holy Spirit mark his reign 
with traces of the Blessed Trinity; moreover, he 
would show that the love of God, which he kindles 
on earth, can never be without the love of our neigh- 
bour. At the very time when he gave thee to the 
world as a demonstration of this truth, the spirit of 
evil made it evident that true love of our neighbour 
cannot exist without love of God, and that this latter 
soon disappears in its turn when faith is extinct. 
Thus, between the ruins of the pretended reform 
and the ever-new fecundity of the Spirit of holiness, 
mankind was free to choose. The choice made was, 
alas! far from being always conformable to man's 
interest, either temporal or eternal. With what 
good reason may we repeat the prayer thou didst 
teach thy little orphans: "Lord Jesus Christ, our 
" loving Father, we beseech Thee, by Thine infinite 
"goodness, raise up Christendom once more, and 
"bring it back to that upright holiness which 
" flourished in the Apostolic age." 

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Thou didst labour strenuously at this great work 
of restoration. The Mother of Divine Grace, when 
she broke thy prison chains, set thy soul free from a 
more cruel captivity, to continue the flight begun at 
baptism and in thy early years. Thy youth was 
renewed as the eagle's ; and the valour which won 
thee thy spurs in earthly battles, being now strength- 
ened tenfold in the service of the all-powerful Prince, 
carried the day over death and hell. Who could 
count thy victories in this new militia ? Jesus, the 
King of the warfare of salvation, inspired thee 
with his own predilection for little children : count- 
less numbers, saved by thee from perishing, and 
brought in their innocence to his Divine caresses, 
owe to thee their crown in heaven. From thy 
throne, where thou art surrounded by this lovely 
company, multiply thy sons ; uphold those who con- 
tinue thy work on earth; may thy spirit spread more 
and more in these days, when Satan's jealousy strives 
more than ever to snatch the little ones from our 
Lord. Happy shall they be in their last hour who 
have accomplished the work of mercy pre-eminent 
in our days: saved the faith of children, and pre- 
served their baptismal innocence ! Should they have 
formerly merited God's anger, they may with all 
confidence repeat the words thou didst love so well : 
"O sweetest Jesus, be not unto me a Judge, but a 

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This same day brings before us a rival of the warrior 
martyr, St. George: Margaret, like him victorious 
over the dragon, and like him called in the Menaea 
of the Greeks, the Great Martyr. The cross was her 
weapon; and, like the soldier, the virgin, too, con- 
summated her trial in her blood. They were equally 
renowned also in those chivalrous times when valour 
and faith fought hand in hand for Christ beneath 
the standard of the Saints. So early as the seventh 
century our Western Island rivalled the East in 
honouring the pearl drawn from the abyss of in- 
fidelity. Before the disastrous schism brought about 
by Henry VIII., the Island of Saints celebrated this 
feast as a double of the Second Class ; women alone 
were obliged to rest from servile work, in gratitude 
for the protection afforded them by St. Margaret at 
the moment of child-birth — a favour which ranked 
her among the Saints called in the middle ages 
auaciliatores or helpers. But it was not in Eng- 
land alone that Margaret was invoked, as history 
proves by the many and illustrious persons of all 
countries who have borne her blessed name. In 
heaven, too, there is great festivity around the 
throne of Margaret; we learn this from such trust- 

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worthy witnesses as St. Gertrude the Great 1 and 
St. Frances of Rome, 2 who, though divided by a 
century of time, were both, by a special favour of 
their Divine Spouse, allowed, while still on earth, to 
assist at this heavenly spectacle. 

The ancient legend in the Roman Breviary was 
suppressed in the sixteenth century by St. Pius V. 
as not being sufficiently authentic. We, therefore, 
give instead some Responsories and Antiphons and 
a Collect, taken from what appears to be the very 
Office said by St. Gertrude ; for in the vision men- 
tioned above, allusion is made to one of these Respon- 
sories, Virgo veneranda. 3 


Felix igitur Margarita sa- 
crilego sanguine progenita : 
* Fidem quam Spiritu San- 
cto percepit vitiorum macu- 
lis minus infecit. 

$\ Ibat de virtute in vir- 
tutem, ardenter sitiena ani- 
m« salutem, * Fidem. 

1$. Hsec modica quidem 
in malitia, sed mire vigens 

gudicitia, prseventa gratia 
tedemptons : * Oviculas 
pascebat nutricis. 

Simplex fuit ut co- 
lumba, quemadmodum ser- 
pens astuta. * Oviculas. 

]$. Quadam die Odibrius, 
molestus Deo et hominibus, 
transiens visum in illam 
sparsit: * Mox in concu- 
piscentiam ejus exarsit. 

Blessed Margaret, though 
born of pagan blood: * Re- 
ceiving the faith by the Holy 
Spirit, preserved it free from 

^. She went from virtue to 
virtue, ardently desiring the 
salvation of her soul. * Re- 
ceiving the faith. 

1$. Knowing no evil, she 
blossomed in purity, being 
prevented by the grace of our 
Saviour. * She tended the 
sheep for her foster-mother. 

J^. Simple as the dove and 
prudent as the serpent. * She 

1$. Odibrius, hateful to God 
and men, passing one day, cast 
his glance upon her. * And he 
burned with desire of her. 

Legatus divinse pietatis, iv., xlv. 

2 Visio xxxvi. 

3 Breviarium Conatantiense, Augusta? Vindelicorum, mccccxcix. 

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Jf. For she was exceeding 
lovely ; her face like a beauti- 
ful rose. * And he burned. 

1$. Forthwith he sent his 
men to inquire as to her par- 
entage, * For that if she were 
of gentle blood, he fain would 
take her to wife. 

But Jesus Christ whose 
bride she was, had otherwise 
ordained. * For that she were. 

1$. When the tyrant heard 
that the virgin despised him, 
* Enraged he caused her to be 
brought to his tribunal. 

^. For he hoped that, as 
maidens are wont, she would 
yield through fear of his 
threats, * Enraged. 

1$. The worshipful virgin 
stood firm in her constancy, 
setting at nought the words of 
the judge. * For she thought 
not of vile pleasures. 

J^. Rejoicing in the hope of 
a heavenly reward, she was 
patient under the triaL * For 
she thought not. 

3. The beloved of Christ, 
after enduring the horrors of 
a dungeon, and the torturing 
of her flesh, * Is closed once 
more in a darksome prison. 

"ft. She ceases not to praise 
and glorify the name of the 
Lord. * Is closed. 

1$. While the holy martyr 
was instant in prayer, a foul 
dragon appeared ; * And rush- 
ing upon her, he devoured her. 

With the sign of the cross 


JARET. 163 

^. Erat enim nimium for- 
mosa: in vultu scilicet ut 
rosa. * Mox. 

1$. Misitprotinus clientes, 
ad inquirendos ejus paren- 
tes ; * Ut si libera probare- 
tur, in conjugium sibi co- 

^. Sed hanc qui despon- 
saverat, non ita Chnstus 
praeordinaverat. * Ut sL 

1$. Dum tyrannus intel- 
lect quod eum virgo de- 
spexit: * Jussit eamdem 
iratus suis praesentari tri- 

^. Quam sperans puella- 
rura more minis flecti sub- 
juncto terrore. * Jussit. 

1$. Virgo veneranda, in 
magna stans constantia, 
verba contempsit judicis: * 
Nil cogitans de rebus lubri- 

'ft. Coalestis praemii spe 
gaudens, in tribulatione erat 
patiens. * Nil cogitans. 

1$. Post carceris squalo- 
rem carnisque maceration- 
em, Christi dilecta: * Tene- 
brosis denuo recluditur in 

y. Nomen Domini lau- 
dare non desinens et glori- 
ficare. * Tenebrosis. 

1$. Sancta martyre preca- 
tibus instante, draco fcetere 
plenus apparuit : * Qui hanc 
invadens totam absorbuit. 

^. Quern per medium 

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signo crucis discidit, et de 
utero ejus illaesa exivit. * 

she rent him asunder, and 
came forth again unhurt * 
And rushing. 


Ministri statim tenellae 
corpus comburebant puellae ; 
sed haec, oratione facta, igne 
permansit intacta. 

Vas immensum aqua 
plenum prases imperavit 
afferri: et in illud virginem 
ligatam demergi. 

Laudabilis Dominus in 
suis virtutibus, vincula 
manuum relaxavit, suam- 
que famulam de morte liber- 

Videntes haec mirabilia 
baptizati sunt quinque mil- 
lia : quos capite plecti cen- 
suit ira praefecti : quibus est 
addicta Christi testis in- 
victa, benedicens Deum 
deorum in saecula saeculo- 

The executioners burn the 
limbs of the tender maiden: 
but making her prayer she 
feels nought of the flame. 

A great vessel full of water 
is brought by the judge's com- 
mand : and the virgin is cast 
in bound. 

The Lord, who is worthy of 
praise in his mighty deeds, 
loosened the fetters of his 
handmaid, and delivered her 
from death. 

At the sight of these won- 
ders five thousand are bap- 
tized: the prefect in anger 
commands them all to be be- 
headed, and after them the 
unconquerable witness of 
Christ, blessing the God of 
gods for ever and ever. 


Deus qui beatam Marga- 
ritam virginem tuam ad 
ccelos per martyrii palmam 
venire fecisti : concede no- 
bis, quaesumus, ut ejus ex- 
empla sequentes, ad te 
venire mereamur. Per Do- 

O God, who didst lead thy 
blessed virgin Margaret to 
heaven, with the palm of mar- 
tyrdom, grant, we beseech 
thee, that by following her 
example, we may merit to come 
even unto thee. Through our 

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July 21. 



On this day Pudentiana's angelic sister at length 
obtained from her Spouse release from bondage, and 
from the burden of exile that weighed so heavily on 
this last scion of a holy and illustrious stock. New 
races, unknown to her fathers when they laid the 
world at the feet of Rome, now governed the Eternal 
City. Nero and Domitian had been actuated by a 
tyrannical spirit; but the philosophical Caesars showed 
how absolutely they misconceived the destinies of the 
great city. The salvation of Rome lay in the hands 
of a different dynasty: a century back, Praxedes* 
grandfather, more legitimate inheritor of the tradi- 
tions of the Capitol than all the Emperors present 
or to come, hailed in his guest, Simon Bar-Jona, 
the ruler of the future. Host of the Prince of the 
Apostles was a title handed down by Pudens to his 
posterity : for in the time of Pius I., as in that of 
St. Peter, his house was still the shelter of the Vicar 
of Christ. Left the sole heiress of such traditions, 
Praxedes, after the death of her beloved sister, con- 
verted her palaces into Churches, which resounded 
day and night with divine praises, and where pagans 
hastened in crowds to be baptized. The policy of 
Antoninus respected the dwelling of a descendant of 

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the Cornelii; but his adopted son, Marcus Aurelius, 
would make no such exception. An assault was made 
upon the title of Praxedes, and many Christians 
were taken and put to the sword. The virgin, over- 
powered with grief at seeing all slain around her, and 
herself untouched, turned to God and besought him 
that she might die. Her body was laid with those 
of her relatives in the cemetery of her grandmother,. 
Priscilla. The following is the short notice given by 
the Church : 

Praxedes, virgo Komana, 
Pudentianae virginis soror, 
Marco Antonino imperatore 
Christianos persequente, eos 
facultatibus, opera, conso- 
latione et omni charitatis 
officio prosequebatur. Nam 
alios domi occultabat; alios 
ad fidei constantiam horta- 
batur : aliorum corpora se- 
peliebat : iis, qui in carcere 
inclu8i erant, qui in ergas- 
tulis exercebantur, nulla re 
deerat. Quae cum tan tarn 
Christianorum stragem jam 
ferre non posset, Deum pre- 
cata est, ut, si mori expedi- 
ted se e tantis malis eripe- 
ret. Itaque duodecimo ca- 
lendas Augusti ad pietatis 
pr»mia vocatur in coelum. 
Cujus corpus a Pastore Pres- 
bytero in patris et sororis 
Pudentianae sepulcrum illa- 
tum est, quod erat in coeme- 
terio Priscillae, via Salaria, 

Praxedes was a Eoman vir- 

?'n and sister of the virgin 
udentiana. When the Em- 
peror Marcus Antoninus per- 
secuted the Christians, she 
devoted both her time and her 
wealth to consoling them, and 
doing them every charitable 
service in her power. Some 
she concealed in her house: 
others she encouraged to firm- 
ness of faith. She buried the 
dead, and saw that those who 
were imprisoned wanted for 
nothing. But at length being 
unable to bear the grief caused 
by such a wholesale butchery 
of the Christians, she prayed 
God, that if it were expedient 
for her to die he would take 
her away from so much evil. 
Her prayer was heard, and on 
the 12th of the Calends of 
August, she was called to 
heaven, to receive the reward 
of her charity. Her body was 
buried by the priest Pastor in 
the tomb where lay her father 
and her sister Pudentiana, in 
the cemetery of Priscilla, on 
the Salarian Way. 

Mother Church is ever grateful to thee, O Praxedes I 

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Thou hast long been in the enjoyment of thy divine 
Spouse, and still thou continuest the traditions of 
thy noble family, for the benefit of the Saints on 
earth. When, in the eighth and ninth centuries, the 
martyrs, exposed to the profanations of the Lombards, 
were raised from their tombs and brought within the 
walls of the eternal City, Paschal I. sought hospitality 
for them, where Peter had found it in the first century. 
What a day was that 20th of July 817, when, leaving 
the Catacombs, 2300 of these heroes of Christ came 
to seek in the title of Praxedes the repose which the 
barbarians had disturbed! What a tribute Rome 
offered thee, O Virgin, on that day! Can we do 
better than unite our homage with that of this glorious 
band, coming on the day of thy blessed feast, thus to 
acknowledge thy benefits? Descendant of Pudens 
and Priscilla, give us thy love of Peter, thy devoted- 
ness to the Church, thy zeal for the Saints of God, 
whether militant still on earth or already reigning 
in glory. 

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July 22. 



"Three Saints," said our Lord to St. Bridget of 
Sweden, " have been more pleasing to me than all 
" others: Mary my mother, John the Baptist, and Mary 
" Magdalene." 1 The Fathers tell us that Magdalene 
is a type of the Gentile Church called from the depth 
of sin to perfect holiness ; and indeed, better than 
any other, she personifies both the wanderings and 
the love of the human race, espoused by the Word 
of God. Like the most illustrious characters of the 
law of grace, she has her antitype in past ages. 
Let us follow the history of this great penitent as 
traced by unanimous tradition: Magdalene's glory 

When, before all ages, God decreed to manifest 
his 5 glory, he willed to reign over a world drawn 
from nothing ; and as his goodness was equal to his 
power, he would have the triumph of supreme love 
to be the law of that kingdom, which the Gospel 
likens unto a king who made a marriage for Ida 
son. 2 

Passing over the pure intelligences whose nine 
choirs are filled with divine light, the immortal Son 
of the King of ages looked down to the extreme 
limits of creation ; there he beheld human nature, 

1 Revelationes S. Birgitt;k, lib. iv., cap. 108. 
s St. Matth. xxii. 2. 

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made indeed to know God, but acquiring that know- 
ledge laboriously; its weakness would better show 
his divine condescension : with it, then, he chose to 
contract his alliance. 

Man is flesh and blood : so the Son of God would 
be made Flesh ; he would not have Angels, but men 
for bis brothers. He, that in heaven is the Splendour 
of his Father, and on earth the most beautiful of the 
sons of men, would draw the human race with the 
cords of Adam. 1 In the very act of creation he 
sealed his espousals by raising man to the super- 
natural state of grace, and placing him in the Para- 
dise of expectation. 

Alas ! the human race knew not how to await her 
Bridegroom even in the shades of Eden. Cast out 
of the garden of delights, she prostituted to vain idols 
in their groves what was left her of her glory. For 
she had much beauty still, the gift of her Spouse, 
though she had profaned it: Thou wast perfect 
through my beauty, which I had put upon thee, 
saith the Lord Qod* 

God would not suffer his love to be defeated. 
Leaving humanity at large to walk in the ways of 
folly, he chose out a single people, sprung from a 
holy stock, to be the guardian of his promises. Com- 
ing forth from Egypt and from the midst of a bar- 
barous nation, this people was consecrated to God, 
and became his inhentance. In the person of Balaam, 
the ancient Bride saw Israel pass through the desert, 
and filled with admiration at the glory of the Lord 
dwelling with him in his tent, her heart for a moment 
beat with biidal love. I shall see him, she cried in 
her transport, but not now : I shall behold him, but 
not near? From those wild heights whence the 
Spouse would one day call her, she hailed the Star 

1 Osee xi. 4. * Ezecb. xvi. 14. 3 Numbers xxiv. 17. 

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that was to rise out of Jacob, and predicted the ruin 
of the Hebrew people who had supplanted her for 
a time. 

Too soon was this sublime ecstasy followed by still 
more culpable wanderings ! How long wilt tnou be 
dissolute in deliciousness, 0 wandering daughter? 
Know thou, and see, that it is an evil and a bitter 
thing for thee, to have left the Lord thy God. 1 But 
the ages are passing, the night will soon be over, and 
the day-star will arise, the sign of the Bridegroom 
gathering the nations. Let him lead thee into the 
wilderness and there he will speak to thy heart. Thy 
rival knows not how to be a queen ; the alliance of 
Sinai has produced but a slave. The Bridegroom 
still waits for his Bride. 

At length the hour came : bending the heavens, 
he was made sin 2 for sinful men ; and hidden under 
the servile garb of mortals, he sat down to table in 
the house of the proud Pharisee. The haughty 
Synagogue, who would neither fast with John, nor 
rejoice with Christ, was now to see God justifying 
the delays of his merciful love. " Let us not, like 
" Pharisees," says St. Ambrose, " despise the counsels 
" of God. The sons of Wisdom are singing : listen 
"to their voices, attend to their dances; it is the 
" hour of the nuptials. Thus sang the Prophet when 
" he said : Come from Libanus, my spouse, come from 
" Libanus." 8 

And behold a woman that was in the ciiy f a 
sinner, when she knew that he sat at meat in the 
Pharisee's house, brought an alabaster box of 
ointment; cmd standing behind at his feet, she 
began to wash his feet with tears, and wiped them 
with the hairs of her head, cmd kissed his feet, cmd 
anointed them with the ointment. 4 " Who is this 

1 Jerein. xxxi. 22, and ii. 19. 3 Amb. in Luc. 

2 2 Cor. v. 21. * St Luke vii. 37, 38. 

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" woman ? Without doubt it is the Church," answers 
St. Peter Chrysologus, " the Church, weighed down 
" and stained with sins committed in the city of this 
" world. At the news that Christ has appeared in 
" Judea, that he is to be seen at the banquet of the 
" Pasch, where he bestows his mysteries and reveals 
" the divine Sacrament, and makes known the secret 
" of salvation : suddenly she darts forward ; despising 
"the endeavours of the Scribes to prevent her 
"entrance, she confronts the princes of the Syna- 
" gogue ; burning with desire she penetrates into the 
" Sanctuary, where she finds him whom she seeks, 
" betrayed by Jewish perfidy even at the banquet of 
" love ; not the passion, nor the Cross, nor the tomb 
" can check her faith, or prevent her from bringing 
" her perfumes to Christ" 1 

Who but the Church knows the secret of this 
perfume? asks Paulinus of Nola with Ambrose 
of Milan ; the Church, whose numberless flowers 
have all aromas; the Church, who exhales before 
God a thousand sweet odours aroused by the breath 
of the Holy Spirit, viz., the virtues of nations and 
the prayers of the Saints. Mingling the perfume of 
her conversion with her tears of repentance, she 
anoints the feet of her Lord, honouring in them his 
Humanity. Her faith, whereby she is justified, grows 
equally with her love : soon the Head of the Spouse, 
that is, his Divinity, receives from her the homage of 
the full measure of pure and precious spikenard, to 
wit, consummate holiness, whose heroism goes so far 
as to break the vessel of mortal flesh by the martyr- 
dom of love, if not by that of tortures. 

Arrived at the height of the mystery, she forgets 
not even there those sacred feet, whose contact 
delivered her from the seven devils representing all 

1 Pet. Chrysol. Sermo xcv. 

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vices ; for to the heart of the Bride, as in the bosom 
of the Father, her Lord is still both God and Man. 
The Jew, who would not own Christ either for head 
or foundation, found no fragrant oil for his head, nor 
even water for his feet ; she, on the contrary, pours 
her priceless perfume over both. And while the 
sweet odour of her perfect faith fills the earth, now 
become by the victory of that faith the house of the 
Lord, she continues to wipe her Master's feet with 
her beautiful hair, i.e., her countless good works and 
her ceaseless prayer. The growth of this mystical 
hair requires all her care here on earth; and io 
heaven its abundance and beauty will call forth the 
praise of him who jealously counts, without losing 
one, all the works of his Church. Then from her 
own head, as from that of her Spouse, will the 
fragrant unction of the Holy Spirit overflow even to 
the skirt of her garment. 

Thou despisest, O Pharisee, the poor woman 
weeping with love at the feet of thy divine Guest 
whom thou knowest not; but "I would rather," 
cries the solitary of Nola, " be bound up in her hair 
" at the feet of Christ, than be seated with thee near 
" Christ, yet without him." 1 Happy sinner to be, 
both in her life of sin and that of grace, the figure 
of the Church, even so far as to have been foreseen 
and announced by the Prophets. For such is the 
teaching of St. Jerome and St. Cyril of Alexandria; 
while Venerable Bede, gathering up, according 
to his wont, the traditions of his predecessors, 
does not hesitate to assert that "what Magdalene 
"once did, remains the type of what the whole 
" Church does, and of what every perfect soul must 
"ever do." 2 

We can well understand the predilection of the 

1 Paulin. Ep. xxiii. 42. - Bkda in xii. Johaon. 

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Man-God for this soul, whose repentance from such 
a depth of misery manifested so fully, from the 
outset, the success of his mission, the defeat of Satan, 
and the triumph of Divine love. While Israel was 
expecting from the Messias nought but perishable 
goods, when the very Apostles, including John the 
beloved, were looking for honours and first places, 
she was the first to come to Jesus for himself alone, 
and not for his gifts. Eager only for pardon and 
love, she chose for her portion those sacred feet, 
wearied in the search after the wandering sheep: here 
was the blessed altar whereon she offered to her 
Divine Deliverer as many holocausts of herself, says 
St. Gregory, as she had had vain objects of com- 
placency. Henceforth her goods and her person 
were at the disposal of Jesus; the rest of har life 
was to be spent sitting at his feet, contemplating 
the mysteries of his life, gathering up his every 
word, following his footsteps as he preached the 
Kingdom of God. How swiftly, in the light of her 
humble confidence, did she outstrip the Synagogue 
and the very just themselves! The Pharisee might 
be indignant, her sister might complain, the Apostles 
might murmur: Mary held her peace; but Jesus spoke 
for her, as if his Sacred Heart were hurt by the least 
word said against her. At the death of Lazarus the 
Master had to call her from the mysterious repose 
wherein even then she was seated ; her presence at 
the tomb was of more avail than the whole college of 
Apostles and the crowd of Jews. One word from 
her, though already said by Martha who had arrived 
first, was more powerful than all the words of the 
latter; her tears made the Man-God weep, and drew 
from him that groan which he uttered before recall- 
ing the dead man to life — that divine trouble of a 
God overcome by his creature. Oh truly, for others 
as well as for herself, for the world as well as for God, 

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Mary has chosen (he better part, which shall not be 
taken frmn her} 

In all that we have said, we have but linked to- 
gether the testimonies of a veneration universally 
consistent. But the homage of all the Doctors 
together cannot compare with the honour which the 
Church pays to the humble Magdalene, when she 
applies to the Queen of heaven on her glorious 
Assumption-day the Gospel words first uttered in 
praise of the justified sinner. Albert the Great 2 
assures us that, in the world of grace as well as in 
the material creation, God has made two great 
lights, to wit two Maries, the Mother of our Lord, 
and the sister of Lazarus : the greater, which is the 
Blessed Virgin, to rule the day of innocence; the 
lesser^which is Mary the penitent beneath the feet 
of that glorious Virgin, to rule the night by en- 
lightening repentant sinners. As the moon by its 
phases points out the feast days on earth, so Magda- 
lene in heaven gives the signal of joy to the Angels 
of God over one sinner doing penance. Does she 
not also share with the Immaculate One the name 
of Mary, Star of the sea, as the Churches of Gaul 
sang in the Middle Ages, recalling how, though one 
was a Queen and the other a handmaid, both were 
causes of joy to the Church : the one being the 
Gate of salvation, the other the messenger of the 
Resurrection? 8 

On that great Easter day, Magdalene, like a 
morning star, announced the rising of the Sun of 
Justice, who was never more to set " Woman," 
said Jesus to her, "why weepest thoul Thou art 
" not mistaken." He seemed to say, " It is, indeed, 
"the Divine Gardener speaking to thee, the same 

1 St. Luke x. 42. 

* Albert Magn. in vii. Luc. 

3 Sequence Mane prima sabbati. — Pasch. Time, Vol. I., p. 287. 

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" that planted Eden in the beginning. But now 
" dry thy tears ; in this new garden, whose centre is 
" an empty tomb, Paradise is restored ; the Angels # 
" no longer close the entrance ; here is the Tree of 
"Life, which has borne fruit these three days past. 
" This Fruit, which thou, O woman, art eager, as of 
"old, to seize and taste, belongs to thee now by 
" right ; for thou art no longer Eve but Mary. If 
" thou art bidden not to touch It yet, it is because, 
"as thou wouldst not heretofore taste the fruit of 
" death thyself alone, thou mayest not now enjoy the 
"Fruit of Life till thou bring back him that was 
" first lost through thee " Thus by the wisdom and 
mercy of our God, woman is raised to a greater 
dignity than before the Fall. Magdalene, to whom 
woman is indebted for this glorious revenge, has 
hence obtained in the Church's litanies the place of 
honour above even the virgins; as John the Baptist 
precedes the whole army of the Saints on account 
of his privilege of being the first witness to our 
salvation. The testimony of the penitent completes 
that of the Precursor: on the word of John the 
Church recognised the Lamb who taketh away the 
sins of the world ; on the word of Magdalene she 
hails the Spouse triumphant over death. 1 And, 
judging that by this last testimony, Catholic belief 
is put in full possession of the entire cycle of 
mysteries; she, to-day, intones the immortal symbol, 
which she deemed premature for the feast of 
Zachary's son. 

O Mary! how great didst thou appear before 
heaven at that solemn moment, when, before the 
world knew aught of the triumph of life, our 

1 Sequence of Easter day. 

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Emmanuel the conqueror said to thee: Go to my 
brethren, and say to them : I ascend to my Father 
and to your Father, to my God and to your God. 1 
Thou didst represent us Gentiles, who were not to 
obtain possession of our Lord by faith, till after his 
ascension into heaven. These brethren, to whom 
the Man- God sent thee, were doubtless those privi- 
leged men whom he had called to know him during 
his mortal life, and to whom thou, O apostle of the 
Apostles, hadst to announce the mystery of the 
Pasch; and yet, in his loving mercy, the Divine 
Master intended to show himself that same day to 
many of them ; and both thou and they were soon 
to be witnesses of his triumphant Ascension. Is it 
not evident that thy mission, O Magdalene, though 
addressed to the immediate disciples of our Lord, 
was to extend much further both in space and time ? 
As he entered into his glory, the Conqueror of death 
already beheld these brethren filling the whole 
earth. It is of them he had said in the Psalm: 
J will declare thy name to my brethren: in the 
midst of the Church will I praise thee; in the 
midst of a people that shall be born which the Lord 
hath made. 2 It is of them and of us, the generation 
to come, to whom the Lord was to be declared, that 
he said to thee: Go to my brethren and say to 
them : I ascend to my Father and to your Father, 
to my God and your God. Thou didst come, and 
thou comest continually, fulfilling thy mission to- 
wards the disciples, and saying to them : I have seen 
the Lord, and these things he said to me. 3 

Thou earnest, O Mary, when our West beheld 
thee, treading the rocks of Provence with thine 
apostolic feet, whose beauty Cyril of Alexandria 
admires. There seven times a day, raised on Angels' 

1 St. John xx. 17. 2 Ps. xxi. 23, .32. 3 St. John xx. 18. 

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wings towards the Spouse, thou didst point out more 
eloquently than any speech could do, the way he 
took, the way the Church must follow by her 
desires, until she is reunited with him for ever. 
Thou didst prove that the apostolate in its highest 
reach does not depend on words. In heaven the 
Seraphim, and Cherubim, and Thrones gaze un- 
ceasingly upon the Eternal Trinity, without so much 
as glancing at this world of nothingness ; and, never- 
theless, it is through them that pass the strength, 
and light, and love which the heavenly messengers 
in the lower hierarchies distribute to us on earth. 
Thus, O Magdalene, though thou clingest ever to 
the sacred feet which are now not denied to thy 
love, and thy life is unreservedly absorbed with 
Christ in God, thou seemest more than any other to 
be always saying to us : If ye be risen with Christ, 
seek the things that are above; where Christ is 
sitting at the right hand of God. Mind the things 
that are above, not the things that are upon the 
earth. 1 

O thou, whose choice, so highly approved by our 
Lord, has revealed to the world the better part, 
obtain that that portion may be ever appreciated in 
the Church as the better, viz., that divine contem- 
plation which begins here on earth the life of heaven, 
and which in its fruitful repose is the source of all 
the graces spread by the active ministry throughout 
the world. Death itself does not take away that 
portion, but assures its possession for ever, and makes 
it blossom into the full, direct vision. May he that 
has received it from the gratuitous goodness of God 
never strive to dispossess himself of it ! u Happy 
"house," says the devout St. Bernard, "blessed 
" assembly, where Martha complains of Mary ! But 

1 Col. iii. 1, 2. 


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" how indignant we should be if Mary were jealous 
"of Martha!" 1 And St. Jude tells us the awful 
judgment of the Angels who kept not their princi- 
pality, the familiar friends of God who forsook their 
own habitation. 2 Keep up in religious families 
established by their fathers on heights that touch 
the clouds the sense of their inborn nobility: they 
are not made for the dust and noise of the plain ; and 
did they come down to it, they would injure both the 
Church and themselves. By remaining what they 
are, they do not, any more than thou, O Magdalene, 
become indifferent to the lost sheep ; but they take 
the surest of all means for purifying the earth and 
drawing souls to God. 

From thy church at Vezelay thou didst look down 
one day upon a vast multitude eagerly receiving the 
cross ; they were about to undertake that immortal 
Crusade, not the least glory whereof is to have 
supernaturalized the sentiments of honour in the 
hearts of those Christian warriors armed for the 
defence of the holy Sepulchre. A similar lesson was 
given to the^world at the beginning of last century : 
Napoleon, intoxicated with power, would raise to 
himself and his army a Temple of glory ; before the 
building was completed he was swept away, and the 
temple was dedicated to thee. O Mary ! bless this 
last homage of thy beloved France, whose people and 
princes have always surrounded with deepest venera- 
tion thy hallowed retreat at Sainte Baume, and thy 
church at Saint Maximin, where rest thy precious 
relics. In return, teach them and teach us all, that 
the only true and lasting glory is to follow with thee 
in bis ascensions him who once sent thee to us, say-' 
ing : Go to my brethren, and say to them : I ascend 

1 Bern. Sermo. in. in Assumpt. B.M.V. 2 St. Jude 6. 

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to my Father and to your Father, to my God and to 
your God ! 

During the different seasons of the year Holy 
Church inserts in their proper placed, as so many 
precious pearls, the various passages of the Gospel 
relating to St. Mary Magdalene; for the particulars 
of her life after the Ascension we are referred to 
the feast of her sister, St. Martha, which we shall 
keep in a week's time. To the liturgical pieces 
already given in this work in praise of St. Magdalene 
we add the following ancient Sequence, well known 
in the churches of Germany, to which we subjoin a 
Responsory and the Collect of the feast from the 
Roman Breviary : 


Praise be to thee, O Christ, 
Creator, Redeemer, and Sa- 

Of heaven and earth and 
seas, of Angels and of men, 

Whom we confess to be both 
God and Man, 

Who didst come in order to 
save sinners, 

Thyself without sin, taking 
the appearance of sin. 

Among this poor flock, thou 
didst visit the Chanaanite wo- 
man and Mary Magdalene. 

From the same table thou 
didst nourish the one with 
the crumbs of the Divine 
Word, the other with thy in- 
ebriating cup. 

While thou art seated at 
the typical feast in the house 
of Simon the Leper, 

The Pharisee murmurs, while 
the woman weeps conscious of 
her guilt. 

Laus tibi, Christe, qui es 
creator et redemptor, idem 
et salvator, 

Cceli, terrae, maris, ange- 
lorum et hominum, 

Quern solum Deum con- 
fitemur et hominem. 

Qui peccatores venisti ut 
salvos faceres, 

Sine peccato peccati assu- 
mens formulam. 

Quorum de grege, ut Cha- 
nanaeam, Mariam visitasti 

Eadem mensa Verbi di- 
vini illam micis, hanc refo- 
vens poculis. 

In domo Simonis leprosi 
conviviis acqubans typicis, 

Murmurat pharisaeus, ubi 
plorat fcemina criminis coi\- 


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Peccator contemnit com- 
peccantem, peccati nescius, 
poenitentem exaudis, emun- 
das foedam, adamas, ut pul- 
chram facias. 

Pedes amplectitur domi- 
nicos, lacrymis lavat, tergit 
crinibus, lavando, tergendo, 
unguento unxit, oscuhs cir- 

Haec sunt convivia, quae 
tibi placent, o Patris Sapi- 

Natus de Virgpne qui non 
dedignaris tangi de pecca- 

A pharis&o es invitatus, 
Marise ferculis saturatus. 

Multum dimittis multum, 
amanti, nec crimen postea 

Daemoniis earn septem 
mundas septiformi Spiritu. 

Ex mortuis te surgentem 
das cunctis videre priorem. 

Hac, Chri8te, proselytam 
signas Ecclesiam, quam ad 
filiorum mensam vocas ali- 

Quam inter convivia legis 
et gratiae spernit phari&sei 
fastus, lepra vexat haeretica. 

Qualis sit tu scis, tangit 
te quia peccatrix, quia ve- 
nia3 optatrix. 

Quidnam haberet segra, 


The sinner despises his fel- 
low-sinner ; thou, sinless One, 
nearest the prayer of the peni- 
tent, cleansest her from stains, 
lovest her so as to make her 

She embraces the feet of 
her Lord, washes them with 
her tears, dries them with her 
hair; washing and wiping 
them, she anoints them with 
sweet ointment, and covers 
them with kisses. 

Such, O Wisdom of the Fa- 
ther, is the banquet that de- 
lights thee ! 

Though born of a Virgin, 
thou dost not. disdain to be 
touched by a sinful woman. 

The Pharisee invited thee, 
but it is Mary that gives thee 
a feast. 

Thou forgivest much to her 
that loves much, and that 
falls not again into sin. 

From seven devils dost thou 
free her by thy sevenfold 

To her, when thou risest 
from the dead, thou showest 
thyself first of all 

By her, O Christ, thou dost 
designate the Gentile Church, 
the stranger whom thou call- 
est to the children's table ; 

Who, at the feast of the 
Law and at the feast of grace, 
is despised by the pride of 
Pharisees, and harassed by 
leprous heresy. 

Thou knowest what man- 
ner of woman she is ; it is be- 
cause she is a sinner that she 
touches thee, and because she 
longs for pardon. 

What could she have, poor 

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sick one, without receiving it, si non accepisset, si non me- 

and without the physician dicus adesset ? 
assisting her 9 

O King of kings, rich unto Bex regum dives in om- 

all, save us, wash away all the nes, nos galva, peccatorum 

stains of our sins, O thou, the tergens cuncta crimina, san- 

hope and glory of the Saints, ctorum spes et gloria. 


Congratulate me, all ye that Con^ratulamini mini, om- 

love the Lord ; for he whom nes qui diligitis Dominum; 

I sought appeared to me : * quia quern quaarebam appa- 

and while I wept at the tomb, ruit mihi : * Et dum flerem 

I saw my Lord, Alleluia. ad monumentum, vidi Do- 
minum meum, alleluia* 

When the disciples with- % Recedentibus discipu- 

drew, I did not withdraw, and lis, non recedebam,et am oris 

being kindled with the fire of ejus igne succensa, ardebam 

his love, I burned with desire, desiderio. * Et dum. 
* And while. 


We beseech thee, O Lord, Beatae Marias Magdalenae, 

that we may be helped by the quaesumus Domine, suffra- 

intercession of blessed Mary giis adjuvemur: cujus pre- 

Magdalene, entreated by whose cibus exoratus quatridua- 

prayers thou didst raise up numfratremLazarumvivum 

again to life, her brother La- ab inferis resuscitasti. Qui 

zarus, who had been dead vivis. 
four days. Who livest, etc. 

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July 23. 


Ravenna, the mother of cities, invites us to-day 
to honour the martyr bishop, whose labours did 
more for her lasting renown than did the favour of 
emperors and kings. From the midst of her ancient 
monuments, the rival of Rome, though now fallen, 
points proudly to her unbroken chain of Pontiffs, 
which she can trace back to the Vicar of the Man- 
God through Apollinaris. This great Saint has been 
.praised by Fathers and Doctors of the Universal 
Church, his sons and successors. Would to God that 
the noble city had remembered what she owed to 
St. Peter. 

Apollinaris had left family and fatherland, and all 
he possessed to follow the Prince of the Apostles. 
One day the master said to the disciple: "Why 
" stayest thou here with us ? Behold thou art in- 
" structed in all that Jesus did ; rise up, receive the 
" Holy Ghost, and go to that city which knows him 
" not." And blessing him, he kissed him and sent 
him away. 1 Such sublime scenes of separation, often 
witnessed in those early days, and many a time since 
repeated, show by their heroic simplicity the grandeur 
of the Church. 

1 Passio S. Apollin. ap. Holland. 

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Apollinaris sped to the sacrifice. Christ, says St 
Peter Chrysologus, 1 hastened to meet his martyr, the 
martyr pressed on towards his King ; but the Church, 
anxious to keep this support of her infancy, inter- 
vened to defer, not the struggle, but the crown ; and 
for twenty-nine years, adds St. Peter Damian, 2 his 
martyrdom was prolonged through such innumerable 
torments, that the labours of Apollinaris alone were 
sufficient testimony of the faith for those regions, 
which had no other witness unto blood. According 
to the traditions of the Church he so powerfully 
established, the Holy Spirit , in the form of a dove 
directly and visibly designated each of the twelve 
successors of Apollinaris, up to the age of peace. 

The holy Liturgy devotes the following lines to the 
history of this brave Apostle : 

Apollinaris came to Rome 
from Antioch with the Prince of 
the Apostles, by whom he was 
consecrated bishop, and sent 
to Ravenna to preach the Gos- 
pel of our Lord Christ. He 
converted many to the faith of 
Christ, for which reason he was 
seized by the priests of the idols 
and severely beaten. At his 
prayer, a nobleman named 
Boniface, who had long been 
dumb, recovered the power of 
speech, and his daughter was 
delivered from an unclean 
spirit ; on this account a fresh 
sedition was raised against 
Apollinaris. He was beaten 
with rods, and made to walk 
bare-foot over burning coals ; 
but as the fire did him no in- 

Apollinaris cum Principe 
Apostolorum Antiochia 
Romam venit : a quo ordi- 
natus Episcopus, Ravennam 
ad Christi Domini Evange- 
lium praedicandum mitti- 
tur: ubi cum ad Christi 
fidem plurimos converteret, 
captus ab idolorum sacer- 
dotibus graviter cae3us est. 
Cum que iijso orante Boni- 
facius nobilis vir, qui diu 
mutus fuerat, loqueretur, 
ej usque filia immundo spi- 
ritu liberata esset; iterum 
est in ilium commota sedi- 
tio. Itaque virgis csesus, ar- 
dentes carbones nudis pedi- 
bus premere cogitur : quem 
cum subjectus ignis nihil lae- 
deret, ejicitur extra urbem. 

jury, he was driven from the 

1 Pbtr. Chrys. Sermo cxxviii. 

* Petr. Dam. Sermo vi. de S. Kleuchudio. 

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Is vero latens aliquamdiu 
cum quibusdam Christianis, 
inde profectus est in Mmi- 
mortuam ad vitam re vocavit : 
ut propterea tota Eufini f a- 
miha in Jesum Christum 
crederet. Quare vehemen- 
ter incensus prsef ectus accer- 
sit Apollinarem, et cum eo 

Sravius agit, ut finem faciat 
isseminandi in urbe Christi 
fidem. Cujus cum Apolli- 
naris jussa negligeret, equ- 
uleo cruciatur : in cujus pla- 
gas aqua fervens inf unditur, 
saxoque os tunditur: mox 
ferreis vinculis constrictus 
includitur in carcere. Quar- 
to die impositus in navem, 
mittitur in exsilium : ac 
facto nauf ragio venit in My - 
siam,inde ad ripam Danubii, 
postea in Thraciam. 

Cum autem in Serapidis 
templo daemon se responsa 
daturum negaret, dum ibi- 
dem Petri Apostoli discipu- 
lus moraretur, diu conquisi- 
tus inventus est Apollinaris: 

?ui iterum jubetur nayigare. 
ta reversus Eavennam, ab 
iisdem illis idolorum sacer- 
dotibus accueatus, centuri- 
qni custodiendus traditur: 
qui cum occulte Christum 
coleret,* noctu Apollinarem 
dimisit. Ee cognita, satel- 
lites eum persequuntur, et 
plagis in itinere confectum, 
quod mortuum crederent, 
relinquunt. Quern cum inde 
Christiani sustulissent, sep- 


He lay hid sometime in the 
house of certain Christians, 
and then went to ^Emilia. 
Here he raised from the dead 
the daughter of Eufinus, a 
patrician, whose whole family 
thereupon believed in Jesus 
Christ. Theprefectwasgreatly 
angered by this conversion, and 
sending for Apollinaris he 
sternly commanded him to 
give over propagating the faith 
of Christ in the city. But as 
Apollinaris paid no attention 
to his commands, he was tor- 
tured on the rack, boiling water 
was poured upon his wounds, 
and his mouth was bruised and 
broken with a stone ; finally, 
he was loaded with irons, and 
shut up in prison. Four days 
afterwards he was put onboard 
ship and sent into exile ; but 
the boat was wrecked, and 
Apollinaris arrived in Mysia, 
whence he passed to the banks 
of the Danube and into Thrace. 

In the temple of Serapis the 
demon refused to utter his 
oracles so long as the disciple 
of the Apostle Peter remained 
there. Search was made for 
some time, and then Apolli- 
naris was discovered and com- 
manded to depart by sea. 
Thus he returned to Eavenna • 
but, on the accusation of the 
same priests of the idols, he 
was placed in the custody of a 
centurion. As this man, how- 
ever, worshipped Christ in 
secret, Apollinaris was allowed 
to escape by night. When this 
became known, he was pur- 
sued and overtaken by the 
guards, who loaded him with 

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blows and left him, as they 
thought, dead. He was car- 
ried away by the Christians, 
and seven days after, while 
exhorting them to constancy 
in the faith, he passed away 
from this life, to be crowned 
with the glory of martyrdom. 
His body was buried near the 
city walls. 

timo die exhortans illos ad 
fidei constantiam, martyrii 
gloria clarus migravit e vita. 
Cujus corpus prope murum 
urbis sepultum est. 

Yenantius Fortunatus, 1 coming from Ravenna to 
our Northern lands, has taught us to salute from afar 
thy glorious tomb. Answer us by the wish thou didst 
frame during the days of thy mortal life : May the 
peace of our Lord and God, Jesus Christ, rest upon 
you ! Peace, the perfect gift, the first greeting of an 
Apostle, the consummation of all grace: how thou 
didst appreciate it, how jealous of it thou wert for 
thy sons, even after thou hadst quitted this earth ! 
By it thou didst, obtain from the God of peace and 
love, that miraculous intervention which pointed out, 
for so long a time, the bishops who were to succeed 
thee in thy See. Thou didst thyself appear one day 
to the Roman Pontiff, showing him Peter Chrysologus 
as the elect of Peter and of Apollinaris. And later on, 
knowing that the cloister was to be the home of the 
Divine peace banished from the rest of the world, thou 
earnest twice in person to bid Romuald obey the call 
of grace, and go and people the desert. How comes 
it that more than one of thy successors, no longer, 
alas! designated by the Divine Dove, should have 
become intoxicated with earthly favours, and so soon 
have forgotten the lessons left by thee to thy Church? 
Was it not sufficient honour for that Church, the 
Daughter of Rome, to occupy among her illustrious 
sisters the first place at her mother's side f 2 For surely 

1 Vknan. Forttnat. Vita St i . Martini, lib. rv\, v. 684. 
5 Diplom. Clkmkntis ii. Quod propulsis. 

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the Gospel sung on this feast for now twelve centuries, 
and perhaps more, 1 ought to have been a safeguard 
against the deplorable excesses which hastened her 
fall. Borne, warned by sinister indications, seems to 
have foreseen the sacrilegious ambition of a Guibert, 
when she fixed her choice on this passage of the sacred 
text : There was also a strife amongst the disciples, 
which of them should seem to be the greater} And 
what more significant, and at the same time more 
touching commentary could have been given to this 
Gospel than the words of St Peter himself in the 
Epistle: "The ancients therefore that are among 
" you, I beseech, who am myself also an ancient, to 
" feed the flock of God, not as lording it over the 
" clergy, but being models to them of disinterested- 
ness and : love; and let all insinuate humility one 
" to another, for God resisteth the proud, but to the 
"humble he giveth grace." 8 Pray, O Apollinaris, 
that both pastor and flocks throughout the Church, 
may, now at least, profit by these apostolic and Divine 
teachings, so that we may all one day have a place 
at the eternal banquet, where our Lord invites his 
own to sit down with Peter and with thee in his 

While Apollinaris adorns holy Mother Church 
with the bright purple of his martyrdom, another 
noble son crowns her brow with the white wreath of 
a Confessor-Pontiff. Liborius, the heir of Julian, 
Thuribius, and Pavacius, was a brilliant link in the 
glorious chain connecting the Church of Le Mans 
with Clement, the successor of St. Peter ; he came to 
bring peace after the storm, and to restore to the 

1 Kalendar Fronton. 5 Cf. I Peter v. 1-11. 

2 St. Luke xxii. 24-30. 

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earth a hundred-fold fruitfulness after the ruin caused 
by the tempest. The fanatical disciples of Odin in- 
vading the west of Gaul, had committed more havoc 
in this part of our Lord's vineyard than had the pro- 
consuls with their cold legalism, or the ancient druids 
with their fierce hatred. Liborius, defender of the 
earthly fatherland, and guide of souls to the heavenly 
one, brought the enemy to be citizen of both by 
making him Christian. As a Pontiff, he laboured 
with purest zeal for the magnificence of Divine wor- 
ship, which renders homage to God, and gives health 
to the earth ; as apostle, he took up again the work 
of evangelization begun by the first messengers of 
the faith, driving idolatry from the strongholds it had 
reconquered, and from the country parts, where it 
had always reigned supreme : his friend St. Martin 
had not in this respect a more worthy rival. 

Five centuries after the close of his laborious life, 
his blessed body was removed from the sanctuary 
where it lay among his fellow-bishops, and scattering 
miracles all along the way, was carried to Paderborn ; 
pagan barbarism once more fled at the approach of 
Liborius, and Westphalia was won to Christ. Le 
Mans and Paderborn, uniting in the veneration of 
their common apostle, have thus sealed a friendship 
which a thousand years have not destroyed. 

Grant, we beseech thee, O 
Almighty God, that the vene- 
rable solemnity of blessed 
Liborius, thy confessor and 
bishop, may contribute to the 
increase of our devotion, and 
promote our sal vation.Through 
our Lord, <fcc. 

Da, quaesumus omnipo- 
tens Deus, ut beati Liborii, 
Confessoris tui atque Ponti- 
ficis, veneranda solemn itaa 
et devotionem nobis augeat, 
et salutem. Per Dominum. 

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July 24. 


Christina, whose very name fills the Church with 
the fragrance of the Spouse, comes as a graceful 
harbinger to the feast of the elder son of thunder. 
The ancient Vulsinium, seated by its lake with 
basalt shores and calm clear waters, was the scene of 
a triumph over Etruscan paganism, when this child 
of ten years despised the idols of the nations, in the 
very place where, according to the edicts of Constan- 
tine, the false priests of Umbria and Tuscany held a 
solemn annual reunion. The discovery of Christina's 
tomb in our days has confirmed this particular of 
the age of the martyr as given in her Acts, which 
were denied authenticity by the science of recent 
times: ope more lesson given to an infatuated 
criticism which mistrusts everything but itself. 

As we look from the shore where the heroic child 
was laid to rest after her combat, and see the isle 
where Amalasonte, the noble daughter of Theodoric 
the Great, perished so tragically, the nothingness of 
mere earthly grandeur speaks more powerfully to 
the soul than the most eloquent discourse. In the 
thirteenth century, the Spouse, continuing to exalt 
the little martyr above the most illustrious queens, 
associated her in the triumph of his Sacrament of 
love: it was Christina's Church he chose as the 

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theatre of the famous miracle of Bolsena, which 
anticipated by but a few months the institution of 
the feast of Corpus Christi. 

Let us unite our prayers and praises with those of 
holy Church, to honour the glorious Virgin Martyr. 

Ant. Come, O Bride of Ant. Veni, Sponsa Chris- 
Christ, receive the crown ti, accipe coronam quam 
which the Lord hath prepared tibi Dominus praeparavit in 
for thee unto all eternity. aeternum. 

Jf". In thy comeliness and Specie tua et pulchri- 

thy beauty, tudine tna, 

1$. Set forth, proceed pros- 1$. Intende, prospere pros- 
perously, and reign. cede, et regna. 


We beseech thee, O Lord, Indulgentiam nobis, quae- 
that the blessed Virgin and sumus Domine, beata Chris- 
Martyr Christina may implore tina Virgo et Martyr im- 
f or us forgiveness ; who was ploret : quae tibi grata 
ever pleasing to thee by the semper exstitit, et merito 
merit of chastity, and the con- castitatis et tuae prof essione 
f ession of thy power. Through virtutis. Per Dominum. 
our Lord, <fcc. 

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July 25. 


Let us, to-day, hail the bright star, which once 
made Compostella so resplendent with its rays, that 
the obscure town became, like Jerusalem and Rome, 
a centre of attraction to the piety of the whole 
world. As long as the Christian empire lasted, the 
sepulchre of St. James the Great rivalled in glory 
that of St. Peter himself. 

Among the Saints of God, there is not one who 
manifested more evidently how the elect keep up 
after death an interest in the works confided to 
them by our Lord. The life of St. James after his 
call to the Apostolate was but short ; and the result 
of his labours in Spain, his allotted portion, appeared 
to be a failure. Scarcely had he, in his rapid course, 
taken possession of the land of Iberia, when, im- 
patient to drink the chalice which would satisfy his 
continual desire to be close to his Lord, he opened 
by martyrdom the heavenward procession of the 
twelve, which was to be closed by the other son of 
Zebedee. O Salome, who didst give them both to 
the world, and didst present to Jesus their ambitious 
prayer, rejoice with a double joy : thou art not 
repulsed; he who made the hearts of mothers is 
thine abettor. Did he not, to the exclusion of all 
others except Simon his Vicar, choose thy two sons 

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as witnesses of the greatest works of his power, 
admit them to the contemplation of his glory on 
Thabor, and confide to them his sorrow unto death 
in the garden of his agony ? And to-day thy eldest- 
born becomes the first-born in heaven of the sacred 
college; the protoraartyr of the Apostles repays, as 
far as in him lies, the special love of Christ our 

But how was he a messenger of the faith, since 
the sword of Herod Agrippa put such a speedy end 
to his mission ? And how did he justify his name of 
son of thunder, since his voice was heard by a mere 
handful of disciples in a desert of infidelity ? 

This new name, another special prerogative of 
the two brothers, was realized by John in his sublime 
writings, wherein as by lightning flashes he revealed 
to the world the deep things of God; it was the 
same in his case as in that of Simon, who having 
been called Peter by Christ, was also made by him 
the foundation of the Church: the name given by 
the Man-God was a prophecy, not an empty title. 
With regard to James too, then, Eternal Wisdom 
cannot have been mistaken. Let it not be thought 
that the sword of any Herod could frustrate the 
designs of the Most High upon the men of his 
ohoice. The life of the Saints is never cut short ; 
their death, ever precious, is still more so when in 
the cause of God it seems to come before the time. 
It is then that with double reason we may say their 
works follow them; God, himself, being bound in 
honour, both for his own sake and for theirs, to see 
that nothing is wanting to their plenitude. As a 
victim of a holocaust he hath received them, says 
the Holy Ghost, and in time there shall be respect 
had to them. The just shall shine, and shall run to 
and fro like sparks among the reeds. They shall 
judge nations, and rule over peoples; and their 

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Lord shall reign for ever. 1 How literally was this 
Divine oracle to be fulfilled with regard to our 

Nearly eight centuries, which to the heavenly 
citizens are but as a day, had passed over that tomb 
in the North of Spain, where two disciples had 
secretly laid the Apostle's body. During that time, 
the land of his inheritance, which he had so rapidly 
traversed, bad been overrun first by Roman idola- 
ters, then by Arian barbarians, and when the day of 
hope seemed about to dawn, a deeper night was 
ushered in by the Crescent. One day lights were 
seen glimmering over the briars that covered the 
neglected monument; attention was drawn to the 
spot, which henceforth went by the name of the 
field of stars. But what are those sudden shouts 
coming down from the mountains, and echoing 
through the valleys? Who is this unknown chief 
rallying against an immense army the little worn- 
out troop whose heroic valour could not yesterday 
save it from defeat? Swift as lightning, and 
bearing in one hand a white standard with a red 
cross, he rushes with drawn sword upon the panic- 
stricken foe, and dyes the feet of his charger in the 
blood of 70,000 slain. Hail to the chief of the holy 
war, of which this Liturgical Year has so often made 
mention! Saint James! Saint James! Forward, 
Spain! It is the reappearance of the Galilaean 
Fisherman, whom the Man-God once called from the 
bark where he was mending his nets ; of the elder 
son of thunder, now free to hurl the thunderbolt 
upon these new Samaritans, who pretend to honour 
the unity of God by making Christ no more than a 
prophet. 8 Henceforth, James shall be to Christian 
Spain, the firebrand which the Prophet saw, de- 

1 Wisd iii. 6-8. 2 Battle of Clavijo, under Ramiro I., about 845. 

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vouring all the people round about, to the right 
hand and to the left, until Jerusalem shall be 
inhabited again in her own place in Jerusalem. 1 

And when, after six centuries and a half of 
struggle, his standard bearers, the Catholic kings, 
had succeeded in driving the infidel hordes beyond 
the seas, the valiant leader of the Spanish armies % 
laid aside his bright armour, and the slayer of Moors . 
became once more a messenger of the faith. As 
fisher of men, he entered his bark, and gathering 
around it the gallant fleets of a Christopher Colum- 
bus, a Vasco di Gama, an Albuquerque, he led them 
over unknown seas to lands that had never yet heard 
the name of the Lord. For his contribution to the 
labours of the twelve, James drew ashore his well- 
filled nets from West and East and South, from new 
worlds, renewing Peter's astonishment at the sight 
of such captures. He, whose apostolate seemed at the 
time of Herod III. to have been crushed in the bud 
before bearing any fruit, may say with St. Paul : J 
have no way come short of them that are above 
measure Apostles, for by the grace of Ood I have 
laboured more abundantly than all they. 2 

Let us now read the lines consecrated by the 
Church to his honour : 

James, the son of Zebedee, Jacobus, Zebedaei filius, 
and own brother of John the JohannisApostoligermanus 
Apostle, was a Galilsean. He f rater, Galilaeus, inter pri- 
was one of the first to be call- mos Apostolos vocatus cum 
ed to the Apostolate together fratre, relictis patre ac reti- 
with his brother, and, leaving bus, secutus est Dominum, 
his father and his nets, he fol- et ambo ab ipso Jesu Boa- 
lowed the Lord. Jesus called nerges, id est, tonitrui filii 
them both Boanerges, that is sunt appellati. Is unus fuit 
to say, sons of Thunder. He ex tnbus Apostolis, jiuos 
was one of the three Apostles Salvator maxime dilexit, et 
whom our Saviour loved the testes esse voluit suae trans - 

1 Zach. xii. 6. 2 2 Cor. xii. 11, and 1 Cor. xv. 10. 

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figurationis, et interesse mi- 
raculo, quum archisynagogi 
filiam a mortuis excitavit, 
et adesse cum secessit in 
mon tern Olive ti, Patrem ora- 
turus, antequam a Judaeis 
comprehenderetur . 

Post Jesu Christi ascen- 
sum in ccelum, in Judaea et 
Samaria ejus divinitatem 
praedicans, plurimos ad 
Christianam fidem perdu x- 
it. Mox in Hispaniam pro- 
fectus, ibi aliquos ad Chris- 
tum convertit: ex quorum 
numero septem postea epis- 
copi a beato Petro ordinati, 
in Hispaniam primi directi 
sunt Deinde Jerosolymam 
reversus, quum inter alios 
Hermogenem magum fidei 
veritate imbuisset, Herod- 
es Agrippa Claudio im- 
peratore ad regnum elatus, 
ut a Judaeis gratiam ini- 
ret, Jacobum libere Jesum 
Christum Deum confiten- 
tem capitis condemnavit. 

SJuem quum is, qui eum 
uxerat ad tribunal, forti- 
ter martyrium subeuntem 
vidisset, statim se et ipse 
Christianum esse professus 

Ad supplicium quum ra- 
perentur, petiit ille a Jaco- 
bo veniam: quern Jacobus 
osculatus, Pax, inquit, tibi 
sit. Itaque uterque est se- 


most, and whom he chose as 
witnesses of his transfigura- 
tion, and of the miracle by 
which he raised to life the 
daughter of the ruler of the 
Synagogue, and whom he 
wished to be present when 
he retired to the Mount of 
Olives, to pray to his Father, 
before being taken prisoner 
by the Jews. 

After the Ascension of Jesus 
Christ into heaven, James 
preached his Divinity in Ju- 
dea and Samaria, and led 
many to the Christian faith. 
Soon, however, he set out 
for Spain, and there made 
some converts to Christianity ; 
among these were the seven 
men, who were afterwards 
consecrated bishops by St. 
Peter, and were the first sent 
by him into Spain. James 
returned to Jerusalem, and, 
among others, instructed Her- 
mogenes, the magician, in the 
truths of faith. Herod Agrip- 
pa, who had been raised to 
the throne under the Emperor 
Claudius, wished to curry 
favour with the Jews, he, 
therefore, condemned the 
Apostle to death for openly 
proclaiming Jesus Christ to 
be God. When the man who 
had brought him to the tri- 
bunal saw the courage with 
which he went to martyrdom, 
he declared that he, too, was 
a Christian. 

As they were being hur- 
ried to execution, he im- 
plored James 1 forgiveness. The 
Apostle kissed him, saying : 
" Peace be with you." Thus 

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both of them were beheaded ; 
James having a little before 
cured a paralytic. His body 
was afterwards translated to 
Compostella, where it is hon- 
oured with the highest venera- 
tion; pilgrims flock thither 
from every part of the world, 
to, satisfy tneir devotion or 
pay their vows. The memory 
of his natalis is celebrated by 
the Church to-day, which is 
the day of his translation. 
But it was near the feast of 
the Pasch that, first of all the 
Apostles, he shed his blood, 
at J erusalem, as a witness to 
Jesus Christ. 

curi percussus, quum paulo 
ante Jacobus paralyticum 
sanasset. Corpus ejus pos- 
tea Compostellam transla- 
tum est, ubi summa celebri- 
tate colitur, convenientibus 
eo religionis et voti causa 
ex toto terrarum orbe pere- 
grinis. Memoria ipsius na~ 
talis hodierno die, qui trans* 
lationis dies est, ab Ecclesia 
celebratur, quum ipse circa 
festum Paschae primus A- 
postolorum Jerosolymis pro- 
fuso sanguine testimonium 
Jesu Christo dederit. 

Patron of Spain, forget not the grand nation which 
owes to thee both its heavenly nobility and its earthly 
prosperity ; preserve it from ever diminishing those 
truths which made it, in its bright days, the salt of 
the earth ; keep it in mind of the terrible warning 
that if the salt lose its savour, it is good for nothing 
any more but to be cast out and to be trodden on by 
men, 1 At the same time remember, O Apostle, the 
special cultus wherewith the whole Church honours 
thee. Does she not to this very day keep under the 
immediate protection of the Roman Pontiff both thy 
sacred body, so happily rediscovered in our times, 2 
and the vow of going on pilgrimage to venerate 
those precious relics ? 

Where now are the days when thy wonderful 
energy of expansion abroad was surpassed by thy 
power of drawing all to thyself? Who but he that 
numbers the stars of the firmament could count the 

1 St. Matth. v. 13. 

2 Litter* Leonis XIII., diei 1 Novemb. 1884, ad Arohiep. Com- 

pent. iv. O 

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Saints, the penitents, the kings, the warriors, the 
unknown of every grade, the ever-renewed multi- 
tude, ceaselessly moving to and from that field of 
stars, whence thou didst shed thy light upon the 
world ? Our ancient legends tell us of a mysterious 
vision granted to the founder of Christian Europe. 
One evening after a day of toil, Charlemagne, stand- 
ing on the shore of the Frisian Sea, beheld a long 
belt of stars, which seemed to divide the sky be- 
tween Gaul, Germany, and Italy, and crossing over 
Gascony, the Basque territory, and Navarre, stretched 
away to the far-off Province of Galicia. Then thou 
didst appear to him and say: "This starry path 

marks out the road for thee to go and deliver my 
"tomb; and all nations shall follow after thee," 1 
And Charles, crossing the mountains, gave the signal 
to all Christendom to undertake those great Crusades, 
which were both the salvation and the glory of the 
Latin races, by driving back the Mussulman plague 
to the land of its birth. 

When we consider that two tombs formed, as it 
were, the two extreme points or poles of this move- 
ment unparalleled in the history of nations: the 
one wherein the God- Man rested in death, the other 
where thy body lay, O son of Zebedee, we cannot 
help crying out with the Psalmist : Thy friends, 0 
God, are made exceedingly honourable! 2 And what 
a mark of friendship did the Son of Man bestow 
on his humble apostle by sharing his honours with 
him, when the military Orders and Hospitallers were 
established, to the terror of the Crescent, for the sole 
purpose, at the outset, of entertaining and protecting 
pilgrims on their way to one or other of these holy 
tombs ? May the heavenly impulse now so happily 
showing itself in the return to the great Catholic 

1 Pseweto-TuRPiN. De vita Car. Magn. 2 Ps. cxxxviii. 17. 

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pilgrimages, gather once more at Compostella the 
sons of thy former clients. We, at least, will imitate 
St. Louis before the walls of Tunis, murmuring with 
his dying lips the Collect of thy feast ; and we will 
repeat in conclusion : " Be thou, O Lord, the sancti- 
" fier and guardian of thy people ; that, defended by 
"the protection of thy Apostle James, they may 
" please thee by their conduct, and serve thee with 
" secure minds." 

The name of Christopher, whose memory enhances 
the solemnity of the son of thunder, signifies one who 
bears Christ. Christina yesterday reminded us that 
Christians ought to be in every place the good odour 
of Christ; 1 Christopher to-day puts us in mind that 
Christ truly dwells by faith in our hearts. 2 The 
graceful legend attached to his name is well known. 
As other men were, at a later date, to sanctify them- 
selves in Spain by constructing roads and bridges 
to facilitate the approach of pilgrims to the tomb of 
St. James, so Christopher in Lycia had vowed for 
the love of Christ to carry travellers on his strong 
shoulders across a dangerous torrent. Our Lord will 
say on the last day : " What you did to one of these 
" my least brethren you did it to me." One night, 
being awakened by the voice of a child asking to be 
carried across, Christopher hastened to perform his 
wonted task of charity, when suddenly, in the midst 
of the surging and apparently trembling waves, the 
giant, who had never stooped beneath the greatest 
weight, was bent down under his burden, now grown 
heavier than the world itself " Be not astonished," 
said the mysterious child, "thou bearest him who 
"bears the world." And he disappeared, blessing 
his carrier and leaving him full of heavenly strength. 

1 2 Cor. ii. 15. 2 Eph. iii. 17. 

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Christopher was crowned with martyrdom under 
Decius. The aid our fathers knew how to obtain 
from him against storms, demons, plague, accidents 
of all kinds, has caused bim to be ranked among the 
saints called helpers. In tnany places the fruits of 
the orchards were blessed on this day, under the 
common auspices of St. Christopher and St. James. 


Praesta, quaesumus oinni- Grant* we beseech thee, Al- 

potens Deus : ut, qui beati mighty God, that we who ce~ 

Christophori Martyris tui lebrate the festival of blessed 

natalitia colimus, interces- Christopher thy martyr, may 

sione ejus in tui Nominis by his intercession be streng- 

amore roboremur. Per Do- thened in the love of thy 

minum. name. Through. 

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July 26. 


Uniting the blood of kings with that of pontiflfe, 
the glory of Anne's illustrious origin is far surpassed 
by that of her offspring, without compare among 
the daughters of Eve. The noblest of all, who have 
ever conceived by virtue of the command to "in- 
" crease and multiply/' beholds the law of human 
generation pause before her as having arrived at its 
summit, at the threshold of God ; for, from her fruit 
■God himself is to come forth, the fatherless Son of 
the Blessed Virgin, and the grandson of Anne and 

Before being favoured with the greatest blessing 
ever bestowed on an earthly union, the two holy 
grand-parents of the Word made Flesh had to pass 
through the purification of suffering. Traditions 
which, though mingled with details of less authen- 
ticity, have come down to us from the very be- 
ginning of Christianity, tell us of these noble spouses 
subjected to the trial of prolonged sterility, and on 
that account despised by their people; of Joachim 
cast out of the temple and going to hide his sorrow 
in the desert; of Anne left alone to mourn her 
widowhood and humiliation. For exquisite senti- 
ment this narrative might be compared with the 
most beautiful histories in Holy Scripture. 

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" It was one of the great festival days of the Lord. 
"In spite of extreme sorrow, Anne laid aside her 
"mourning garments, and adorned her head and 
" clothed herself with her nuptial robes. And about 
"the ninth hour she went down to the garden to 
"walk; seeing a laurel she sat down in its shade, 
"and poured forth her prayer to the Lord God, 
"saying: God of my fathers, bless me and hear my 
"supplication, as thou didst ble3s Sara and didst 
" give her a son ! 

"And raising her eyes to heaven, she saw in the 
" laurel a sparrow's nest, and sighing she said : Alas 1 
" of whom was I born to be thus a curse in Israel ? 

" To whom shall I liken me ? I cannot liken me 
"to the birds of the air; for the birds are blessed by 
"thee, 0 Lord. 

" To whom shall I liken me ? I cannot liken me 
" to the beasts of the earth : for they, too, are fruitful 
^ before thee. 

" To whom shall I liken me ? I cannot liken me 
" to the waters ; for they are not barren in thy sight, 
"and the rivers and the oceans full of fish praise 
"thee in their heavings and in their peaceful 

"To whom shall I liken me? I cannot liken me 
" even to the earth, for the earth, too, bears fruit in 
" season, and praises thee, 0 Lord. ✓ 

" And behold an Angel of the Lord stood by, and 
"said to her: Anne, God has heard thy prayer; 
" thou shalt conceive and bear a child, and thy fruit 
" shall be honoured throughout the whole inhabited 
"earth. And in due time Anne brought forth a 
" daughter, and said : My soul is magnified this hour. 
" And she called the child Mary ; and giving her the 
" breast, she intoned this canticle to the Lord : 

"I will sing the praise of the Lord my God: for 
" he has visited me and has taken away my shame, 

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"and has given me a fruit of justice. Who shall 
" declare to the sons of Ruben that Anne is become 
" fruitful ? Hear, hear, O ye twelve tribes : behold 
" Anne is giving suck I" 1 

The feast of St. Joachim, which the Church 
celebrates on the Sunday within the octave of his 
blessed Daughter's Assumption, will give us an 
occasion of completing the account of these trials 
and joys in which he shared. Warned from heaten 
to leave the desert, he met his spouse at the golden 
gate which leads to the Temple on the east side. 
Not far from here, near the Probatica piscina, where 
the little white lambs were washed before being 
offered in sacrifice, now stands the restored basilica 
of St. Anne, originally called St. Mary of the 
Nativity. Here, as in a peaceful paradise, the rod 
of Jesse produced that blessed branch which the 
Prophet hailed as about to bear the flower that had 
blossomed from eternity in the bosom of the Father. 
It is true that Sephoris, Anne's native city, and 
Nazareth, where Mary lived, dispute with the holy 
City the honour which ancient and constant tradi- 
tion assigns to Jerusalem. But our homage will not 
be misdirected if we offer it to-day to Blessed Anne, 
in whom were wrought the prodigies, the very 
thought of which brings new joy to heaven, rage to 
Satan, and triumph to the world. 

Anne was, as it were, the starting-point of 
Redemption, the horizon scanned by the prophets, 
the first span of the heavens to be empurpled with 
the rising fires of aurora; the blessed soil whose 
produce was so pure as to make the Angels believe 
that Eden had been restored to us. But in the 
midst of the aureola of incomparable peace that 
surrounds her, let us hail her as the land of victory 

1 Protevangelium Jacobi. 

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surpassing the most famous fields of battle; as the 
sanctuary of the Immaculate Conception, where our 
humiliated race took up the combat begun before 
the throne of God by the Angelic hosts ; where the 
serpent' 8 head was crushed, and Michael, now sur- 
passed in glory, gladly handed over to his sweet 
Queen, at the first moment of her existence, the 
command of the Lord's armies. 

What human lips, unless touched like the pro- 
phet's with a burning coal, could tell the admiring 
wonder of the Angelic Powers, when the Blessed 
Trinity, passing from the burning Seraphim to the 
lowest of the nine choirs, bade them turn their fiery 
glanoes and contemplate the flower of sanctity 
blossoming in the bosom of Anne? The Psalmist 
had said of the glorious City whose foundations 
were now hidden in her that was once barren : The 
fowadation8 thereof are in the holy mowrvtavns ; l 
and the heavenly hierarchies crowning the slopes of 
the eternal hills, beheld in her heights to them 
unknown and unattainable, summits approaching 
so near to God, that he was even then preparing his 
throne in her. Like Moses at the sight of the 
burning bush on Horeb, they were seized with a 
holy awe on recognising the mountain of God in the 
midst of the desert of this world ; and they under- 
stood that the affliction of Israel was soon to cease. 
Although shrouded by the cloud, Mary was already 
that blessed mountain whose base, i.e., the starting- 
point of her graces, was set far above the summits 
where the highest created sanctities are perfected in 
glory and love. 

How justly is the mother named Anne, which 
signifies grace, she in whom for nine months were 
centred the complacencies of the Most High, the 

1 Ps. lxxxvi. I 

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ecstasy of the Angelic Spirits and the hope of all 
flesh! No doubt it was Mary, the daughter, and 
not the mother, whose sweetness so powerfully 
attracted the heavens to our lowly earth. But the 
perfume first scents the vessel which contains it, and 
even after it is removed, leaves it impregnated with 
its fragrance. Moreover, it is customary to prepare 
the vase itself with the greatest care ; it must be all 
the purer, made of more precious material, and 
more richly adorned, according as the essence to be 
placed in it is rarer and more exquisite. Thus 
Magdalene enclosed her precious spikenard in ala- 
baster. The Holy Spirit, the preparer of heavenly 
perfumes, would not be less careful than men. Now 
the task of blessed Anne was not limited, like that 
of a material vase, to passively containing the 
treasure of the world. She furnished the body of 
her who was to give flesh to the Son of God ; she 
nourished her with her milk ; she gave to her, who 
was inundated with floods of divine light, the first 
practical notions of life. In the education of her 
illustrious daughter, Anne played the part of a true 
mother: not only did she guide Mary's first steps, 
but she co-operated with the Holy Ghost in the 
education of her soul, and the preparation for her 
incomparable destiny; until, whe» the work had 
reached the highest development to which she could 
bring it, she, without a moment's hesitation or a 
thought of self, offered her tenderly loved child to 
him from whom she had received her. 

Sic fingit tabernaculum Deo, thus she frames a 
tabernacle for God. Such was the inscription around 
the figure of St. Anne instructing Mary, which formed 
the device of the ancient guild of joiners and cabinet- 
makers ; for they, looking upon the making of taber- 
nacles wherein God may dwell in our churches as 
their most choice work, had taken St. Anne for their 

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patroness and model. Happy were those times, 
when the simplicity of our fathers penetrated so 
deeply into the practical understanding of mysteries, 
which their infatuated sons glory in ignoring. The 
valiant woman is praised in the Book of Proverbs for 
her spinning, weaving, sewing, embroidering, and 
household cares: naturally then, those engaged in 
these occupations placed themselves under the pro- 
tection of the spouse of Joachim. More than once, 
those suffering from the same trial which had inspired 
Anne's touching prayer beneath the sparrow's nest, 
experienced the power of her intercession in obtaining 
for others, as well as for herself, the blessing of the 
Lord God. 

The East anticipated the West in the public cultus 
of the grandmother of the Messias. Towards the 
middle of the sixth century, a Church was dedicated 
to her in Constantinople. The Typicon of St. Sabbas 
makes a liturgical commemoration of her three times 
in the year : on the 9th September, together with 
her spouse St. Joachim, the day after the birthday 
of their glorious daughter; on the 9th December, 
whereon the Greeks, a day later than the Latins, 
keep the feast of our Lady's Immaculate Conception, 
under a title which more directly expresses St. Anne's 
share in the my^ery ; and lastly, the 25th July, not 
being occupied by the feast of St. James, which was 
kept on the SOth April, is called the Dormitio or 
precious death of St. Anne, mother of the most holy 
Mother of God : the very same expression which the 
Roman Martyrology adopted later. 

Although Rome, with her usual reserve, did not 
until much later authorize the introduction into the 
Latin Churches of a liturgical feast of St Anne, she 
nevertheless encouraged the piety of the faithful in 
this direction. So early as the time of Leo III. 1 and 

1 795-816. 

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by that illustrious Pontiff's express command, the 
history of Anne and Joachim was represented on the 
sacred ornaments of the noblest basilicas in the 
Eternal City. 1 The Order of Carmel, so devout to 
St. Anne, powerfully contributed, by its fortunate 
migration into our countries, to the growing increase 
of her cultus. Moreover, this development was the 
natural outcome of the progress of devotion among 
the people to the Mother of God. The close relation 
between the two worships is noticed in a concession, 
whereby in 1381 Urban VI. satisfied the desires of 
the faithful in England by authorizing for that king- 
dom a feast of the blessed Anne. The Church of 
Apt in Provence had been already a century in 
possession of the feast; a fact due to the honour 
bestowed on that Church of having received almost 
together with the faith, the Saint's holy body, in the 
first age of Christianity. 

Since our Lord, reigning in heaven, has willed that 
his blessed Mother should also be crowned there in 
her virginal body, the relics of Mary's mother have 
become doubly dear to the world, first, as in the case 
of others, on account of the holiness of her whose 
precious remains they are, and then above all others, 
on account of their close connection with the mystery 
of the Incarnation. The Church of Apt was so 
generous out of its abundance, that it would now be 
impossible to enumerate the sanctuaries which have 
obtained, either from this principal source or from 
elsewhere, more or less notable portions of these 
precious relics. We cannot omit to mention as one 
of these privileged places, the great Basilica of St. 
Paul outside the walls; St. Anne herself, in an 
apparition to St. Bridget of Sweden, 2 confirmed the 

1 Lib. pontif. in Leon. in. 

2 Revelationes S. Birgittje, lib. vi., cap. 104. 

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authenticity of the arm which forms one of the most 
precious jewels in the rich treasury of that Church. 

It was not until 1584 that Gregory XIII. ordered 
the celebration of this feast of 26th J uly throughout 
the whole Church, with the rite of a double. Leo 
XIII. in our own times (1879) raised it, together with 
that of St. Joachim, to the dignity of a solemnity of 
second class. But before that, Gregory XV., after 
having been cured of a serious illness by St. Anne, 
had ranked her feast among those of precept, with 
obligation of resting from servile work. 

Now that St. Anne was receiving the homage due 
to her exalted dignity, she made haste to show her 
recognition of this more solemn tribute of praise. 
In the years 1623, 1624 and 1625, in the village of 
Keranna, near Auray, in Brittany, she appeared to 
Yves Nicolazic, and discovered to him an ancient 
statue buried in the field of Bocenno, which he 
tenanted. This discovery brought the people once 
more to the place, where, a thousand years before, the 
inhabitants of ancient Armorica had honoured that 
statue. Innumerable graces obtained on the spot 
spread its fame far beyond the limits of the province, 
whose faith, worthy of past ages, had merited the 
favour of the grandmother of the Messias ; and St. 
Anne d' Auray was soon reckoned among the chief 
pilgrimages of the Christian world. 

More fortunate than the wife of Elcana, who pre- 
figured thee both in her trial and by her name, thou, 
O Anne, now singest the magnificent gifts of the 
Lord. Where is now the proud synagogue that 
despised thee ? The descendants of the barren one 
are now without number ; and all we, the brethren 
of Jesus, children, like him, of thy daughter Mary, 
come joyfully, led by our Mother, to offer thee our 
praises. In the family circle the grandmother's feast- 
day is the most touching of all, when her grand- 

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children surround her with reverential love, as we 
gather around thee to-day. Many, alas! know not 
these beautiful feasts, where the blessing of the 
earthly paradise seems to revive in ail its freshness ; 
but the mercy of our God has provided a sweet com- 
pensation. He, the Most High God, willed to come 
so nigh to us, as to be one of us in the flesh ; to know 
the relations and mutual dependences which are the 
law of our nature ; the bonds of Adam, with which 
he had determined to draw us and in which he first 
bound himself. For, in raising nature above itself, 
he did not eliminate it ; he made grace take hold of 
it and lead it to heaven ; so that, joined together on 
earth by their Divine Author, nature and grace were 
to be united for all eternity. We, then, being breth- 
ren by grace of him who is ever thy Grandson by 
nature, are, by this loving disposition of Divine 
Wisdom, quite at home under thy roof; and to-day's 
feast, so dear to the hearts of Jesus and Mary, is our 
own family feast. 

Smile then, dear mother, upon our chants and bless 
our prayers. To-day and always be propitious to the 
supplications which our land of sorrows sends up to 
thee. Be gracious to wives and mothers who confide 
to thee their holy desires and the secret of their 
sorrows. Keep up, where they still exist, the tradi- 
tions of the Christian home. Over how many families 
has the baneful breath of this age passed, blighting 
all that is serious in life, weakening faith, leaving 
nothing but languor, weariness, frivolity, if not even 
worse, in the place of the true and solid joys of our 
fathers. How truly might the Wise Man say at the 
present dav: "Who shall find a valiant woman?" 
She alone by her influence could counteract all these 
evils; but on condition of recognising wherein her 
true strength lies: in humble household works 
done with her own hands ; in hidden, self-sacrificing. 

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devotedness; in watchings by night; in hourly 
foresight; working in wool and flax, and with the 
spindle; all those strong things which win for her the 
confidence and praise of her husband; authority over 
all, abundance in the house, blessings from the poor 
whom she has helped, honour from strangers, rever- 
ence from her children ; and for herself, in the fear 
of the Lord, nobility and dignity, beauty and strength, 
wisdom, sweetness and content, and calm assurance 
at the latter day. 1 

O blessed Anne, rescue society, which is perishing 
for want of virtues like thine. The motherly kind- 
nesses thou art ever more frequently bestowing upon 
us have increased the Church's confidence ; deign to 
respond to the hopes she places in thee. Bless 
especially thy faithful Brittany; have pity on un- 
happy France, for which thou hast shown thy predi- 
lection, first, by so early confiding to it thy sacred 
body; later on, by choosing in it the spot whence 
thou wouldst manifest thyself to the world; and, 
again, quite recently entrusting to its sons the 
Church and seminary dedicated to thy honour in 
Jerusalem. O thou who lovest the Franks, who 
deignest still to look on fallen Gaul as the kingdom 
of Mary, continue to show it that love which is 
its most cherished tradition. May est thou become 
known throughout the whole world. As for us, who 
have long known thy power and experienced thy 
goodness, let us ever seek in thee, O mother, our 
rest, security, strength in every trial; for he who 
leans on thee has nothing to fear on earth, and he 
who rests in thy arms is safely carried. 

Let us offer the blessed Anne a wreath gathered 
from the Liturgy. We will first cull from the 
Mensea of the Greeks, as being the earliest in date. 

1 Cf. Prov. xxxi. 10-31. 

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Ex Officio Vespertino* 

O brilliant solemnity, day 
full of light and joy to the 
whole world ! This day we 
celebrate the venerable and 
praiseworthy passage of the 
glorious Anne, of whom was 
born the Mother of Life. 

She who was once unfruit- 
ful and barren brought forth 
the first fruits of our salva- 
tion ; she beseeches Christ to 
grant pardon of their sins to 
them that sing his praises 
with faith. 

Hail, spiritual bird, an- 
nouncing the spring-time of 
grace ! Hail, sheep, mother 
of the ewe-lamb, who by a 
word conceived the Word, the 
Lamb who taketh away the 
sins of the world ! 

Hail, blessed earth, whence 
sprang the branch that bore 
a Divine Fruit. Thy fruit- 
fulness put an end to barren- 
ness, O Anne, most blessed in 
•God, grandmother of Christ, 
our God, who didst give to 
the world a shining lamp, the 
Mother of God ; together with 
her deign to intercede, that 
great may be the mercy grant- 
ed to our souls. 

Come all ye creatures, let 
us cry out to holy Anne with 
cymbals and psaltery. She 
brought forth the mountain 
of God, and was borne up to 
the spiritual mountains, the 
tabernacles of Paradise. Let 

En splendida solemnitas 
et dies clara, universo man- 
do jucunda, venerabilis at- 
que laudanda dormitio An- 
nae gloriosse, ex qua prodiit 
Mater Vitae. 

Quae prius infecunda et 
sterilis, primitias nostras sa- 
lutis germinavit, Christum 
rogat ut culparum veniam 
largiatur his qui cum fide 
eum collaudant. 

Salve, avis spiritualis, ver- 
ni nuntia gratiae. Salve, ovis 
agnam parta, quae Agnum 
tollentem peccata mundi, 
Verbum, verbo genuit. 

Salve, terra benedicta, 
quae virgam divinitus ger- 
minantem mundo florescere 
fecisti. Sterilitatem tuo par- 
tu f ugasti, Anna in Deo bea- 
tissima, avia Christi Dei, 
quae fulgentem lucernam, 
Dei genitricem, edidisti : 
quacum intercedere digner- 
is, ut animabus nostris mag- 
na misericordia donetur. 

Venite universal creaturae, 
in cymbalis psalmorum An- 
nae piae acclamemus, quae e 
visceribus suis genuit divi- 
num Montem, et ad montes 
spiritualea ac tabernacula 
raradisi est translata. Ad 

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ipsam dicamus: Beata al- 
vus tua quae vere gestavit 
illam quae in ventre suo por- 
tavit lumen mundi ; glorio- 
sa ubera tua, quibus lactata 
est ea quae Christum, cibum 
vitae nostras, aluit. Hunc 
deprecare, ut ab omni vexa- 
tione et incursu inimici li- 
beremur, et animae nostras 

us say to her : Blessed is thy 
womb wherein she rested who 
herself bore the Light of the 
world ; glorious are thy breasts 
which suckled her who fed 
Christ the food of our life. 
Beseech him to deliver us 
from all harassing attacks of 
the enemy, and to save our 

Let us turn to our Western lands and join in 
the chants of the various churehes. The Mozarabic 
Liturgy thus interprets the feelings of the once 
barren woman, after her prayer had been so magni- 
ficently answered : 


Confitebor tibi, Domine, 
in toto corde meo : quia ex- 
andisti verba oris mei. 

]$. In conspectu Angelo- 
rum psallam tibi. 

y. Deus meus es tu, et 
confitebor tibi: Deus meus, 
et exaltabo te. 

1$. In conspectu. 

ft. Gloria et honor Patri, 
et Filio, et Spiritui San- 
cto in 88ecula sseculorum. 

IJ. In conspectu. 

I will praise thee, O Lord, 
with my whole heart ; for thou« 
hast heard the words of my 

1$. In the sight of Angels I 
win sing praise to thee. 

t. Thou art my God, and I 
will praise thee : my God, and 
I will exalt thee. 

B. In the sight. 

ft. Glory and honour be to 
the Father, and to the Son, 
and to the Holy Ghost, world 
without end. Amen. 

1$. In the sight. 

Apt shall next speak in the name of all Provenccy 
and tell of its glorious honour : 


O splendor Provinciae, no- O glory of Provence, noble 
bilis mater Marias Virginia, mother of the Virgin Mary, 
et Davidis filia; avia Be- daughter of David, grand- 

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mother of our Bedeemer, 
bring us the grace of pardon, 
that we may live with the 

demptoris, nobis opem f eras 
venise ut vivamus cum bea- 

Brittany shall declare the confidence it places in 
its illustrious protectress : 


Behold the mother chosen 
for us by our Lord, most holy 
Anne, the hope and pro- 
tection of the Bretons. * In 
prosperity our helper, in ad- 
versity our succour. 

^. May she be ever mind- 
ful of her people, ever graci- 
ous to her children, whether 
on land or toiling o'er the sea. 
* In prosperity. 

Glory be to the Father, aud 
to the Son, and to the Holy 
Ghost. * In prosperity. 

Haec est Mater nobis elec- 
ta a Domino, Anna Sanctis- 
sima, Britonum spes et tu- 
tela: * Quam in prosperis 
adjutricem, in adversis auxi- 
liatricem habemus. 

jf. Populi sui memor 
sit semper; adsitque grata 
filiis suis, terra marique 
laborantibus. * Quam in 

Gloria Patri, et Filio, et 
Spiritui Sancto. * Quam in 

Let us all unite with Brittany in the following 
hymn : 


Mother Church exults with 
the joy of this blessed day, 
and sings the praise of Anne, 
the beauty of Judea, the mo- 
ther of Mary. 

Uniting the blood of holy 
kings with that of pontiffs, 
the glory of her ancestry is 
far outstript by Anne's re- 
splendent virtues. 

'Neath heaven's smile she 
ties the nuptial bond ; and in 
her holy tabernacle hides the 
un waning star of virgins. 


Lucis beatse gaudiis 
Gestit parens Ecclesia, 
Annamque Judaeas decus 
Matrem Marise concinit. 

Hegum piorum sanguini 
Jungens Sacerdotes avos, 
Illustris Anna splendidis 
Vincit genus virtutibus. 

Coelo favente nexuit 
Vincli jugalis fcedera, 
Alvoque sancta condidit 
Sidus perenne virginum. 


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0 mira coeli gratia ! 
Annas parentis in sinu 
Concepta virgo content 
Saevi draconis verticem. 

Tanto salutis pignore 
Jamsperat humanum genus: 
Orbi redempto praevia 
Pacem columba nuntiat. 

Sit laus Patri, sit Filip, 
Tibique Sancte Soiritus. 
Annam pie colentibus 
Confer perennem gratiam. 


O wondrous grace of hea- 
ven ! Scarce is the Virgin 
conceived in the womb of her 
mother when she there crush- 
es the head of the cruel dra- 

With such a pledge of sal- 
vation mankind finds hope at 
length ; the dove has come 
foretelling peace to the re- 
deemed world. 

Praise be to the Father, to 
the Son, and to thee, O holy 
Spirit ! To them that loving- 
ly honour blessed Anne, grant 
everlasting grace. Amen. 

We will conclude with these beautiful formulae of 
praise and prayer to our Lord, from the Ambrosian 
Missal of Milan : 


uEterne Deus, qui bea- 
tam Annam singulari tuae 
gratiae privilegio sublimasti 
Cui desideratae fcecundita- 
tis munus magnificum, et 
excellens adeo contulisti ; 
ut ex ipsa Virgo virginum, 
Maria, Angelorum Domina, 
Begina mundi, maris Stella, 
Mater Filii tui Dei et homi- 
nisnasceretur. Etideocum 

It is right and just to give 
thanks to thee, O eternal 
God, who by a singular pri- 
vilege of thy grace, hast ex- 
alted the blessed Anne. To 
whose desire of fruitfulness 
thou didst give a gift so mag- 
nificent and so far surpassing 
all others, that from her was 
born Mary, the Virgin of vir- 
gins, the Lady of the Angels, 
the Queen of the world, the 
Star of the sea, the Mother of 
thy Son, who is both God and 
Man. And, therefore, with 
the Angels, <fec 


Omnipotens, sempiterne 
Deus, qui beatam Annam, 

O Almighty everlasting 
God, who didst give to bless- 

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ST, ANNE. 213 

ed Anne, after the affliction diuturna sterilitate afflic- 

of a long barrenness, the grace tarn, gloriosse prolis f oetu 

to bear a glorious fruit; grant, tua gratia foecundasti; da, 

we beseech thee, that, as her qusesumus : ut, pro nobis 

merits intercede with thee for apud te intervenientibus 

us, we may be made rich in ejus meritis, efficiamur 

sincere faith and fruitful in smcera fide foecundi, et sa- 

works of salvation. Through lutiferis operibus fructuosL 

our Lord Jesus Christ. Per Dominum. 

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July 27. 



The East celebrates to-day one of her great martyrs, 
who was both a healer of bodies and a conqueror of 
souls. His name, which recalls the strength of the 
lion, was changed by heaven at the time of his death 
into Panteleemon, or alh-merdful; a happy presage 
of the gracious blessings our Lord would afterwards 
bestow on the earth through his means. The various 
translations and the diffusion of his sacred relics in 
our West have made his cultus widespread, together 
with his renown as a friend in need, which has 
caused him to be ranked among the saints called 

Pantaleon Nicomediensis, 
nobilis medicus ab Hermo- 
lao Presbytero in Jesu 
Christi fide eruditus, bap- 
tizatus est : qui mox patri 
Eustorgio per8uasit,ut Chris- 
tianus fieret. Quare cum 
Nicomediae postea Christi 
Domini fidem libere prsedi- 
caret, et ad ejus doctrinam 
omnes cohortaretur, Diocle- 
tiano imperatore equuleo 
tortus, et admotis ad ejus 
corpus laminis candentibus, 
cruciatus est: quam tormen- 

Pantaleon was a nobleman 
of Nicomedia and a physician. 
He was instructed in the 
faith and baptized by the 
priest Hermolaus, and soon 
persuaded his father Eustor- 
gius to become a Christian. 
Afterwards he freely preached 
the faith of our Lord Christ 
in Nicomedia, and encouraged 
all to embrace his doctrine. 
This was in the reign of 
Diocletian. He was tortured 
on the rack and red-hot plates 
were applied to his body. He 

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bore the violence of these torum vim aequo et forti 
tortures calmly and bravely, animo ferens, ad extremum 
and being finally beheaded, gladio percuss us, martyrii 
obtained the crown of martyr- coronam adeptus est. 

What is stronger than a lion, and what is 
sweeter than honey? 1 Greater than Samson, thou, 
O Martyr, didst in thy own person propose and 
solve the riddle: Out of the strong came forth 
sweetness? O lion, who didst follow so fearlessly 
the Lion of Juda, thou didst imitate his ineffable 
gentleness ; and as he deserved to be called eternally 
the Lamb, so did he will his Divine Mercy to shine 
forth in the everlasting heavenly name, into which 
he changed thy earthly name. Justify that title 
more and more for the honour of him who gave it 
to thee. Be merciful to those who call on thee: to 
the sufferers whom a weary consumption brings 
daily nearer to the tomb; to physicians, who, like 
thee, spend themselves in the care of their brethren : 
assist them in giving relief to physical suffering, in 
restoring corporal health ; teach them still better to 
heal moral wounds, and lead sduls to salvation. 

1 Judges xiv. 18. 2 Ibid. 14. 

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July 28. 



SAINT INNOCENT, Pope and Confessor. 
— ♦ — 

Nazarius and Celsus bring glory to the Church of 
Milan, by appearing on the cycle to-day. After 
lying forgotten for three centuries in the obscure 
tomb that had received their precious remains in 
the time of Nero, they now receive the united 
homage of East and West. It was nine years since 
the triumphal day when Gervase and Frotase, no 
less forgotten by the city once witness of their 
combat, had come t6 console and strengthen an 
illustrious Bishop who was persecuted for his pro- 
fession of the Divine consubstantiality of the same 
Christ who had had all their love and faith. 
Ambrose, loved by the martyrs, though denied their 
palm, was soon to receive the white wreath of con- 
fession in reward for his holy works, when heaven 
revealed to him a new treasure, the discovery of 
which was again "to illustrate the times of his 
" episcopate." * Theodosius was no more ; Ambrose 
was about to die ; the barbarians were at the gates. 
But as if, simultaneous with the threat of imminent 
destruction to the ancient world, the hour for the 

1 Amb. Ep. xxii. 

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first resurrection spoken of by St. John had sounded, 
the martyrs rose from their tombs to reign a 
thousand years with Christ on the renovated earth. 

That great Babylon is fallen, is fallen, which, 
made all nations to drink of the wine of the wrath 
of her fornication; and in her was found the 
blood of 'prophets and of saints, and of all that 
were slain upon the earth. 1 The great Pope 
Innocent I., whose memory seems to have been 
purposely united with that of the martyrs, bears 
witness to the deluge, wherein, during his Pontificate, 
pagan Rome at length perished utterly, and made 
way for the new Jerusalem come down from heaven. 
Like the ancient Sion, the Borne of the Caesars 
would not yield to the offers of that God, who alone 
could fulfil her desires of immortality. Even since 
the triumph of the Cross under Constantine, no city 
of the empire had remained so obstinately given to 
the worship of idols, or shed so much of that noble 
blood which might have renewed her youth. And 
yet after the defeat of her vain idols, God, in his 
patience, determined to wait a century longer, the 
last decade of which was a series of salutary threats 
and merciful interventions, the evident work of the 
Christ whom she still obstinately repulsed. The 
incursions of the Goths, allies one day, enemies the 
next, everywhere spreading anarchy, gave her an 
opportunity of returning to superstitions which the 
Christian Emperors had not tolerated; and in her 
dotage she welcomed the Tuscan soothsayers who 
had come to help her against Alaric, and allowed 
them to re-establish the worship of idols. Terrible 
was her awakening when, on the morning of August 
24th, 410, the true God of armies took his revenge ; 
and while the barbarians were engaged in wholesale 

1 Apoc. xiv. 8 ; xviii. 24. 

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massacre and pillage, lightning set fire to the town 
and destroyed the statues in which she had so long 
placed her confidence and her glory. 

The avengers of God, destroying Babylon, spared 
the tombs of the two founders of the eternal Rome. 
On these Apostolic foundations Innocent began to 
rebuild the holy City. Soon on her seven hills, 
purified by fire, she rose again, more brilliant than 
ever, the destined centre of the world of mind. It 
was in the year 417, the last of Innocent's Pontificate, 
that St. Augustine, hearing that the Pelagian heresy 
was condemned, cried out: "Letters have arrived 
"from Rome; the dispute is at an end." The 
Councils of Carthage and Milevum, which on this 
occasion had requested the confirmation of their 
decree by the Apostolic See, did in this but contiuue 
the uninterrupted tradition of the Churches with 
regard to the supremacy of their , Mother and 
Mistress. This fact is eloquently attested by the 
holy Pope Victor, who shares with the martyrs the 
honours of to-day. His great name calls to mind 
the Councils of the second century, held by his 
orders throughout the Church to treat of the cele- 
bration of Easter ; the condemnation he pronounced, 
or intended to pronounce, against the Churches of 
Asia, without any one questioning his right to do 
so ; lastly, the uncontroverted anathemas he hurled 
against Montanus and the precursors of Arius. 

Let us read the notice of our four Saints given in 
to-day's Office : 

Nazarius, a beato Lino 
Papa baptizatus, cum in 
Galliam profectus easet, ibi 
Celsum puerum, a se chris- 
tianis preceptis prius in- 
struction, baptizavit : qui 
una Trevirim euntes, Nero- 

Nazarius was baptized by 
the blessed Pope, Linus. He 
went into Gaul, and there 
baptized a child named Celsus 
whom he had instructed in 
the Christian doctrine. To- 
gether they went to Treves, 

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and in Nero's persecution 
were both thrown into the 
sea, but were saved by a 
miracle. They proceeded to 
Milan, where they spread the 
faith of Christ; and as they 
with great constancy confessed 
Christ to be God, the prefect, 
Anolinus, condemned them to 
death. Their bodies were 
buried outside the Roman 
gate, and for a long time 
remained unknown. But 
through a divine revelation 
they were found by St. Am- 
brose, sprinkled with fresh 
blood, as if they had but just 
suffered martyrdom. They 
were translated to the city 
and buried in an honourable 

Victor, an African by birth, 
governed the Church in the 
time of the Emperor Severus. 
He confirmed the decree of 
Pius L» which ordered Easter 
to be celebrated on a Sunday. 
Later on, Councils were held 
in many places in order to 
bring this rule into practice, 
and finally the first Council 
of Nicea commanded that the 
feast of Easter should be al- 
ways kept after the 14th day 
of the moon, lest the Chris- 
tians should seem to imitate 
the Jews. Victor ordained 
that in case of necessity, 
baptism could be given with 
any water, provided it were 
natural. He expelled from 
the Church the Byzantine, 
Theodosius the Currier, who 
taught that Christ was only 
man. He wrote on the ques- 
tion of Easter, and some other 

nis persecutione in mare 
uterque dejicitur, unde mi- 
rabiliter evaserunt. Postea 
Mediolanum venientes, cum 
ibi Christi fidem dissemina- 
rent, ab Anolino profecto, 
constantissime Christum 
Deum confitentes, capite 
plectuntur : quorum corpora 
extra portam Romanam 
sepulta sunt. Quae cum 
diu latuissent, Dei monitu 
a beato Ambrosio conspersa 
recenti sanguine sunt in- 
venta, tamquam si paulo 
ante martyrium passi essentJ 
unde in urbem translata, 
honorifico sepulcro contecta 

Victor in Africa natus, 
Severo imperatore, rexit 
Ecclesiam. Confirmavit de- 
cretum Pii Primi, ut sacrum 
Pascha die Dominico cele- 
braretur: qui ritus ut pos- 
tea in mores induceretur, 
habita sunt multis in locis 
Concilia: et in Nicaena 
denique prima Synodo san- 
citum est, ut Paschse dies 
festus post quartamdeci- 
mam lunam ageretur, ne 
Christiaai Judseos imitari 
viderentur. Statuit, ut qua- 
vis aqua, modo naturali, si 
necessitas cogeret, quicum- 
que baptizari posset. Theo- 
dotum Coriarmm Byzanti- 
num docentem Christum 
tantummodo hominem fu- 
isse, ejecit ex Ecclesia. 
Scripsit de qusestione Pas- 
chse, et alia quaadam opus- 
cula. Creavit duabus Ordi- 

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nationibus mense Decembri 
Presbyteros quatuor, Dia- 
conos septem, Episcopos 
per diversa loca duodecim. 
Martyrio coronatus, sepe- 
litur in Vaticano, quinto 
calendas AugustL Sedit 
annos novem, mensem 
unum, dies viginti octo. 

Innocentius Albanensis, 
sancti Uieronymi et Augus- 
tini aetate floruit : de quo 
ille ad Demetriadem virgi- 
nem : Sancti Innocentii, 
qui Apostolicae Cathedrae, 
et beatse memoriae Anastasii 
successor et Alius est, tene- 
as fidem, nec peregrinam, 
quamvis tibi prudens, calli- 
daque videans, doctrinam 
recipias. Eum tamquam 
jus turn Lot subtractum Dei 
providentia ad Bavennam 
servatum fuisse, scribit Oro- 
sius, ne Eomani populi vi- 
deret excidium. Is, Pelagio 
et Ccelestio damnatis, con- 
tra eorum haeresim decre- 
tum fecit, ut parvuli ex 
Christiana etiam muliere 
nati, per baptismum renasci 
deberent; ut in eis regene- 
ratione mundetur, quod 
generatione contraxerunt. 
rrobavit etiam, ut Sabbato 
ob memoriam Christi Do- 
mini sepulturae jejunium 
servaretur. Sedit annos 
quindecim, mensem unum, 
dies decern. Quatuor Ordi- 
nationibus mense Decembri 
creavit Presbyteros triginta, 
Diaconos quindecim, Epi- 
scopos per diversa loca quin- 


small works. In two ordina- 
tions which he held in the 
month of December, he made 
four priests, seven deacons, 
and twelve bishopsf or different 
places. He was crowned with 
martyrdom, and buried on the 
Vatican on the 5th of the 
Calends of August, after hav- 
ing sat nine years, one month, 
and twenty-eight days. 

Innocent, by nation an Al- 
banian, lived at the time of 
Saints Jerome and Augustine. 
Jerome, writing to the virgin 
Demetrias, says of him : " Hold 
" fast to the faith of holy In- 
nocent, who is the son of 
"Anastasius of blessed me- 
"mory and his successor on 
"the Apostolic throne; re- 
ceive no strange doctrine, 
"however shrewd and pru- 
"dent you may think your- 
self." Orosius writes that 
like the just Lot, he was 
withdrawn by God's provi- 
dence from Rome, and pre- 
served in safety at Ravenna, 
that he might not be a wit- 
ness of the ruin of the Roman 
people. After the condemna- 
tion of Pelagius and Celesti- 
nus, he decreed, contrary to 
their heretical teaching, that 
children, even though born of 
a Christian mother, must be 
born again by water, in order 
that their second birth may 
cleanse away the stain they 
have contracted by the first. 
He also approved the obser- 
vance of fasting on the Satur- 
day in memory of the burial 
of Christ our Lord. He sat 
fifteen years, one month, and 

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ten days. He held four ordina- quaginta quatuor; Sepul- 

tions in the month of Decern- tus est in coemeterio ad Ur- 

ber, and made thirty priests, snm Pileatum. 

fifteen deacons, and fifty-four 

bishops for divers places. He 

was buried in the cemetery 

called ad ursum Pileatum, 

Glorious Saints, who, either by shedding your 
blood in the arena or by promulgating decrees from 
the Apostolic Chair, have exalted the faith of the 
Lord, bless our prayers. Give us to understand the 
teaching conveyed by your meeting to-day on the 
sacred cycle. We, who are neither martyrs nor pon- 
tiffs, may, nevertheless, merit to share in your glory; 
for the motive which explains your union to-day 
must be for us, each in his degree, the cause of salva- 
tion : the Apostle tells us that in Christ Jesus no- 
thing availeth but faith that worketh by charity. 1 
It is only by that faith for which you laboured or 
suffered that we wait for the hope of justice, 2 and 
expect the crown. 

O Nazarius, who, leaving all things, didst carry the 
name of Christ to countries that knew him not ; and 
thou Celsus, who, though a mere child, didst not fear 
to sacrifice, like him, for Jesus' sake, thy family, thy 
country, and thy very life : obtain for us the right 
appreciation of the treasure of faith, which every 
Christian is called upon to show to advantage by 
the confession of good works and of praise. Victor, 
jealous guardian of that divine praise with regard to 
the Solemnity of solemnities, and avenger of the 
Man-God in his divine nature; Innocent, infallible 
teacher concerning the grace of Christ, and witness, 
too, of his inexorable justice, teach us to unite con* 

1 Gal. v. 6. 2 Ibid. 5. 

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fidence with fear, uprightness of belief with the sus- 
ceptibility a Christian ought to have with regard to 
his faith, the only foundation of justice and love. 
Martyrs and Pontiffe, may your united attraction 
draw us along the straight road which leads to 

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July 29. 


Magdalene this time was the first to meet our 
Lord. Scarce a week had elapsed since her glorious 
passage, when she repaid her sister's former kind 
office, and came in her turn saying : " The Beloved 
"is here and caJleth for thee." And Jesus pre- 
venting her, appeared himself and said : " Come, my 
" hostess ; come from exile, thou shalt be crowned." 1 
Hostess of the Lord, then, is to be Martha's title of 
nobility in heaven, as it was her privileged name on 

Into whatever city or town you shall enter, said 
the Man-God to his disciples, inquire who in it is 
worthy, and there abide. 2 Now St Luke relates 
that as they went, our Lord himself entered into a 
certain town, and a certain woman named Martha 
received him into her house? How could we give 
greater praise to Magdalene's sister than by bringing 
together these two texts of the holy Gospel ? 

This certain town, where she was found worthy 
to give Jesus a lodging, this village, says St. Bernard, 4 
is our lowly earth, hidden like an obscure borough in 

1 Rabajs. De vita B.M. Magd. et 8. Marthse, xlvii. 

2 St. Matt. x. 11. 

3 St. Luke x. 38. 

4 Bern. Sermo 2 in Assumpt. Beatae Marias Virginia. 

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the immensity of our Lord's possessions. The Son 
of God had come down from heaven to seek the lost 
sheep ; he had come into the world he had made, 
and the world knew him not ; Israel, his own people, 
had not given him so much as a stone whereon to 
lay his head, and had left him in his thirst to beg 
water from the Samaritan. We, the Gentiles, 
whom he was thus seeking amid contradictions and 
fatigues, ought we not, like him, to show our grati- 
tude to her who, braving present unpopularity and 
future persecution, paid our debt to him ? 

Glory, then, be to this daughter of Sion, of royal 
descent, who, faithful to the traditions of hospitality 
handed down from the patriarchs and early fathers, 
was blessed more than all of them in the exercise of 
this noble virtue ! These ancestors of our faith, pil- 
grims themselves and without fixed habitation, knew 
more or less obscurely that the Desired of Israel and 
the Expectation of the nations was to appear as a way- 
farer and a stranger on the earth; and they honoured 
the future Saviour in the person of every stranger 
that presented himself at their tent door; just as 
we, their sons, in the faith of the same promises now 
accomplished, honour Christ in the guest whom his 
goodness sends us. This relation between him that 
was to come and the pilgrim seeking shelter made 
hospitality the most honoured handmaid of divine 
charity. More than once did God show his approval 
by allowing Angels to be entertained in human form. 
If such heavenly visitations were an honour of which 
our earth was not worthy, how much greater was 
Martha's privilege in rendering hospitality to the 
Lord of Angels ! If before the Coming of Christ it 
was a great thing to honour him in those who pre- 
figured him, and if now to shelter and serve him in 
his mystical members deserves an eternal reward, 
how much greater and more meritorious was ifc to 

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receive in Person that Jesus, the very thought of 
whom gives to virtue its greatness and its merit. 
Again, as the Baptist excelled all the other Prophets 
by having pointed out as present the Messias whom 
they announced as future, so Martha, by having 
ministered to the Person of the Word made Flesh, 
ranks above all others who have ever exercised the 
works of mercy. 

While Magdalene, then, keeps her better part at 
our Lord's feet, we must not think that Martha's lot 
is to be despised. As in one body we have many 
members, but all the members have not the same 
office} so each of us has a different work to per- 
form in Christ, according to the grace we have re- 
ceived, whether it be to prophesy or to minister. 
And the Apostle explaining this diversity of voca- 
tions, says : I say* by the grace that is given Trie, to 
all that are among you, not to be more wise than it 
behoveth to be wise, but to be wise unto sobriety, 
and according as God hath divided to every one the 
measure of faith. 2 How many losses in souls, how 
many shipwrecks even, might be prevented by dis- 
cretion, the guardian of doctrine and the mother of 

" Whoever," says St. Gregory with his usual dis- 
cernment, " gives himself entirely to God, must take 
" care not to pour himself out wholly in works, but 
" must stretch forward also to the heights of contem- 
plation. Nevertheless, it is here very important 
" to notice that there is a great variety of spiritual 
" temperaments. One who could give himself peace- 
" fully to the contemplation of God, would be crushed 
" by works, and fall ; another, who would be kept in 
"a good life by the ordinary occupations of men, 

would be mortally wounded by the sword of a con- 

1 Rom. xii. 4. 2 Rom. xii. 3. 

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" temptation above his powers: either for want of 
"love to prevent repose from becoming torpor, or 
"for want of fear to guard him against the illusions 
" of pride or of the senses. He who would be per- 
" feet must, therefore, first accustom himself on the 
"plain to the practice of the virtues, in order to 
" ascend more securely to the heights, leaving behind 
" every impulse of the senses which can only distract 
"the mind from its purpose, every image whose out- 
"Hoe cannot adapt itself to the figureless light he 
" desires to behold. Action first then, contemplation 
" last. The Gospel praises Mary, but does not blame 
"Martha, because the merit of the active life is 
"great, though that of contemplation is greater." 1 

If we would penetrate more deeply into the mys- 
tery of the two sisters, let us notice that, though 
the preference is given to Mary, nevertheless it is 
not in her house, nor in that of their brother Lazarus', 
but in Martha's house, that the Man-God takes up his 
abode with those he loves. Jesus, says St. John, loved 
Martha, and her sister Maryland Lazarus? Lazarus, 
a figure of the penitents whom his all-powerful mercy 
daily calls from the death of sin to divine life ; Mary, 
giving herself up even in this life to the occupation 
of the next; and Martha, who is here mentioned 
first as being the eldest, as first in order of time 
mystically, according to what St. Gregory says, and 
also as being the one upon whom the other two 
depend in that home of which she has the care. 

Here we recognise a perfect type of the Church, 
wherein, with the devotedness of fraternal love, and 
under the eye of our heavenly Father, the active 
ministry takes the precedence, and holds the place 
of government over all who are drawn by grace to 
Jesus. We can understand the Son of God showing 

1 Moral, in Job v. 26, passim. 2 St. John xi. 5. 

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a preference for this blessed bouse ; he was refreshed 
from the weariness of his journeys by the devoted 
hospitality he there received, but still more by the 
sight of so perfect an image of that Church for whose 
love he had come on earth. 

Martha, then, understood by anticipation, that he 
who holds the first place must be the servant, as the 
Son of Man came not to be ministered to, but to 
minister; and as, later on, the Vicar of Jesus, the 
Prince of Prelates in the holy Church, was to call 
himself the Servant of the servants of God. But in 
serving Jesus, as she served also with him and for 
him her brother and her sister, who can doubt that 
she had the greatest share in these promises of the 
Man-God : " He that ministers to me shall follow me, 
" and where I am, there also shall my minister be, 
" and my Father will honour him." 

And that beautiful rule of ancient hospitality which 
created a link like that of relationship between the 
host and a guest once received, could not have been 
passed over by our Emmanuel on this occasion, since 
the Evangelist says: As many as received him, 
he gaAje them power to be made the sons of God. 1 
And he himself declares that whoever receives him, 
receives also the Father who sent him. 

The peace promised to every house deemed worthy 
of receiving the apostolic messengers, that peace which 
cannot be without the Spirit of adoption of sons, 
rested on Martha with surpassing fulness. The too 
human impetuosity she at first showed in her eager 
solicitude, had given our Lord an opportunity of 
showing his divine jealousy for the perfection of a 
soul so devoted and so pure. The sacred nearness 
of the King of peace stript her lively nature of the 
last remnants of restless anxiety ; while her service 

*St. John i. 12. 


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grew even more active and was well pleasing to him ; 
her ardent faith in Christ, the Son of the living God, 
gave her the understanding of the one thing necessary, 
the better part which was one day to be hers. What 
a master of the spiritual life Jesus here showed him- 
self to be; what a model of discreet firmness, of patient 
sweetness, of heavenly wisdom in leading souls to 
the highest summits ! 

As he had counselled his disciples to remain in one 
house, the Man-God himself, to the end of his earthly 
career, continually sought hospitality at Bethania : it 
was from thence he set out to redeem the world by 
his dolorous Passion ; and when leaving this world, 
it was from Bethania that he ascended into heaven. 
Then did this dwelling, this paradise on earth, which 
had given shelter to God himself, to his Virgin Mother, 
to the whole college of Apostles, seem too lonely to 
its inmates. Holy Church will tell us presently how 
the Spirit of Pentecost, in loving kindness to us 
Gentiles, led into Gaul this blessed family of our 
Lord's friends. 

On the banks of the Rhone, Martha was still the 
same : full of motherly compassion for every misery, 
spending herself in deeds of kindness. Always sur- 
rounded by the poor, says the ancient historian of 
the two sisters, she fed them with tender care, with 
food which heaven abundantly supplied to her charity, 
while she herself, the only one she forgot, was con- 
tented with herbs ; and as in the glorious past she 
had served the Head of the Church in Person, she 
now served him in his members, and was full of 
loving kindness to all. Meantime she delighted in 
practices of penance, that would frighten us. Mar- 
tyred thus a thousand times over, Martha with all 
the powers of her holy soul yearned for heaven. Her 
mind lost in God, she spent whole nights absorbed in 
prayer. Ever prostrate, she adored him reigning 

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gloriously in heaven, whom she had seen without 
glory in her own house. Often, too, she would travel 
through towns and villages, announcing to the people 
Christ the Saviour. 

Avignon and other cities of the province of Vienne 
were thus evangelized by her. She delivered Taras- 
con from the old serpent, who in the shape of a 
hideous monster, not content with tyrannizing over 
the souls of men, devoured even their bodies. It 
was here at Tarascon, in the midst of the community 
of virgins she had founded, that she heard our Lord 
inviting her to receive hospitality from him in heaven, 
in return for that which she had given him on earth. 1 
Here she still rests, protecting her people of Provence, 
and receiving strangers in memory of Jesus. The 
peace of the blessed, which seems to breathe from her 
noble image, fills the heart of the pilgrim as he kisses 
her apostolic feet; and coming up from the holy 
crypt to continue his journey in this land of exile, 
he carries away with him, like a perfume of his 
fatherland, the remembrance of her simple, touching 
epitaph : sollicita non turbatur ; ever zealous, 
she is no longer troubled. 

Martha was born of noble Martha nobilibus et co- 

and wealthy parents, but she piosis parentibus nata, sed 

is still more illustrious for the Christi Domini hospitio 

hospitality she gave to Christ clarior, post ejus ascensum 

our Lord. After his Ascen- in ccelum, cum f ratre, sorore, 

sion into heaven, she was et Marcella pedissequa, ac 

seized by the Jews, together Maximino, uno ex septus* 

with her brother and sister, ginta duobus discipulis 

Marcella her handmaid, and Christi Domini, qui totam 

1 We are fully aware of the fact that certain writers have lately 
called in question the authenticity of this legend. But we are 
not deterred thereby from giving it here in all its simplicity. 
Until such time as holy Mother Church may think fit to decide 
on the matter, we, like the author; are unwilling to forestall her 
judgment. — {Tr.) 

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illam domum baptizayerat, 
multisque aliis christianis, 
comprenensa a Judaeis, in 
navem sine velo ac remigio 
imponitur, vastissimoque 
mari ad certum nauf ragium 
commit titur: sednavis, Deo 
ffubernante, salvis omnibus 
Massiliam appulsa est 

Eo miraculo, et horum 
praedicatione, primum Mas- 
silienses, mox Aquenses, ac 
finitimse gentes in Chris- 
tum crediderunt : Lazarus- 
que Massiliensium, et Maxi- 
mums Aquensium episcopus 
oreatur. Magdalena vero 
assueta orationi et pedibus 
Domini, ut optima parte 
contemplandae coelestis bea- 
titudinis, quam elegerat, 
frueretur, in vastam altis- 
simi montis speluncam se 
contulit : ubi triginta annos 
vixit, ab omni hominum 
consuetudine disjuncta,quo- 
tidieque per id tempus ad 
audiendas coelestium laudes 
in altum ab Angelis elata. 

Martha autem, mirabili 
vit« sanctitate et charitate, 
omnium Massiliensium ani- 
mis in sui amorem et admi- 
fationem adductis, in locum 
a viris remotum cum aliquot 
honestissimis feminis se re- 
cepit: ubi summa cum laud e 
pietatis et prudentise diu 
vixit : ac demum, morte sua 
tnulto ante prsedicta, mira- 
culis clara migravit ad Do- 
minum, quarto calendas 
Augusti. Cuj us corpus apud 


Maximin, one of the seventy- 
two disciples of our Lord, who 
had baptized the whole family, 
and many other Christians. 
They were put on board a ship 
without sails or oars, and left 
helpless on the open sea, ex- 
posed to certain shipwreck. 
But God guided the ship, and 
they all arrived safely at 

This miracle, together with 
their preaching, brought the 
people of Marseilles, of Aix r 
and of the neighbourhood to- 
believe in Christ. Lazarus 
was made Bishop of Marseilles 
and Maximin of Aix. Magda- 
lene, who was accustomed to 
devote herself to prayer and 
to sit at our Lord's feet, in 
order to enjoy the better part, 
which she had chosen, that is, 
contemplation of the joys of 
heaven, retired into a deserted 
cave on a very high mountain. 
There she lived for thirty 
years, separated from all hu- 
man intercourse ; and every 
day she was carried to heaven 
by the Angels to hear their 
songs of praise. 

But Martha, after having 
won the love and admiration 
of the people of Marseilles by 
the sanctity of her life ana 
her wonderful charity, with- 
drew in the company of 
several virtuous women to a 
spot remote from men, where 
she lived for a long time, 
greatly renowned for her piety 
and prudence. She foretold 
her death long before it oc- 
curred ; and at length, famous 
for miracles, she passed to our 

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Lord on the 4th of the Ca- 
lends of August. Her body 
which lies at Tarascon is held 
in great veneration. 

Tarascum inagriam habet 

Now that, together with Magdalene, thou hast 
-entered for ever into possession of the better part, 
thy place in heaven, O Martha, is very beautiful. 
For they that have ministered well, says St. Paul, 
shall 'purchase to themselves a good degree, and 
much confidence in the faith which is in Christ 
Jesus} The same service which the deacons, here 
alluded to by the Apostle, performed for the Church, 
thou didst render to the Church's Head and Spouse ; 
thou didst rule well thine own house, which was a 
figure of that Church so dear to the Son of God. 
But God is not unjust, that he should forget your 
work and the love which you have shown in his 
name, you who have ministered and do minister 
to the saints. 2 4>nd the Saint of saints himself, thy 
indebted guest, gave us to understand something of 
thy greatness, when, speaking merely of a faithful 
servant set over the family to distribute food in due 
season, he cried out : Blessed is that servant whom 
when his lord shall come, he shall find so doing. 
Amen I say to you, he shall place him over all his 
goods. 3 O Martha, the Church exults on this day, 
whereon our Lord found thee thus continuing to 
serve him in the persons of those little ones in whom 
he bids us seek him. The moment had come for 
him to welcome thee eternally. Henceforth the 
Host most faithful of all to the laws of hospitality, 
makes thee sit at his table in his own house, and 
girding himself, ministers to thee as thou didst 
minister to him. 

From the midst of thy peaceful rest, protect those 

VI Tim. iii. 13. 2 Heb. vi. 10. 3 St. Matth. xxiv. 46, 47. 

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who are now carrying on the interests of Christ on 
earth y in his mystical Body, which is the entire 
Church, and in his wearied and suffering members 
the poor and the afflicted. Bless and multiply the 
works of holy hospitality; may the vast field of 
mercy and charity yield ever-increasing harvests. 
May the zeal displayed by so many generous souls 
lose nothing of its praiseworthy activity; and for 
this end, O sister of Magdalene, teach us all as our 
Lord taught thee, to place the one thing necessary 
above all else, and to value at its true worth the 
better part. After the word spoken to thee, for our 
sake as well as thine own, whosoever would disturb 
Magdalene at the feet of Jesus, or forbid her to sit 
there, would deserve to have his works frustrated by 
offended heaven. 

Let us, in union with the Church, make a com- 
memoration of Saints Simplicius and Faustinus, 
martyred in the persecution of Diocletian, together 
with their sister Viatrice, whose name was gracefully 
changed into Beatrice after she had gone to heaven. 
The sister had bad time to bury her brothers ; and 
after her own combat she was laid to rest beside 
them, by the last of the celebrated Lucinas. The 
hour for the triumph of the Church had not yet 
arrived; nevertheless the tomb of this illustrious 
trio, in the very grove of the Dea Dia of the 
Arvales, proclaims the victory of Christ over the 
most ancient superstitions of Rome. The holy 
Pontiff Felix, who shares the honours paid to this 
glorious company, suffered in the time of the Arians. 


Praesta, quaesumus Do- Grant, we beseech thee, O 
mine, ut sicut populus chris- Lord, that as thy Christian 

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people rejoice together in the tianus martyrum tuorum 

temporal solemnity of thy Felicis, Simplicii, Faustini, 

martyrs, Felix, Simplicius, et Beatricis temporali so- 

Faustinus, and Beatrice, they lemnitate congaudet : ita 

may enjoy it in eternity, and perfruatur seterna ; et quod 

they celebrate in desire, effect u. Per Dominum. 
Through our Lord, &c 

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July 30. 



The decrees of Eternal Wisdom ordained that the 
West should be honoured before the East with the 
glory of martyrdom. Yet when the hour had come, 
Jesus was to have, beyond the Tigris, millions of 
witnesses by no means inferior to their forerunners, 
astonishing heaven and earth by new forms of 
heroism. Impatient of the delay, two noble Persians 
won their palm on this day by the command of 
Rome. By shedding their blood they paid tribute 
for their native land to the eternal City ; and now 
they protect our Latin Churches, and receive the 
prayers and praise of the West France received a 
goodly portion of their sacred relics; and the city 
of Arles-sur-Tech, in Roussillon, can show to an 
incredulous generation the sarcophagus, from which 
flows a mysterious liquor, a symbol of the continual 
benefits bestowed on us by these holy martyra 

Abdon et Sennen Pereaa, During the reign of Deems, 
Decio imperatore accusati, two Persians, Abdon and 
quod corpora Christiano- Sennen, were accused of bury- 

bantur, in suo praedio sepe- bodies of the Christians which 

lissent, jussu imperatoris had been exposed. By order 

comprehenduntur, et diis of the Emperor they were 

jubentur sacrificare. Quod apprehended and commanded 

rum, quae inhumata proj icie- 

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to sacrifice to the gods. As 
they 4 refused to obey, and 
moreover with the greatest 
constancy proclaimed Jesus 
Christ to be God, they were 
placed in close confinement, 
and when later, Decius re- 
turned to Borne, they were 
led in chains in his triumphal 
march. They were dragged 
to the Roman idols, but to 
show their hatred of the 
demons, they spat upon them. 
Upon this they were exposed 
to the fury of lions and bears, 
but the beasts did not dare to 
touch them ; at length they 
were put to death by the 
sword. Their bodies were 
dragged by the feet before 
the statue of the Sun. but 
they were secretly carried 
away and buried byQuirinus 
the deacon in his own house. 

cum facere negligerent, et 
Jesum Christum Deum con- 
stantissime praedicarent : 
traditos in arctam custodi- 
am, Romam postea rediens 
Decius vinctos duxit in tri- 
umpho. Qui cum in Urbe 
ad simulacra attracti essent, 
ea detestati conspuerunt. 
Quamobrem ursis ac leoni- 
bus objecti sunt : quos ferae 
non audebant attingere. 
Demum gladiis trucidati, 
colligatis pedibus tracti sunt 
ante Solis simulacrum : quo- 
rum corpora clam inde as- 
portata, Quirinus diaconus 
sepelivit in suis asdibus. 

Hearken to our earnest prayers, O blessed martyrs ! 
May the faith at length triumph in that land of 
Persia whence so many flowers of martyrdom have 
been culled for heaven. Before the time appointed 
for the struggle to begin in your native land, ye 
went to meet death elsewhere, and thus ye gained a 
new fatherland whereon to bestow your love. Bless 
us, the fellow-citizens of your choice, and bring us 
all to the eternal fatherland of all the children of 

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July 31 


Although the cycle of the time after Pentecost has 
shown us many times already the solicitude of the 
Holy Spirit for the defence of the Church, yet to-day 
the teaching shines forth with a new lustre. In the 
sixteenth century Satan made a formidable attack 
upon the holy city, by means of a man who, like 
himself, had fallen from the height of heaven, a man 

Irfevented in early years by the choice graces which 
ead to perfection, yet unable in an evil day to resist 
the spirit of revolt. As Lucifer aimed at being 
equal to God, Luther set himself up against the 
Ticar of God, on the mountain of the covenant ; and 
soon, falling from abyss to abyss, he drew after him 
the third part of the stars of the firmament of holy 
Church. How terrible is that mysterious law where- 
by the fallen creature, be he man or Angel, is 
allowed to keep the same ruling power for evil, 
which he would otherwise have exercised for good. 
But the designs of Eternal Wisdom are never frus- 
trated : against the misused liberty of the Angel or 
man, is set up that other merciful law of substitution, 
by which St. Michael was the first to benefit. 

The development of Ignatius' vocation to holi- 
ness, followed step by step the defection of Luther. 
In the Spring of 1521 Luther had just quitted 

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Worms and was defying the world from the Castle 
of Wartburg, when Ignatius received at Pampeluna 
the wound which was the occasion of his leaving the 
world and retiring to Manresa. 1 Valiant as his 
noble ancestors, he felt within him from his earliest 
years the warlike ardour which they had shown 
on the battle-fields of Spain. But the campaign 
against the Moors closed at the very time of his 
birth.* Were his chivalrous instincts to be satisfied 
with petty political quarrels ? The only true King 
worthy of his great soul revealed himself to him 
in the trial which put a stop to his worldly pro- 
jects: a new warfare was opened out to his ambi- 
tion ; another crusade was begun ; and in the year 
1522, from the mountains of Catalonia to those of 
Thuringia, was developed that divine strategy of 
which the Angels alone knew the secret. 

In this wonderful campaign it seemed that hell 
was allowed to take the initiative, while heaven was 
content to look on, only taking care to make grace 
abound the more, where iniquity strove to abound. 
As in the previous year Ignatius received his first 
call three weeks after Luther had completed his 
rebellion, so in this year, at three weeks' distance, 
the rival camps of hell and heaven each chose and 
equipped its leader. Ten months of diabolical mani- 
festations prepared Satan's lieutenant, in the place of 
his forced retreat, which he called his Patmos; and 
on the 5th March the deserter of the altar and of 
the cloister left Wartburg. 

On the 25th of the same month, the glorious 
night of the Incarnation, the brilliant soldier in the 
armies of the Catholic kingdom, the descendant of 

1 The Diet of Worms which condemned Luther was held in 
April, and on the 20th May St. Ignatius received the wound 
Which led to his conversion. 

- 1491. 

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the families of Ognes and Loyola, clad in sackcloth, 
the uniform of poverty, to indicate his new projects, 
watched his arms in prayer at Montserrat; then 
hanging up his trusty sword at Mary's altar, he 
went forth to make trial of his future combats by 
a merciless war against himself. In opposition to 
the already proudly floating standard of the free- 
thinkers, he displayed upon his own this simple 
device: To the greater glory of God! At Paris, 
where Calvin was secretly recruiting the future 
Huguenots, Ignatius, in the name of the God of 
armies, organized his vanguard, which he destined to 
cover the march of the Christian army, to lead the 
way, to bear the brunt, to deal the first blows. On 
the 15th August, 1534, five months after the rupture 
of England from the Holy See, these first soldiers 
sealed at Montmartre the definitive engagement 
which they were afterwards to solemnly renew at St. 
Paul's outside the Walls. For Rome was to be the 
rallying place of the little troop which was soon to 
increase so wonderfully, and which was, by its special 
profession, to be ever in readiness, at the least sign 
from the Head of the Church, to exercise its zeal in 
whatever part of the world he should think fit, in 
the defence or propagation of the faith, or for the 
progress of souls in doctrine and Christian life. 1 

An illustrious speaker of our own day 2 has said : 
"What strikes us at once in the history of the 
" Society of Jesus, is that it was matured at its very 
" first formation. Whosoever knows the first founders 
" of the Company knows the whole Company, in its 
"spirit, its aim, its enterprises, its proceedings, its 
" methods. What a generation was that which gave 

J Litt. Pauli III. Regimini nrilitantis Ecclesiae ; Julii III. Ex- 
poscit debitum, etc. 

2 Cardinal Pie, Homily delivered on the feast of the beatifica- 
tion of B. Pierre le Fevre. 

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" it birth ! What union of science and activity, 
"of interior life and military life! One may say 
"they were universal men, men of a giant race, 
"compared with whom we are but insects: de 
" genere giganteo, quibus comparati quasi locustce 
" videbamur. 9 ' 1 

All the more touching, then, was the charming 
simplicity of those first Fathers of the Society, making 
their way to Borne on foot, fasting and weary, but 
their hearts overflowing with joy, singing with a low 
voice the Psalms of David. 8 When it became neces- 
sary, on account of the urgency of the times, for the 
new institute to abandon the great traditions of public 

Srayer, it was a sacrifice to several of these souls; 
[ary could not give way to Martha without a struggle; 
for so many centuries, the solemn celebration of the 
Divine Office had been the indispensable duty of 
every religious family, its primary social debt, and 
the principal nourishment of the individual holi- 
ness of its members. 

But new times had come, times of decadence and 
ruin, calling for an exception as extraordinary as it 
was grievous to the brave company that was risking 
its existence amid ceaseless alarms and continual 
sallies upon hostile territory. Ignatius understood 
this ; and to the special aim imposed upon him, he 
sacrificed his personal attraction for the sacred chants ; 
nevertheless, to the end of his life, the least note of 
the Psalmody falling on his ears drew tears of ecstasy 
from his eyes. 8 After his death, the Church, which 
had never known any interest to outbalance the 
splendour of worship due to her Spouse, wished to 
return from a derogation which so deeply wounded 
the dearest instincts of her bridal heart ; Paul IV. 

1 Num. xiii. 34. 

2 P. Ribadeneira, Vita Ignatii Loiolse, lib. ii., cap. vii. 
* J. Rhous, in variia virtutum histofiis, lib. iii., cap. ii. 

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revoked it absolutely, but St. Rus V., after combating 
it for a long time, was at last obliged to give in. In 
tbe latter ages so full of snares, the time had come 
for the Church to organize special armies. But while 
it became more and more impossible to expect from 
these worthy troops, continually taken up with outside 
-combats, the habits of those who dwelt in security, 
protected by the ancient towers of the holy city, at 
the same time Ignatius repudiated the strange mis- 
conception which would try to reform the Christian 
people according to this enforced, but abnormal man- 
ner of life. The third of the eighteen rules which 
he gives as the crowning of the Spiritual Exercises, 
to have in us the true sentiments of the orthodox 
Chwrch) recommends to the faithful the chants of the 
Church, the Psalms, and the different Canonical Hours 
at their appointed times. And at the beginning of 
this book, which is the treasure of the Society of 
Jesus, where he mentions the conditions for drawing 
the greatest fruit from the Exercises, he ordains in 
his twentieth annotation that he who can do so, 
should choose for the time of his retreat a dwelling 
from whence he can easily go to Matins and Vespers 
as well as to the Holy Sacrifice. What was our 
Saint here doing, but advising that the Exercises 
should be practised in the same spirit in which they 
were composed in that blessed retreat of Manresa, 
where the daily attendance at solemn Mass and the 
evening Offices had been to him the source of 
heavenly delights ? 

But it is time to listen to the Church's account of 
the life of this great servant of God. 

Ignatius natione Hispa- Ignatius, by nation a Span- 

nus, nobili genere, LoyolaB iard^ was born of a noble 

in Cantabria natus, primo family at Loyola, in Cantabria. 

catholici regis aulam, aeinde At first, he attended the court 

militiam secutus est. In of the Catholic king, and later 

propugnatione Pampelo- on, embraced a military career. 

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Having been wounded at 
the siege of Pampeluna, he 
chanced in his illness to read 
some pious books, which kin- 
dled in his soul a wonderful 
eagerness to follow in the foot- 
steps of Christ and the Saints. 
He went to Montserrat, and 
hung up his arms before the 
Altar of the Blessed Virgin ; 
he then watched the whole 
night in prayer, and thus 
entered upon his knighthood 
in the Army of Christ. Next 
he retired to Manresa, dressed 
as he was in sackcloth, for he 
had a short time before given 
his costly garments to a beg- 
gar. Here he stayed for a year, 
and during that time he lived 
on bread and water, given to 
him in aims ; he fasted every 
day except Sunday, subdued 
his flesh with a sharp chain 
and a hair-shirt, slept on the 
ground, and scourged himself 
with iron disciplines. God 
favoured and refreshed him 
with such wonderful spiritual 
lights, that afterwards he was 
wont to say, that even if the 
sacred Scriptures did not exist, 
he would be ready to die for 
the faith, on account of those 
revelations alone which the 
Lord had made to him at 
Manresa. It was at this time, 
that he, a man without educa- 
tion, composed that admirable 
book of the Exercises, which 
has been approved by the 
judgment of the Apostolic See, 
and by the benefit reaped from 
it by all 

However, in order to make 
himself more fit for gaining 
souls, he determined to pro- 

nensi accepto vulnere gravi- 
ter decumbens,. ex fortuita 
piorum librorum lectione, 
ad Christi sanctorumque 
sectanda vestigia mirabiliter 
exarsit. Ad montem Serra- 
tum profectus, ante aram 
beatae Virginis suspensis 
armis; noctem excubans, 
sacrae militiae tyrocinium 
posuit Inde, ut erat indu- 
tus sacco, traditis antea 
mendico pretiosis vestibus, 
Manresam secessit : ubi 
emendicato pane et aqua 
victitans, exceptisque die bus 
Dominicis jejunans, aspera 
catena cihcioque carnem 
domans, humi Cubans, et 
ferreis se flagellis cruentans, 
per annum commoratus est: 
claris adeo illustrationibus 
a Deo recreatus, ut postea 
dicere solitus sit: Si sacrae 
Litterae non exstarent, se 
tamen pro fide mori para- 
tum ex iis solum, quae sibi 
Manresae patefecerat Domi- 
nus. Quo tempore homo 
litterarum plane rudis admi- 
rabilem ilium composuit Ex- 
ercitiorum librum, Sedis 
Apostolicae judicio et om- 
nium utilitate comproba- 

Ut vero se ad animarum 
lucra rite f ormaret, subsidi- 
um litterarum, a grammatica 

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inter pueros exorsus, adhi- 
bere statnit Cumque nihil 
interim omitteret de studio 
alien® salutis, mirum est, 
quas ubique locorum serum- 
nas ac ludibria devoraverit, 
asperrima quseque, et vin- 
cula et verbera pene ad mor- 
tem usque perpessus : qui- 
bus tamen longe plura pro 
Domini sui gloria semper 
expetebat. Lutetiae Parisi- 
orum adjuncti8 sibi ex ilia 
academia variarum natio- 
numsociis novem,quiomnes 
artium magisteriis et theolo- 
giae gradibus insignes erant, 
ibidem in monte Martyrum 
prima Ordinis fundamenta 
jecit: quem postea Romse 
instituens, ad tria consueta 
quarto addito de Missioni- 
bus voto, Sedi Apostolicae 
arctiusadstrinxit: et Paulus 
Tertius primo recepit confir- 
mavitque: mox alii Ponti- 
fices ac Tridentina synodus 
probavere. Ipse autem, mis- 
so ad prsedicandum Indis 
Evangelium sancto Francis- 
co Xaverio, aliisqne in alias 
mundi plagas ad religionem 
propagandam disseminatis, 
ethnicae superstitioni haere- 
sique bellum indixit, eo suc- 
cessu continuatum, ut con- 
stans f uerit omnium sensus, 
etiam Pontificio confirmatus 
oraculo, Deum sicut alios 
aliis temporibus, sanctos vi- 
ros, ita Luthero, ejusdemque 
temporis haereticis, Ignati- 
um et institutam ab eo So- 
cietatem objecisse. 


cure the advantages of edu- 
cation, and began by study- 
ing grammar among children. 
Meanwhile he relaxed nothing 
of his zeal for the salvation of 
others, and it is marvellous 
what sufferings and insults he 
patiently endured in every 
place, undergoing the hardest 
trials, even imprisonment and 
stripes almost unto death. But 
he ever desired to suffer far 
more for the glory of his Lord. 
At Paris he was joined by 
nine companions from that 
University, men of different 
nations, who had taken their 
degrees in Art and Theolgy; 
and there at Montmartre he 
laid the first foundations of the 
Order, which he was later on* 
to institute at Rome. He add- 
ed to the three usual vows a 
fourth concerning the Missions^ 
thus binding it closely to the 
Apostolic See. Paul III. first 
welcomed and approved the 
Society, as did later other 
Pontiffs and the Council of 
Trent. Ignatius sent St. Fran- 
cis Xavier to preach the Gos- 
pel in the Indies, and dispersed 
others of his children to spread 
the Christian faith in other 
parts of the world, thus declar- 
ing war against paganism, su- 
perstition, and heresy. This 
war he carried on with such 
success that it has always been 
the universal opinion, confirm- 
ed by the word of Pontiffs, that 
God raised up Ignatius and 
the Society founded by him to 
oppose Luther and the heretics 
of his time, as formerly he had 
raised up other holy men to 
oppose other heretics. 

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He made the restoration of 
piety among Catholics his first 
care. He increased the beauty 
of the sacred buildings, the 
giving of catechetical instruc- 
tions, the frequentation of ser- 
mons and of the Sacraments. 
He everywhere opened schools 
for the education of youth in 
piety and letters. He found- 
ed at Rome the German Col- 
lege, refuges for women of evil 
life, and for young girls who 
were in danger, nouses for 
orphans and catechumens of 
both sexes, and many other 
pious works. He devoted him- 
self unweariedly to gaining 
souls to God. Once he was 
heard saying, that if he were 
given his choice, he would 
rather live uncertain of attain- 
ing the Beatific Vision, and in 
the meanwhile devote himself 
to the service of God and the 
salvation of his neighbour, 
than die at once certain of 
eternal glory. His power over 
the demons was wonderful. 
St. Philip Neri and others saw 
his countenance shining with 
heavenly light. At length in 
the sixty-fifth year of his age 
he passed to the embrace of 
his Lord, whose greater glory 
he had ever preached and ever 
sought in all things. He was 
celebrated for miracles and for 
his great services to the Church, 
and Gregory XV. enrolled him 
amongst the Saints. 

This ia the victory which overcometh the world, 
our faith. 1 And thou didst prove this truth once 

Sed in primis inter catho- 
licos instaurare pietatem 
curse fuit Templorumnitor, 
cathechismi traditio, concio- 
num ac sacramentorum fre- 
quentia ab ipso incremen- 
tum accepere. Ipse apertis 
ubique locorumad juventu- 
tem erudiendam in litteris 
ac pietate gymnasiis, erectis 
Romae Germanorum colle- 
gio, male nuptarum et peri- 
clitantium puellarum coeno- 
biis, utriusque sexus tarn 
orphanorum quam catechu- 
menorum domibus, aliisque 
pietatis operibus, indefessus 
lucrandis Deo animis iusta- 
bat ; auditus aliquando di- 
cere, Si optio daretur, malle 
se beatitudinis incertum vi- 
vere, et interim Deo inser- 
vire, et proximorum saluti, 
quamcertumejusdem glorise 
statim mori. In daemones 
mirum exercuit imperium. 
Vultum ejus ccelesti luce ra- 
diantem sanctus Philippus 
Nerius aliique conspexere. 
Denique aetatis anno sexa- 
gesimo quinto ad Domini 
sui amplexum, cujus majo- 
rem gloriam in ore semper 
habuerat,semper in omnibus 
qua3sierat,emigravit. Quern 
Gregorius Decimus quintus, 
magnis in Ecclesiam meritis 
et miraculis illustrem, Sanc- 
torum fastis adscripsit. 

1 1 St. John v. 4. 


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more to tbe *orld, O thou great conqueror of the 
age in which the Son of God chose thee to raise 
up again his ensign that had been humbled before 
the standard of Babel. Against the ever-increasing 
battalions of the rebels thou didst long stand almost 
alone, leaving it to the God of armies to choose his 
own moment for engaging thee against Satan's troops, 
as he chose his own for withdrawing thee from human 
warfare. If the world had then been told of thy 
designs, it would have laughed them to scorn ; yet 
now, no one can deny that it was a decisive moment 
in the history of the world when, with as much 
confidence as the most illustrious general concen- 
trating his forces, thou gavest the word to thy nine 
companions to proceed three and three to the holy 
City. What great results were obtained in the 
fifteen years during which this little troop, recruited 
by the Holy Ghost, had thee for its first General ! 
Heresy was trampled out of Italy, confounded at 
Trent, checked everywhere, paralysed in its very 
oentre ; immense conquests were made in new worlds, 
as a compensation for the losses suffered in our 
West; Sion herself, renewing the beauty of her 
youth, saw her people and her pastors raised up 
again, and her sons receiving an education befitting 
their heavenly destiny ; in a word, all along the line, 
where he had rashly cried victory, Satan was now 
howling, overcome once more by the name of Jesus, 
which makes every knee to bow, in heaven, on earth, 
and in hell! Hadst thou ever, O Ignatius, gained 
such glory as this in the armies of earthly kings ? 

From the throne thou hast won by so many 
valiant deeds, watch over the fruits of thy works, and 
prove thyself always God's soldier. In the midst of 
the contradictions which are never wanting td them, 
uphold thy sons in their position of honour and 
prowess which makes them tbe vanguard of the 

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Church. May they be faithful to the spirit of their 
glorious Father, " having unceasingly before their 
" eyes : first, God ; next, as the way leading to Him, 
" the form of their institute, consecrating all their 
" powers to attain this end marked out for them by 
"God; yet each following the measure of grace 
"he has received from the Holy Ghost, and the 
" particular degree of his vocation r" 1 Lastly, O head 
of such a noble lineage, extend thy love to all 
religious families whose lot in these times of perse- 
cution is so closely allied with that of thine own 
sons; bless, especially, the monastic Order whose 
ancient branches overshadowed thy first steps in the 
perfect life, and the birth of that illustrious Society 
which will be thy everlasting crown in heaven. 
Have pity on France, on Paris, whose University 
furnished thee with foundations for the strong, un- 
shaken building raised by thee to the glory of the 
Most High. May every Christian learn of thee to 
fight for the Lord, and never to betray his standard ; 
may all men, under thy guidance, return to God, 
their beginning and their end. 

1 Litt. Apos. prim® Instituti approbationis, Pauli III. Regmrini 

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August 1. 

Rome, making a god of the man who had subjugated 
her, consecrated the month of August to Caesar 
Augustus. When Christ had delivered her, she 
placed at the head of this same month, as a trophy 
of her regained liberty, the feast of the chains, 
wherewith, in order to break hers, Peter the Vicar 
of Christ had once been bound. O Divine Wisdom, 
who hast a better claim to reign over this month 
than had the adopted son of Caesar, thou couldst 
not have more authentically inaugurated thy empire. 
Strength and sweetness are the attributes of thy 
works, and it is in the weakness of thy chosen ones 
that thou triumphest over the powerful. Thou thy- 
self, in order to give us life, didst swallow death; 
Simon, son of John, became a captive, to set free 
the world entrusted to him. First, Herod, and then 
Nero showed him the cost of the promise he had 
once received, of binding and loosing on earth as in 
heaven : he had to share the love of the Supreme 
Shepherd, even to allowing himself, like him, to be 
bound with chains for the sake of the flock, and led 
where he would not. 

Glorious chains ! never will ye make Peter's suc- 
cessors tremble any more than Peter himself ; before 
the Herods and Neros and Caesars of all ages ye will 
be the guarantee of the liberty of souls. With what 
veneration have the Christian people honoured you, 

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st. peter's chains. 


ever since the earliest times ! One may truly say of 
the present feast that its origin is lost in the dark- 
ness of ages. According to ancient monuments, 1 St. 
Peter himself first consecrated on this date the basi- 
lica on the highest of the seven hills, where the 
citizens of Rome are gathered to-day. The name 
Title of Evdoxia, by which the venerable Church is 
often designated, seems to have arisen from certain 
restorations made on occasion of the events men- 
tioned in the Lessons. As to the sacred chains, 
which are its treasure, the earliest mention now 
extant of honour being paid to them occurs in the 
beginning of the second century. Balbina, daughter 
of the tribune Quirinus, keeper of the prisons, had 
been cured by touching the chains of the holy Pope 
Alexander; she could not cease kissing the hands 
which had healed her. " Find the chains of blessed 
" Peter, and kiss them rather than these/' said the 
Pontiff. Balbina, therefore, having fortunately found 
the Apostle's chains, lavished her pious veneration 
upon them, and afterwards gave them to the noble 
Theodora, sister of Hermea 2 

The irons which had bound the arms of the Doctor 
of the Gentiles, without being able to bind the word 
of God, were also after his martyrdom treasured more 
than jewels and gold. From Antioch, in Syria, St. 
John Chrysostom, thinking with holy envy of the 
lands enriched by these trophies of triumphant bond- 
age, cried out in a sublime transport : " What more 
" magnificent than these chains? Prisoner for Christ 
"is a more beautiful name than that of Apostle, 
"Evangelist, or DQctor. To be bound for Christ's 
" sake is better than to dwell in the heavens ; to sit 
" upon the twelve thrones is not so great an honour, 

1 Martyrolog. Hieronym., Bed., Raban., Notker. 

2 Acta S. Alexandri. 

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" He that loves can understand me ; but who can 
" better understand these things than the holy choir 
"of Apostles? As for me, if I were offered my 
"choice between these chains and the whole of 
" heaven, I should not hesitate ; for in them is hap- 
piness. Would that I were now in those places, 
" where it is said the chains of these admirable men 
" are still kept ! If it were given me to be set free 
" from the care of this Church, and if I had a little 
" health, I should not hesitate to undertake such a 
" voyage only to see Paul's chains. If they said to 
" me : Which wouldst thou prefer, to be the Angel 
" who delivered Peter or Peter himself in chains ? I 
" would rather be Peter, because of his chains." 1 

Though always venerated in the great basilica 
which enshrines his tomb, St. Paul's chain has never 
been made, like those of St. Peter, the object of a 
special feast in the Church. This distinction was 
due to the pre-eminence of him " who alone received 
" the keys of the kingdom of heaven to communicate 
" them to others," 2 and who alone continues, in his 
successors, to bind and loose with sovereign power 
throughout the whole world. The collection of letters 
of St Gregory the Great proves how universally, in 
the sixth century, was spread the cultus of these 
holy chains, a few filings of which enclosed in gold 
or silver keys was the richest present the Sovereign 
Pontiffs were wont to offer to the principal churches, 
or to princes whom they wished to hononr. Con- 
stantinople, at some period not clearly determined, 
received a portion of these precious chains; she 
appointed a feast on the 16th January, honouring on 
that day the Apostle Peter, as the occupant of the 
first See, the foundation of the faith, the immovable 
basis of dogma. 3 

1 Chrys. in Ep. ad Eph., hom. viii. s Menaea. 

* Op. Milev. contra Parmeni., vii., iii. 

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st. peter's 

The following is the lej 
Roman Breviary : 

During the reign of Theo- 
dosius the younger, Eudoxia, 
his wife, went to Jerusalem 
to fulfil a vow, and while there 
she was honoured with many 
gifts, the greatest of which 
was an iron chain adorned 
with gold and precious stones, 
and said to be that wherewith 
the Apostle Peter had been 
bound by Herod. Eudoxia 
piously venerated this chain, 
and then sent it to Home to 
her daughter Eudoxia. The 
latter took it to the Sovereign 
Pontiff, who in his turn show- 
ed her another chain which 
had bound the same Apostle, 
under Nero. 

When the Pontiff thus 
brought together the Roman 
chain and that which had 
come from Jerusalem, they 
joined together in such a 
manner that they seemed no 
longer two chains, but a single 
one, made by one same work- 
man. On account of this 
miracle the holy chains began 
to be held in so great honour, 
that a church at the title of 
Eudoxia on the Esquiline was 
dedicated under the name of 
St. Peter ad vihcula, and the 
memory of its dedication was 
celebrated by a feast on the 
Kalends of August 

From that time St. Peter's 
chains began to receive the 
honours of this day, instead 
of a pagan festival which it 

CHAINS. 249 
3nd of the feast in the 

Theodosio j uniore imper- 
ante, cum Eudocia ejus uxor 
Jerosolymam solvendi voti 
causa venisset, ibi multis est 
affecta muneribus : pro ce- 
teris insigne donum accepit 
ferreae catenae, auro gemmis- 
.que ornatae : quam ulam es- 
se affirmabant, qua Petrus 
Apostolus ab Herode vinc- 
tus fuerat. Eudocia cate- 
nam pie venerata, earn pos- 
tea Romain ad filiam Eu- 
doxiam misit, quae illam 
Pontifici maximo detulit : 
isque vicissim illi monstra- 
vit alteram catenam: qua, 
Nerone imperatore, idem 
Apostolus constrictus fue- 

Cum igitur Pontifex Ro- 
manam catenam cum ea, 
quae Jerosolymis allata fue- 
rat, contulisset, factum est 
ut illae inter se sic connec- 
terentur, ut non duae, sed 
una catena ab eodem arti- 
fice confecta esse videretur. 
Quo miraculo tantus honor 
sacris illis vinculis haberi 
ccepit, ut propterea hoc no- 
mine sancti Petri adVincula 
ecclesia titulo Eudoxiae, de- 
dicata sit in Exquiliis, ej us- 
que memoriae dies festus in- 
stitutes calendis AugustL 

Quo ex tempore honos, 
qui eo die profanis Genti- 
hum eelebritatibus tribui 
solitus erat, Petri vinculis 

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haberi coepit: quae tacta had been customary to cele- 

segros sanabant, et daemo- brate. Contact with them 

nes ejiciebant. Quo in gen- healed the sick, and put the 

ere anno salutis humanse demons to flight Thus, in 

nongentesimo sexagesimo the year of salvation 909, a 

nono accidit, ut quidam certain count, who was very 

comes, Othonis imperatoris intimate with the Emperor 

familiaris, occupatus ab Otho, was taken possession 

immundo spiritu, seipsum of by an unclean spirit, so 

dentibus dilaniaret. Quare that he tore bis flesh with his 

is jussu imperatoris ad Jo- own teeth. By command of 

annem Pontificera ducitur : the Emperor he was taken to 

qui, ut sacra catena comitis the Pontiff John, who had no 

collum attigit, e rum pens sooner touched the count's 

nefarius spiritus hominem neck with the holy chain than 

liberum reliquit : ac dein- the wicked spirit was driven 

cens in Urbe sanctorum vin- away, leaving the man entirely 

culorum religio propagata free. On this account devo- 

est tion to the holy chains was 

spread throughout Rome. 

Put thy feet into the fetters of Wisdom, and thy 
neck into her chains, said the Holy Spirit under 
the ancient alliance ; . . . and be not grieved with 
her bands. . . . For in the latter end thou shalt 
find rest in her, and she shall be turned to thy joy. 
Then shall her fetters be a strong defence for thee 
. . . and her bands are a healthful binding. Thou 
shalt put her on as a robe of glory. 1 Incarnate 
Wisdom, applying the prophecy to thee, O Prince of 
Apostles, declared that in testimony of thy love the 
day would come when thou shouldst suffer constraint 
and bondage. The trial, O Peter, was a convincing 
one for Eternal Wisdom, who proportions her require- 
ments to the measure of her own love. But thou, 
too, didst find her faithful ; in the days of the for- 
midable combat, wherein she wished to show her 
power in thy weakness, she did not leave thee in 
oands ; in her arms thou didst sleep so calm a sleep 

1 EoclL vi. 25-32. 

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in Herod's prison ; and, going down with thee vnio 
the pit of Nero, she faithfully kept thee company up 
to the hour when, subjecting the persecutors to the 
persecuted, she placed the sceptre in thy hands, and 
on thy brow the triple crown. 

From the throne where thou reignest with the 
Man-God in heaven, as thou didst follow him on 
earth in trials and anguish, loosen our bands which, 
alas! are not glorious ones such as thine: break 
these fetters of sin which bind us to Satan, these ties 
of all the passions which prevent us from soaring 
towards God. The world, more than ever enslaved 
in the infatuation of its false liberties which make it 
forget the only true freedom, has more need now of 
enfranchisement than in the times of pagan Caesars : 
be once more its deliverer, now that thou art more 
powerful than ever. May Rome especially, now 
fallen the lower because precipitated from a greater 
height, learn again the emancipating power which 
lurks in thy chains; they have become a rallying 
standard for her faithful children in these latter 
trials. 1 Make good the word once uttered by her 
poets, that "encircled with these chains she will 
"ever be free." 2 

The August heavens glitter with the brightest 
constellations of the sacred cycle. Even in the sixth 
century, the Second Council of Tours remarked that 
this month was filled with the feasts of Saints. 8 
My delights are to be with the children of men, 
says Wisdom ; and in the month which echoes with 
her teachings, she seems to have made it her glory 

1 Archconfraternity of St. Peter's chains, erected 18th Jane, 1867. 
* Arator. De Act. Apost., L. l, v. 1070-1076. 
8 Toto Augusto . . . festivitates sunt et missae sanctorum. De 
observatione psallendi. Labbe, V., 857. 

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to be surrounded with blessed ones, who, walking 
with her in the midst of the paths of judgment, have 
in finding her found life and salvation from the 
Lord. This noble court is presided over by the 
Queen of all grace, whose triumph consecrates this 
month and makes it the delight of that Wisdom of 
the Father, who, once enthroned in Mary, never 
quitted her. What a wealth of divine favours do 
the coming days promise to our souls ! Never were 
our Father's barns so well filled as at this season, 
when the earthly as well as the heavenly harvests 
are ripe. 

While the Church on earth inaugurates these days 
by adorning herself with Peter's chains as with a 
precious jewel, a constellation of seven stars appears 
for the third time in the heavens. The seven 
brothers Machabees preceded the sons of Symphorosa 
and Felicitas in the blood-stained arena; they 
followed divine Wisdom even before she had mani- 
fested her beauty in the flesh. The sacred cause of 
which they were the champions, their strength of 
soul under the tortures, their sublime answers to the 
executioners, were so evidently the type reproduced 
by the later Martyrs, that the Fathers of the first 
centuries with one accord claimed for the Christian 
Church these heroes of the synagogue, who could 
have gained such courage from no other source than 
their faith in the Christ to come. For this reason 
they alone of all the holy persons of the ancient 
covenant have found a place on the Christian cycle ; 
all the Martyrologies and Calendars of East and 
West attest the universality of their cultus, while 
its antiquity is such as to rival that of St. Peter's 
chains in that same basilica of Eudoxia where their 
precious relics lie. 

At the time when in the hope of a better resur- 
rection they refused under cruel torments to redeem 

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st. peter's chains. 


their lives, other heroes of the same blood, inspired 
by the same faith, flew to arms and delivered their 
country from a terrible crisis. Several children of 
Israel, forgetting the traditions of their nation, had 
wished it to follow the customs of strange peoples ; 
and the Lord, in punishment, had allowed Judea to 
feel the whole weight of a profane rule to which it 
had guiltily submitted. But when king Antiochus, 
taking advantage of the treason of a few and the 
carelessness of the majority, endeavoured by his 
ordinances to blot out the divine law which alone 
gives power to man over man, Israel, suddenly 
awakened, met the- tyrant with the double opposition 
of revolt and martyrdom. Judas Machabeus in 
immortal battles reclaimed for God the land of his 
inheritance, while by the virtue of their generous 
confession, the seven, brothers also, his rivals in 
glory, recovered, as the Scripture says, the law out 
of the hands of the nations, and out of the hands 
of the kings. 1 Soon afterwards, craving mercy 
under the hand of God and not finding it, Antiochus 
died, devoured by worms, just as later on, were to 
die the first and last persecutors of the Christians, 
Herod Agrippa and Galerius Maximian. 

The Holy Ghost, who would himself hand down 
to posterity the acts of the Protomartyr of the New 
Law, did the same with regard to the passion of 
Stephen's glorious predecessors in the ages of 
expectation. Indeed it was he who then, as under 
the law of Love, inspired with both words and 
courage these valiant brothers, and their still more 
admirable mother, who, seeing her seven sons one 
after the other suffering the most horrible tortures, 
uttered nothing but burning exhortations to die. 
Surrounded by their mutilated bodies, she mocked 

1 1 Mach. ii. 48. 

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the tyrant who, in false pity, wished her to persuade 
at least the youngest to save his life ; she bent over 
the last child of her tender love and said to him : 
My son, have pity upon me, that bore thee nine 
months in my womb, and gave thee suck three 
years, and nourished thee, and brought thee up 
unto this age. I beseech thee, my son, look upon 
heaven and earth, and all that is in them: and 
consider that God made them out of nothing and 
mankind also: so thou shalt not fear this tor- 
mentor, but being made a worthy partner with thy 
brethren, receive death, thai in that mercy I may 
receive thee again with thy brethren. 1 And the 
intrepid youth ran in his innocence to the tortures ; 
and the incomparable mother followed her sons. 


Fraterna nos, Domine, May the fraternal crown of 

Martyrum tuorum corona thy martyrs rejoice us, O 

laatificet : quae et fidei nos- Lord, and may it procure for 

toe praebeat incrementa vir- our faith an increase of vir- 

tutum, et multiplici nos tue, and console us with mul- 

suffragio consoletur. Per tiplied intercession. Through, 

Dominum. <fcc 

1 2 Mach. vii. 27, 28, 29. 

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August 2. 



Yesterday we admired, in Peter and the Macha- 
bees, the substructure of the palace built by Wisdom 
in time to endure for eternity. To-day, in confor- 
mity with the divine ways of that Wisdom, who in 
her playing reaches from end to end, we are suffered 
to contemplate the progress of the glorious building, 
to behold the summit of the work, the last row of 
stones actually laid. Now, summit and foundation, 
the work is all one ; the materials are all priceless : 
witness the diamond of fine water which displays its 
lustre to-day. 

To this great Saint, great both in works and in 
doctrine, are directly applied these words of the Holy 
Ghost: they that instruct many to justice shall shine 
as stars for all eternity} At the time he appeared, 
an odious sect was denying the mercy and the sweet- 
ness of our heavenly Father; it triumphed in the 
practical conduct of even those who were shocked by 
its Calvinistic theories. Under pretext of a reaction 
against an imaginary school of laxity, and denouncing 
with much ado some erroneous propositions made by 
obscure persons, the new Pharisees had set themselves 

1 Dan. xii. 3. 

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up as zealous for the law. Stretching the command- 
ments, and exaggerating the sanction, they loaded 
the conscience with the same unbearable burdens 
which the Man-God reproached the ancient Pharisees 
with laying on the shoulders of men ; but the cry of 
alarm they had raised in the name of endangered 
morals, had none the less deceived the simple, and 
ended by misleading even the best. Thanks to the 
show of austerity displayed by its adherents, Jansen- 
ism, so clever in veiling its teachings, had too well 
succeeded in its designs of forcing itself upon the 
Church in spite of the Church. Unsuspecting allies 
within the holy city gave up to its mercy the sources 
of salvation. Soon in too many places, the sacred 
Keys were used but to open hell ; the Holy Table, 
spread for the preservation and increase of life in all, 
became accessible only to the perfect; and these latter 
were esteemed such, according as, by a strange 
reversion of the Apostle's words, they subjected the 
spirit of adoption of sons to the spirit of servitude 
and fear. As to the faithful who did not rise to the 
height of this new asceticism, " finding in the tribunal 
" of penance, instead of fathers and physicians, only 
"exactors and executioners," 1 they had but to choose 
between despair and indifference. Everywhere legis- 
latures and parliaments lent a hand to the so-called 
reformers, without heeding the flood of odious un- 
belief that was rising around them, without seeing 
the gathering storm-clouds. 

Wo to you Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites: 
because you shut the kingdom of heaven against 
men, for you yourselves do not enter in ; and those 
that are going in, you suffer not to enter. ... Wo to 
you Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites : because you 

1 Supplices litterae Kpiscopatus pro concessione tituli Doctoris 
S. Alphonso Mariae. 

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go round about the sea and the land to make one 
proselyte ; and wlten he is made, you make him the 
child of hell twofold more than yourselves. 1 Not of 
your conventicles was it said that the sons of Wisdom 
are the Church of the just, for it was added : Their 
generation is obedience and love. 2 Not of the fear 
which you preached did the Psalmist sing : The fear 
of the Lord is the beginning of Wisdom ; 3 for even 
under the law of Sinai the Holy Spirit said : Ye that 
fear the Lord, believe him : and your reward shall 
not be made void. Ye that fear the Lord, hope in 
him : and mercy shall come to you for your delight 
Ye that fear the Lord, love him : and your hearts 
shall be enlightened.* Every deviation, whether 
towards rigour or weakness, offends the rectitude of 
justice ; but, especially since Bethlehem and Calvary, 
no sin so wounds the divine Heart as distrust ; no 
fault is unpardonable except in the despair of a 
Judas, saying like Cain: my iniquity is greater 
than that I may deserve pardon. 6 

Who then, in the sombre quietism into which the 
teachers then in vogue had led even the strongest 
minds, could find once more the key of knowledge ? 
But Wisdom, says the Holy Ghost, kept in her 
treasures the signification of discipline. 6 Just as 
in other times she had raised up new avengers for 
every dogma that had been attacked : so now, against 
a heresy which, in spite of the speculative pretensions 
of its beginning, had only in its moral bearing any 
sort of duration, she brought forth Alphonsus Liguori 
as the avenger of the violated law and the Doctor by 
excellence of Christian morality. A stranger alike 
to fatal rigorism and baneful indulgence, he knew 
how to restore to the justices of the Lord their recti- 

1 St. Matth. xxiii. 13, 15. 3 Ps. ex. 10. i Gen. iv. 13. 

2 Eccli. iii. 1. * Eccli. ii. 8-10. - 6 Eocli. i. 31. 

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tude, and at the same time their power of rejoicing 
hearts, to his commandments their luminous bright- 
ness, whereby they are justified in themselves, to his 
testimonies the purity which attracts souls and faith- 
fully guides the simple and the little ones from the 
beginnings of Wisdom to its summits. 1 It was not 
only in the sphere of casuistry that Alphonsus suc- 
ceeded, in his Moral Theology, in counteracting the 
poison which threatened to infect the whole Christian 

answered any attack made at the time against 
revealed truth, his ascetic and mystical works brought 
back piety to its traditional sources, the frequentation 
of the Sacraments, and the love of our Lord and his 
Blessed Mother. The Sacred Congregation of Rites, 
after examining in the name of the Holy See the 
works of our Saint, and declaring that nothing deserv- 
ing of censure was to be fou/nd therein, 2 arranged 
bis innumerable writings under forty separate titles* 
Alphonsus, however, resolved only late in life to give 
to the public, through the press, the lights which 
flooded his soul ; his first work, the golden book of 
Visits to the Most Holy Sacrament and to tlve Blessed 
Virgva, did not appear till the author was nearly 
fifty years of age. Though God Drolonged his life 
beyond the usual limits, he spared him neither the 
double burden of the episcopate and the government 
of the Congregation he had founded, nor the most 
painful infirmities, nor still more grievous moral 

Let us listen to the Church's account of his life. 

Alphonsus Maria de Li- Alphonsus Mary de Liguori 

gorio, Neapoli nobilibus was born of a noble family at 

parentibus natus, ab ine- Naples, and from his early 

unte state non obscura youth gave clear proofs of 

1 Of. Ps. xviii. 8-10. 1 Deoretuni, 14 and 18 Maii, 1803. 

never left un- 

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sanctity. While he was still 
a child, his parents once pre- 
sented him to St. Francis 
Girolamo, of the Society of 
Jesus. The Saint blessed 
him, and prophesied that he 
would reach his ninetieth 
year, that he would be raised 
to the episcopal dignity, and 
would do much good for the 
Church. Even as a boy he 
shrank from games, and both 
by his words and example in- 
cited noble youth to Christian 
modesty. When he reached 
early manhood he enrolled 
himself in pious associations, 
and made it his delight to 
serve the sick in the public 
hospital, to spend much time 
in prayer and in the church, 
and frequently to receive the 
sacred mysteries. He -joined 
study to piety with such suc- 
cess that, when scarcely six- 
teen years of age, he took the 
degree of Doctor in both 
Canon and Civil Law, in the 
University of his native city. 
In obedience to his father's 
wishes, he pleaded at the bar ; 
but, while winning himself a 
name in the discharge of this 
office, he learnt by experience 
what dangers beset a lawyer's 
life, and, of his own accord, 
abandoned the profession. 
Then he refused a brilliant 
marriage proposed to him by 
his father, renounced his right 
of inheritance as eldest son, 
and, hanging up his sword at 
the altar of the Virgin of 
Mercy, he devoted himself to 
the divine service. Having 
been made priest, he attacked 



prsebuit sanctitatis indicia. 
Eum adhuc infantem quum 
parentes obtulissent sancto 
Francisco de Hieronymo e 
Societate J esu, is bene pre- 
catus edixit eumdem ad 
nonagesimum usque annum 
perventurum, ad . episcopa- 
lem dignitatem evectum iri, 
maximoque Ecclesise bono 
f uturum. Jam turn a pue- 
ritia a ludis abhorrens, no- 
biles ephebos ad christian- 
am modestiam verbo et ex- 
emplo componebat. Ado- 
lescens, dato piis sodalita- 
tibus nomine, in publicis 
nosocomiis aegrotis inser- 
vire, jugi in templis orationi 
vacare, ac sacra mysteria 
frequenter obire in deliciis 
habebat. Fietatem litte- 
rarum studiis adeo con- 
junxit, ut sexdecim vix an- 
bos natus utriusque juris 
lauream in patria Universi- 
tate fuerit assecutus. Fatri 
obtemperans causarum pa- 
trocinia suscepit, in quo 
munere obeundo, etsi mag- 
nam sibi laudem comparas- 
set, fori tamen pericula ex- 
pertus, ejusmodi vitse insti- 
tutum ultro dimisit Spreto 
igitur prieclaro conjugio sibi 
a patre proposito, avita pri- 
mogenitura abdicata, et ad 
aram Virginis de Mercede 
ense suspense, divinis mini- 
steriis se mancipavit. Sacer- 
dos f actus, tanto zelo irruit 
in vitia, ut apostolico mu- 
nere f ungens, hue illuc per- 
volans, in gen tea perdito- 
rum hominum conversiones 
perageret. Fauperum pras- 

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sertim, et ruricolarum mi- 
seratus, congregationem 
presbyterorum instituit 
sanctissimi Redemptoris, 
qui ipsum Eedemptorem 
secuti per agros, pagos et 
castella, pauperibus evan- 

Ne autem a proposito 
umquam diverteret, perpe- 
tuo se voto obstrinxit, nul- 
lam temporis jacturam fa- 
ciendi. Hinc animarum 
zelo succensus, turn divini 
verbi praedicatione, turn 
scriptis sacra eruditione et 
pietate refertis, animas 
Christo lucrifacere, et ad 
perfectiorem vitam addu- 
cere studuit. Mirum sane 
quot odia exstinxerit, quot 
devios ad rectum salutit 
iter revocaverit. Dei Geni- 
tricis cultor eximius de il- 
lius laudibus librum edidit, 
ac de iis dum f erventius 
concionando disserit, a Vir- 
ginia imagine in eum im- 
lirisso miro splendore totus 
facie coruscare, et in ex- 
stasim rapi coram universo 
populo non semel visus est. 
Dominicse passionis, et sa- 
crae Eucharistiae contem- 
plator assiduus, ejus cultum 
mirifice propagavit. Dum 
vero ad ejus aram oraret, 
vel sacrum faceret, quod 
numquam omisit, pr» amo- 
ris venementia, vel seraphi- 

vice with such great zeal that, 
in the exercise of his apostolic 
ministry, he hastened from 
place to place, working won- 
derful conversions. He had 
a special compassion for the 
poor, and particularly for 
country people, and founded 
a congregation for priests, 
called "of the Holy Re- 
"deemer," who were to follow 
the Redeemer through the 
fields, and hamlets, and vil- 
lages, preaching to the poor. 

In order that nothing might 
turn him from his purpose, he 
bound himself by a perpetual 
vow never to waste any time. 
On fire with love of souls, he 
strove to win them to Christ 
and to make them lead 
more perfect lives, both by 
preaching the divine word 
and by writings full of sacred 
learning and piety. Marvel- 
lous was the number of hatreds 
he stilled and of wanderers he 
brought back to the path of 
salvation. He had the great- 
est devotion to the Mother of 
God, and published a book 
on the "Glories of Mary." 
More than once, while he was 
speaking of her with great 
earnestness during his ser- 
mons, a wonderful brightness 
came upon him from Our 
Lady's image, and he was seen 
by all the people to be rapt in 
ecstasy. The Passion of our 
Lord and the Holy Eucharist 
were the objects of his un- 
ceasing contemplation, and 
he spread devotion to them 
in a wonderful degree. 
When he was praying be- 

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fore the Altar of the Blessed 
Sacrament, or celebrating 
Holy Mass, which he never 
failed to do, through the vio- 
lence of his love he shed burn- 
ing tears, was agitated in an 
extraordinary manner, and at 
times was carried out of his 
senses. He joined a wonder- 
ful innocence, which he had 
never stained by deadly sin, 
with an equally wonderful 
spirit of penance, and chas- 
tised his body by fasting, iron 
chains, hair-shirts, and scourg- 
ing8 even to blood. At the 
same time he was remarkable 
for the gifts of prophecy, 
reading of hearts, bilocation, 
and many miracles. 

He firmly refused the eccle- 
siastical dignities which were 
offered him, but he was com- 
pelled by the authority of Pope 
Clement XIII. to accept the 
government of the Church of 
St. Agatha of the Goths. As 
Bishop, though he changed 
his outward dress, yet he 
made no alteration in the 
severity of his life. He ob- 
served the same moderation ; 
his zeal for Christian disci- 

Eline was most ardent, and 
e displayed the greatest de- 
votedness in rooting out vice, 
in guarding against false doc- 
trine, and in discharging the 
other duties of the pastoral 
charge. He was most gener- 
ous towards the poor, distri- 
buting to them all the reve- 
nues of his See, and in a time 
of scarcity of corn he sold 
even the furniture of his house 
to feed his starving people. 


cis liquescebat ardoribus, 
vel insolitis quatiebatur 
motibus, vel abstrahebatur 
a sensibus. Miram vitae in- 
nocentiam, quam nulla urn- 
quam lethali labe foedavit, 
pari cum pcenitentia soci- 
ans, corpus suum media, 
ferreis catenulis, ciliciis, 
cruentaque flagellatione 
castigabat. Inter haec pro- 
phetic, scrutationis cor- 
dium, bilocationis, et mira- 
culorum donis inclaruit. 

Ab ecclesiasticis dignita- 
tibus sibi oblatis constantis- 
sime abhorruit. At demen- 
tis Decimitertii Fontificis 
auctoritate coactus, sanctaa 
Agathae Gothorum Ecclesi- 
am gubernandam suscepit. 
Episcopus externum dum- 
taxat habitum, non autem 
severam viveudi rationem 
immutavit. Eadem fruga- 
litas, summus Christianas 
disciplined zelus, impensum 
in vitiis coercendis arcen- 
disque erroribus, et in reli- 
quis pastoralibus muneri- 
bus obeundis studium. Li- 
beralis in pauperes, omnes 
ecclesise proventus iisdem 
distribuebat, ac, urgente 
annonae caritate, ipsam do- 
mesticam supellectilem in 
alendis famelicis erogavit. 
Omnibus omnia factus, san- 
ctimoniales ad perfectiorem 
vivendi formam redegit, 

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ftuaeque congregationis mo- He was all things to all men. 

nialium monasterium con- He brought religious women 

Btituendum curavit. Epi- to lead a more perfect life r 

Bcopatu ob graves habitual- and took care to erect ar 

esques morbos dimisso, ad monastery for nuns of his Con- 

alumnos suos, a quibus pau- gjregation. Severe and con- 

per discesserat, revertitur tinual sickness forced him ta 

pauper. Demum quamvis resign his bishopric, and he 

senio, laboribusque, diutur- returned to his children as 

na arthritide, aliisque gra- poor as when he had left 

vissimis morbis fractus cor- them. Though worn out in 

Sore, spiritu tamen alacrior, body by old age, labottrs r 

e ccelestibus rebus dis- chronic gout, and other pain- 

serendi, aut scribendi finem ful maladies, his mind was 

numquam adhibuit, donee fresh and clear, and he never 

nonagenarius, calendis Au- ceased speaking or writing of 

gusti, anno millesimo sep- heavenly things till at length r 

tingentesimo octogesimo on the Kalends of August he 

septimo. Nuceriae Pagan- most peacefully expired, at 

orum inter suorum alum- Nocera-dei-Pagani, amidst his 

norum lacrymas placidissi- weeping children. It was in 

me exspiravit. Eum inde the year 1787, the ninetieth 

virtutibus et miraculis clar- of his age. His virtues and 

um Pius Septimus Pontifex miracles made him famous r 

Maximus anno millesimo and on this account, in 1816, 

octingentesimo decimo sex- Pope Pius VII. enrolled him 

to beatorum fastis, novis- amongst the Blessed. God 

que fulgentem signis, Gre- still glorified him with new 

gorius Decimussextus in signs and wonders, and, on 

festosanctissimraTrinitatis, the feast of the Most Blessed 

anno millesimo octingen- Trinity, in the year 1839, 

tesimo trigesimo nono so- Gregory XVI. solemnly in- 

lemni ritu sanctorum cata- scribed his name on the list 

fogo accensuit ; tandem of the Saints ; finally, Pope 

Pius Nonus, Pontifex Maxi- Pius IX., after consulting the 

mus, ex Sacrorum Eituum Congregation of Sacred Kites, 

Congregationis consulto, declared him a Doctor of the 

universalis Ecclesiae Doc- universal Church, 
torem declaravit 

"I bave not hid thy justice within my heart: I 
" have declared thy truth and thy salvation." 1 Thus- 

1 Gradual of the Mass, fr. Ps. xxxix. 11. 

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eings the Church in thy name to-day, in gratitude 
for the great service thou didst render her in the 
days of sinners, when godliness seemed to be lost. 
Exposed to the attacks of an extravagant pharisaism, 
and watched by a sceptical and mocking philosophy, 
even the good wavered as to which was the way of 
the Lord. While the moralists of the day could but 
forge fetters for consciences, the enemy had a good 
chance of crying : Let us break their bonds asunder: 
<ind let us cast away their yoke from us. The 
ancient wisdom reverea by their fathers, now that it 
was compromised by these foolish teachers, seemed 
but a ruined edifice to people eager for emancipation. 
In this unprecedented extremity, thou, O Alphonsus, 
wast the prudent man whom the Church needed, 
whose mouth uttered words to strengthen men's 

Long before thy birth, a great Pope had said that 
it belongs to Doctors to enlighten the Church, to 
adorn her with virtues, to form her manners ; by 
them, he added, she shines in the midst of darkness 
as a morning star ; their word, made fruitful from on 
high, solves the enigmas of the Scriptures, unravels 
difficulties, clears obscurities, interprets what is doubt- 
ful ; their profound works, beautified by eloquence 
of speech, are so many priceless pearls which ennoble 
no less than adorn the House of God. Thus did 
Boniface VIII. speak in the thirteenth century, when 
he was raising to the rank of doubles the feasts of 
the Apostles and Evangelists, and of the four then 
recognised Doctors, St Gregory, St. Augustine, St 
Ambrose, and St Jerome. But is it not a descrip- 
tion, striking as a prophecy, faithful as a portrait, of 
all that that thou wert ? 

Glory then be to thee, who in our days of de- 
cadence renewest the youth of the Church, and 
through whom justice and peace once more embrace 

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one aDotber at the meeting of mercy and truth. For 
this object thou didst literally give unreservedly thy 
time and thy strength. "The love of God," says 
St Gregory, " is never idle : where it exists it does 
" great things : if it refuses to act, it is not love." 1 
What fidelity was thine in accomplishing that awful 
vow, whereby thou didst deny thyself the possibility 
of even a moment's relaxation. When suffering in- 
tolerable pain, which would appear to anyone else to 

i'ustify, if not to command, some rest, thou wouldst 
told to thy forehead with one hand a piece of marble, 
which seemed to give some slight relief, and with 
the other wouldst continue thy precious writings. 

But still greater was the example God set before 
the world, when, in thine old age, he suffered thee, 
through the treason of one of thine own sons, to be 
disgraced by that Apostolic See, for which thou hadst 
worn away thy life, and which in return withdrew 
thee, as unworthy, from the very institute thou hadst 
founded ! Then hell was permitted to join its stripes 
with those of heaven ; and thou, the Doctor of peace, 
didst endure terrible temptations against faith and 
holy hope. Thus was thy work made perfect in that 
weakness which is stronger than strength ; and thus 
didst thou merit for troubled souls the support of the 
virtue of Christ. Nevertheless, having become a 
child once more in the blind obedience required 
under such painful trials, thou wast near at once to 
the kingdom of heaven and to the Crib, which thou 
didst celebrate in such sweet accents. And the 
virtue which the Man-God felt going out from him 
during his mortal life escaped from thee, too, in such 
abundance that the little sick children presented by 
their mothers for thy blessing were all healed. 

Now that thy tears and thy toils are over, watch 

1 Greg, in Ev., horn. xxx. 

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over us evermore; Preserve in the Church the fruits 
of thy labours. The religious family begotten by 
thee has not degenerated ; more than once, in the 
persecutions of last century, the enemy has honoured 
it with special tokens of his hatred ; already, too, has 
the aureola of the blessed passed from the father to 
his sons ; may they ever cherish these noble tradi- 
tions ! May the Eternal Father, who in Baptism 
made us all worthy to be partakers of the lot of the 
saints in light, lead us all happily by thy example 
and teachings 1 in the footsteps of our Most Holy 
Redeemer into the kingdom of this Son of his love. 2 

The commemoration of the illustrious Pope and 
Martyr, Stephen I., adds a perfume of antiquity to 
the holiness of this day dedicated to the honour of 
a comparatively modern Saint. Stephen's special 
glory in the Church is to have been the guardian of 
the dignity of holy Baptism. Baptism once given 
can never be repeated ; for the character of child 
of God, which it imprints upon the Christian, is 
everlasting; and this unspeakable dignity of the 
first Sacrament in no wise depends upon the dis- 
position or state of the minister conferring it 
According to the teaching of St. Austin, whether 
Peter, or Paul, or Judas baptize, it is he upon whom 
the Divine Dove descended in the Jordan, it is he 
alone and always, that baptizes by them in the Holy 
Ghost. Such is the adorable munificence of our 
Lord with regard to this indispensable means of 
salvation, that the very pagan who belongs not to 
the Church, and the schismatic or heretic separated 
from her, can administer it with full validity, on the 

1 Collect of the Feast. 2 Col. i. 12, 13. 

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one condition of fulfilling the exterior rite in its 
essence, and of wishing to do thereby what the 
Church doea 

In the time of Stephen I. this truth was not so 
universally known as now. Great bishops, whose 
learning and holiness had justly won them the 
admiration of their age, wished to make the converts 
from various sects pass again through the laver of 
salvation. But the assistance promised to Peter 
was not wanting to his successor; and by main- 
taining the traditional discipline, Borne, through 
Stephen, saved the faith of the Churches. Let us 
testify our gratitude to the holy Pontiff for his 
fidelity in guarding the sacred deposit, which is the 
treasure of all men ; and let us beg him to preserve 
no less effectually, in us also, the nobility and the 
rights of our holy Baptism. 


Dens, qui nos beati Ste- O God, who givest us joy 

fhani Martyris tui atque by the annual solemnity of 

'ontificis annua solemnitate blessed Stephen, thy martyr 

laetificaa: concede propitius; and bishop, mercifully grant 

ut cujus natalitia colimus, that we may rejoice in the 

de ejusdem etiam protec- protection of him whose festi- 

tione gaudeamus. Per Do- val we celebrate. Through 

minum. our Lord, &c 

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August 3. 



Urged by the approach of Laurence's triumph, 
Stephen rises to assist at his combat ; it is a meeting 
full of beauty and strength, revealing the work of 
Eternal Wisdom in the arrangement of the sacred 

2cle. But the present feast has other teachings 
10 to offer us. 

The first resurrection, of which we spoke above, 
continues for the Saints. After Nazarius and Celsus, 
and all the martyrs whom the victory of Christ has 
shown to be partakers of his glory according to the 
divine promise, the standard-bearer of the white- 
robed army himself rises glorious from his tomb to 
lead the way for new triumphs. The fierce auxili- 
aries of God's anger against idolatrous Borne, after 
reducing the false gods to powder, must in their 
turn be subjugated ; and this second victory will be 
the work of the martyrs aiding the Church by their 
miracles, as the first was that of their faith despising 
death and tortures. The received method of writing 
history in our days ignores such considerations ; that 
is no reason why we should follow the fashion: the 
exactitude of its data, on which the science of this 
age plumes itself, is but one more proof that false- 
hood is as easily nurtured by omissions as by 
positive misstatements. Now the more profound 

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the present silence on the question, the more certain 
it is that the very years which beheld the barbarians 
invading and overturning the empire, were signalized 
by an effusion of virtue from on high, comparable 
in more than one respect to that which marked the 
times of the Apostolic preaching. Nothing less was 
required to reassure the faithful on the one hand, 
and on the other to inspire with respect for the 
Church these brutal invaders, who knew no right 
but might, and felt nothing but disdain for the race 
they had conquered. 

The divine intention in surrounding the fall of 
Rome in 410 with discoveries of Saints' bodies, was 
clearly manifested in the most important of these 
inventions, the one we celebrate to-day. The year 
415 had opened. Italy, Gaul, and Spain were being 
invaded, Africa was about to share their fate. 
Amidst the universal ruin, the Christians, in whom 
alone resided the hope of the world, put up their 
petitions at every sanctuary to obtain at least, 
according to the expression of the Spanish priest, 
Avitus, "that the Lord would inspire with gentle- 
ness those whom he suffered to pre vail." 1 It was 
then that took place that marvellous revelation 
which the severe critic Tillemont, convinced by the 
testimony of all the chronicles, histories, letters, and 
discourses of the time, 2 allows to be "one of the 
"most celebrated events of the fifth century." 3 
Through the intermediary of the priest Lucian, 
John, Bishop of Jerusalem, received from St. Stephen 
the first Martyr and his companions in the tomb, a 
message couched in these terms: "Make haste to 
" open our sepulchre, that by our means God may 
"open to the world the door of his clemency, and 

1 Aviti Epist. ad Palchon, De reliquiis S. Stephani. 

2 Idatii, Marcellini, Sozomenis, Augustini, &c. 
* Mem. Eccl., ii., p. 12. 

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"may take pity on his people in the universal 
" tribulation." The discovery, accomplished in the 
midst of prodigies, was published to the whole world 
as the sign of salvation. 1 St. Stephen's relics, 
scattered everywhere in token of security and 
peace, 2 wrought astonishing conversions; 3 innumer- 
able miracles, "like those of ancient times, ,, bore 
witness to the same faith of Christ which the martyr 
had confessed by his death four centuries earlier. 4 

Such was the extraordinary character of this 
manifestation, so astonishing was the number of 
resurrections of the dead, that St. Augustine, ad- 
dressing his people, deemed it prudent to lift their 
thoughts from Stephen the servant to Christ his 
Master. "Though dead," said he, "he raises the 
"dead to life, because in reality he is not dead. 5 
" But as heretofore in his mortal life, so now, too, he 
" acts solely in the name of Christ ; all that ye see 
" now done by the memory of Stephen, is done in 
"that name alone, that Christ may be exalted, 
" Christ may be adored, Christ may be expected as 
"Judge of the living and the dead." 6 

Let us conclude with this praise addressed to St. 
Stephen a few years later by Basil of Seleucia, which 
gives so well in a few words the reason of the feast : 
"There is no place, no territory, no nation, no far-off 
" land, that has not obtained the help of thy benefits. 
"There is no one, stranger or citizen, barbarian or 
"Scythian, that does not experience, through thy 
"intercession, the greatness of heavenly realities." 7 

1 Luciani Epist. ad omnem Ecclesiam, De revelatione S. 
* Aviti Epist. 

3 Severi Epist. ad omnem Eccl., De virtutibus S. Stephani. 

4 Aug. De Civit. Dei, xxii. 8, 9. 
6 Sermo 319, al. De diversis 51. 

6 Sermo 316, al. De diversis 94. 

7 Basil Seleue. Oratio 41, De S. Stephano. 

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The following Legend epitomizes and completes 
the history given by the priest Lucian : 

Sanctorum corpora Ste- 
phani Protomartyris, Gama- 
lielis, Nicodemi et Abibonis, 
<ju® diu in obscuro ac sor- 
dido locojacuerant, Honorio 
imperatore, Luciano presby- 
tero divinitus admonito, 
inventa sunt prope Jeroso- 
lymam. Cui Gamaliel cum 
in somnis apparuisset, gra- 
vi quadam et praeclara senis 
specie, locum jacentium 
corporum commonstravit, 
imperans, ut Joannem Jero- 
solymitanum antistitem adi- 
ret, ageretque cum eo, ut 
honestius ilia corpora sepe- 

Quibus auditis Jerosoly- 
morum antistes, finitimarum 
urbium episcopis presbyter- 
isque convocatis, ad locum 
pergit : def ossos loculos in- 
venit, unde suavissimusodor 
efflabatur. Cujus rei fama 
commota, magna hominum 
multitudo eo convenit, mul- 
tique ex variis morbis aegroti 
ac debiles, sani et integn do- 
mum redierunt. Sacrum au- 
tem sancti Stephani corpus, 
quod summatunccelebritate 
in sanctam ecclesiam Sion 
illatum est, sub Theodosio 
juniore Constantinopolim, 
inde Romam Pelagio Primo 
Summo Pontifice transla- 
tum,in agro Verano insepul- 
cro sancti Laurentii Marty- 
ris collocatum est. 

During the reign of the 
Emperor Honorius, the bodies 
of St. Stephen the Protomar- 
tyr, Gamaliel, Nicodemus, and 
Abibas were found near Jeru- 
salem. They had long lain 
buried, unknown and neg- 
lected, when they were re- 
vealed by God to a priest 
named Lucian. While he was 
asleep, Gamaliel appeared to 
him as a venerable and ma- 
jestic old man, and showed 
him the spot where the bodies 
lay, commanding him to go to 
Bishop John of Jerusalem, 
and persuade him to give 
these Dodies more honourable 

On hearing this, the Bishop 
of Jerusalem assembled the 
neighbouring Bishops and 
clergy, and went to the spot 
indicated. The tombs were 
found, and from them ex- 
haled a most sweet odour. At 
the rumour at what had oc- 
curred, a great crowd came 
together, and many of them 
who were sick and weak from 
various ailments went away 
perfectly cured. The sacred 
body of St. Stephen was then 
canned with great honour to 
the holy church of Sion. Under 
Theodosius the younger it was 
carried to Constantinople, and 
from thence it was translated 
to Rome under Pope Pelagius 
I. and placed in the tomb of 
St. Laurence the Martyr, in 
Agro Verano. 

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What a precious addition to thy history in the 
sacred Books is furnished us, O Protomartyr, by the 
story of thy invention! We now know who were 
those "God-fearing men, who buried Stephen and 
"made great mourning over him." Gamaliel, the 
master of the Doctor of the Gentiles, had been, 
before his disciple, conquered by our Lord ; inspired 
by Jesus to whom in dying thou didst commend thy 
soul, he honoured after thy death the humble 
soldier of Christ with the same cares which had 
been lavished by Joseph of Arimathea, the noble 
counsellor, on the Man-God, and laid thy body in the 
new tomb prepared for himself. Soon Nicodemus, 
Joseph's companion in the pious work of the great 
Friday, hunted by the Jews in that persecution in 
which thou wert the first victim, found refuge near 
thy sacred relics, and dying a holy death was laid to 
rest beside thee. The respected name of Gamaliel 
prevailed over the angry synagogue; while the 
family of Annas and Caiphas kept in its hands the 
priestly power through the precarious favour of 
Kome, the grandson of Hillel left to his descendants 
pre-eminence in knowledge, and his eldest line re- 
mained for four centuries the depositories of the only 
moral authority then recognised by the dispersed 
Israelites. But more fortunate was he in having, by 
hearing the Apostles and thyself, 0 Stephen, passed 
from the science of shadows to the light of the 
realities, from the Law to the Gospel, from Moses to 
him whom Moses announced ; more happy than the 
eldest born, was the beloved son Abibas, baptized 
with his father at the age of twenty, and who, 
passing away to God, filled the tomb next to thine 
with the sweet odour of heavenly purity. How 
touching was the last will of the illustrious father, 
when, his hour being come, he ordered the grave of 
Abibas to be opened for himself, that father and son 

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might be seen to be twin brothers born together to 
the only true light ! 

The munificence of our Lord had placed thee in 
death, O Stephen, in worthy company. We give 
thanks to the noble person who showed thee hospi- 
tality for thy last rest ; and we are grateful to him 
for having, at the appointed time, himself broken 
the silence kept concerning him by the delicate 
reserve of the Scriptures. Here again we see how 
the Man-God wills to share his own honours with 
his chosen onea Thy sepulchre, like his, was glorious ; 
and when it was opened, the earth shook, the by- 
standers believed that heaven had come down ; the 
world was delivered from a desolating drought, and 
amid a thousand evils hope sprang up once more. 
Now that our West possesses thy body and Gamaliel 
has yielded to Laurence the right of hospitality, rise 
up once more, 0 Stephen ; and together with the 
great Eoman deacon deliver us from the new bar- 
barians, by converting them, or wiping them off the 
face of the earth given by God to his Christ 

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August 4. 




" In that clime 

u Where springs the pleasant west-wind to unfold 
" The fresh leaves, with which Europe sees herself 
4t New-garmented ; nor from those billows far, 
" Beyond whose chiding, after weary course, 
" The sun doth sometimes hide him ; safe abides 
" The happy Callaroga under guard 
" Of the great shield, wherein the lion lies 
" Subjected and supreme. And there was born 
" The loving minion of the Christian faith, 
" The hallowd wrestler, gentle to his own, 
And to his enemies terrible. So replete 
" His soul with lively virtue, that when first 
" Created, even in the mother's womb, 
" It prophesied. When, at the sacred font, 
" The spousals were complete 'twixt faith and him, 
u Where pledge of mutual safety was exchanged, 
" The dame, who was his surety, in her sleep 
" Beheld the wondrous fruit, that was from nim 
" And from his heirs to issue. And that such 
" He might be construed, as indeed he was, 
" She was inspired to name him of his owner, 
" Whose he was wholly ; and so call'd him Dominic. 

" O happy father! Felix rightly named. 

" O f avour'd mother ! rightly named Joanna ; 

" If that do mean as men interpret it. 1 

1 Dominic, belonging to the Lord ; Felix, happy ; Joanna, 

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descendants of these high-minded Christians, after 
having vainly attempted to humiliate the Bride by 
subjecting the priesthood to the empire, reproached 
the Church with possessing those goods of which she 
was but the depository in the name of our Lord ; the 
time had come for the Dove of the Canticle to begin, 
by abandoning the earth, her return journey towards 

But if the two leaders of the campaign which 
arrested for a time the progress of the enemy, were 
but one in their love of holy poverty, this last was the 
special choice of the Assisian Patriarch. Dominic's 
more direct means for obtaining the glory of God 
and the salvation of souls, was science ; this was his 
excellent portion, more fertile than that of Caleb's 
daughter. Less than fifty years after Dominic had 
bequeathed this inheritance to his descendants, the 
wisely combined irrigation, by the upper and the 

full growth the tree of theological science, with its 
powerful roots and branches loftier than the clouds, 
whereon the birds of all tribes under heaven loved to 
perch without fear and gaze upon the sun. 

"The father of the Preachers," said the Eternal 
Father to St. Catherine of Sienna, " established his 
" principle on the light, by making it his aim and 
"his armour; he took upon him the office of the 
" Word my Son, sowing my word, dispelling darkness, 
u enlightening the earth ; Mary, by whom I gave him 
" to the world, made him the extirpator of heresies." 1 
In the same way, as we have already seen, spoke the 
Florentine poet half a century earlier. The Order, 
called to become the chief support of the Sovereign 
Pontiff in uprooting pernicious doctrines, ought, if 
possible, to justify that name even more than its 

nether waters 

1 Dialogue, clviii. 

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Patriarch : the first of the tribunals of Holy Church, 
the Holy Roman Universal Inquisition, the Holy 
Office, truly invested with the Office of the Word 
with his two-edged sword, to convert or to chastise, 
could find no instrument more trusty or more sure. 

Little thought the virgin of Sienna, or the illus- 
trious author of the Divina Commedia, that the chief 
title of the Dominican family to the grateful love of 
the people, would be discussed in a certain apologetic 
school, and there discarded as insulting, or dissembled 
as unpleasant. The present age glories in a liberalism 
which has given proofs of its power by multiplying 
ruins, and which rests on no better philosophical 
basis than a strange confusion between licence and 
liberty ; only such intellectual grovelling could have 
failed to understand that, in a society which has faith 
for the basis of its institutions as well as the principle 
of salvation for all, no crime could equal that of 
shaking the foundation on which thus rest both social 
interest and the most precious possession of indi- 
viduals. Neither the idea of justice, nor still less 
that of liberty, could consist in leaving to the mercy 
of evil or evil men, the weak who are unable to protect 
themselves : this truth was the axiom and the glory 
of chivalry: the brothers of Peter the Martyr devoted 
their lives to protect the safety of the children of 
God against the surprises of the strong armed one, 
and the business that walketh about in the dark: 1 
it was the honour of the " saintly flock led by Dominic 
" along a way, where they thrive well who do not go 
"astray." 2 

Who could be truer knights than those athletes of 
the faith? taking their sacred vow in the form of 

1 Ps. xc. 6. 

2 Dante, Paradiso, Canto x. 

3 H6norius III., Diploma confirrnans Ordinem. 

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allegiance, 1 and choosing for their Lady, her who, 
terrible as an army, alone crushes heresies through- 
out the whole world. To the buckler of truth and 
the sword of the word, she who keeps in Sion the 
armour of valiant men, added for her devoted liege- 
men the Rosary, the special mark of her own militia ; 
she, as being their true commander-in-chief, assigned 
them the habit of her choice, and in the person of 
Blessed Reginald, anointed them with her own hands 
for the battle. She herself too watched over the 
recruiting of the holy band, attracting to it from 
among the dite youth of the universities, souls the 
purest, the most generously devoted, and of the noblest 
intellect. At Paris, the capital of theology, and 
Bologna, of law and jurisprudence, masters and 
scholars, disciples of every branch of science, were 
pursued and overtaken by the sweet Queen amid 
incidents more heavenly than earthly. How graceful 
were those beginnings, wherein Dominic's virginal 
serenity seemed to surround all his children ! It was 
indeed in this the Order of light that the Gospel word 
was seen verified : Blessed are the clean of heart, for 
they shall see God, 2 Eyes enlightened from above 
beheld the foundations of the Friars Preachers under 
the figure of fields of lilies ; and Mary, by whom the 
Splendour of Eternal Light came down to us, became 
their heavenly mistress, and led them from every 
science to wisdom, the friend of pure hearts. She 
came accompanied by Cecilia and Catherine, to bless 
their rest at night, and covered them all with her 
royal mantle beside the throne of our Lord. After 
this we are not astonished at the freshness and purity, 
which continued even after St. Dominic, under the 
generalship of Jordan of Saxony, Raymund of Peg- 

1 Promitto obedientiam Deo et B. Marias, Constitutiones Fratr. 
Ord. Praedicat. l a Distinctio, Cap. xv. de Professions 
8 St. Matth. v. 8. 

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nafort, John the Teutonic, and Humbert de Romans, 
in those Lives of the Brethren, and Lives of the 
Sisters, so happily handed down to us. It is instruc- 
tive to note that in the Dominican family, apostolic in 
its very essence, the Sisters were founded ten years 
before the Brethren, which shows how, in the Church 
of God, action can never be fruitful unless preceded 
and accompanied by contemplation, which obtains 
for it every blessing and grace. 

Notre Dame de Prouille, at the foot of the Pyre- 
nees, was not only by this right of primogeniture, 
the beginning of the whole Order ; it was here also 
that the first companions of St. Dominic made with 
him their choice of a Rule, and divided the world 
amongst them, going from here to found the Convents 
of St Romanus at Toulouse, St. James at Paris, St# 
Nicholas at Bologna, St. Sixtus and St. Sabina in the 
Eternal City. About the same period, the establish- 
ment of the Militia of Jesus Christ, placed under 
the direction of the Friars Preachers secular persons, 
who undertook to defend, by all the means in their 
power, the goods and liberty of the Church against 
the aggressions of heresy ; when the sectaries had 
laid down their arms leaving the world in peace for a 
time, the association did not disappear : it continued 
to fight with spiritual arms, and changed its name 
into that of Third Order of Brothers and Sisters of 
Penance of St Dominic. 

Let us read in the Church's book the abridged life 
of the holy Patriarch. 

Dominic was born at Cala- 
ruega, in Spain, of the noble 
family of the Gusmans, and 
went through his liberal and 
theological studies atPalencia. 
He made great progress in 

Dominicus, Calarogae in 
Hispania ex nobili Gus- 
manorum familia natus, Pa- 
lentia liberalibus disciplinis 
et theologiae operam dedit: 
quo in studio cum pluri- 

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mam profecisset, prius Oxo- 
meD8ia ecclesiae canonicus 
regularis, deinde Ordinis 
Fratrum Praedicatorum 
auctor fuit. Hujus mater 
gravida sibi visa est in quiete 
continere in alvo catulum 
ore proferentem facem, qua 
editus in lucem, orbem ter- 
raram incenderet. Quo 
somnio significabatur, fore 
ut splendore sanctitatis ac 
doctrinae, gentes ad chris- 
tianam pietatem inflamma- 
rentur. Veritatem exitus 
comprobavit: id enim et 
praestitit per se, et per sui 
Ordinis socios deinceps est 

Hujus autem ingenium ac 
virtus maxime enituit in 
evertendis ha3reticis, qui 
perniciosis erroribus Tolo- 
sate8 pervertere conabantur. 
Quo in negotio septem con- 
sumpsit annos. rostea Bo- 
mam venit ad Lateranense 
concilium cum episcopo 
Tolosano, ut Ordo, quern 
instituerat, ab Innocentio 
tertio confirmaretur. Quae 
res dum in deliberatione 
versatur, Dominicus hortatu 
Pontificis ad suos revertitur, 
ut sibi regulam deligeret. 
Bomam rediens, ab Honorio 
tertio, qui proximus Inno- 
centio successerat, confirma- 
tionem Ordinis Praedicato- 
rumimpetrat. Komae autem 
xluo instituit monasteria, 
alteram virorum, mulierum 
alteram. Tres etiam mor- 
.tuos ad vitam revocavit, 
multaque alia edidit mira- 
cula, quibus Ordo Praedica- 


learning, and became, a Canon 
Regular of the Church of 
Osma, and afterwards insti- 
tuted the Order of Friars 
Preachers. While his mother 
was with child, she dreamt 
she was carrying in her womb 
a little dog, holding a torch in 
his mouth, with which, as soon 
as he was born, he would set 
fire to the world. This dream 
signified that he would en- 
kindle Christian piety among 
the nations by the splendour 
of his sanctity and teaching. 
Events proved its truth : for 
he fulfilled the prophecy both 
in person, and later on by the 
brethren of his Order. 

His genius and virtue shone 
forth especially in confound- 
ing the heretics who were 
attempting to infect the people 
of Toulouse with their bane- 
ful errors. He was occupied 
for seven years in this under- 
taking. Then he went to 
Rome for the Council of 
Lateran, with the bishop of 
Toulouse, to obtain from In- 
nocent III. the confirmation 
of the Order he had instituted. 
But while the matter was 
under consideration the Pope 
advised Dominic to return to 
his disciples, and choose a 
rale. On his return to Borne, 
he obtained the confirmation 
of the Order of Preachers 
from Honorius III., the im- 
mediate successor of Innocent. 
In Borne itself he founded 
two Monasteries, one for men 
and the other for women. He 
raised three dead to life, and 
worked many other miracles, 

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in consequence of which, the 
Order of Preachers began to 
spread in a wonderful manner. 

Monasteries were built by 
his means in every part of the 
world, and through his teach- 
ing numbers of men embraced 
a holy and religious manner 
of life. At length in the year 
of Christ, 1221, he fell into a 
fever at Bologna. When he 
saw he was about to die, 
calling together his brethren 
and children,he exhorted them 
to innocence and purity of 
life, and left them as their 
true inheritance the virtues of 
charity, humility, and poverty. 
While the brethren were prov- 
ing round him, at the words, 
" Come to his aid, ye Saints of 
" God* run to meet him, O ye 
44 Angels," he fell asleep in the 
Lord, on the eighth of the 
Ides of August. Pope Gregory 
IX. placed him among the 

torum mirifice propagari 

Verum cum ejus opera 
ubique terrarum monasteria 
jam sedificarentur, innume- 
rabilesque homines religio- 
sam ac piam vitam institu- 
erent, Bononiae anno Christi 
ducentesimo vigesimo primo 
supra millesimum, in febrem 
incidit: ex qua cum se 
moriturum intelligent, con- 
vocatis fratribus et alumnis 
suae discipline, eos ad inno- 
centiam et integritatem co- 
hortatus est. Postremo ca- 
ritatem, humilitatem, pau- 
pertatem, tamquam certum 
patrimonium eis testamento 
reliquit : fratribusque oran- 
tibus, in illis verbis, Sub- 
venite sancti Dei, occurrite 
Angeli, obdormivit in Do- 
mino, octavo idus Augusti : 
quern postea Gregorius no- 
nus Pontifex retulit in san- 
ctorum numerum. 

How many sons and daughters surround thee on 
the sacred cycle! This very month, Rose of Lima 
and Hyacinth keep thee company, and thy coming 
has long since been heralded in the Liturgy by 
Raymund of Pegnafort, Thomas of Aquin, Vincent 
Ferrer, Peter the Martyr, Catherine of Sienna, 
Pius V., and Antoninus. And now at length 
appears in the firmament the new star whose 
brightness dispels ignorance, confounds heresy, in- 
creases the faith of believers. O Dominic, thy 
blessed mother, who preceded thee to heaven, now 
penetrates in all its fulness the happy meaning of 
that mysterious vision which once excited her fears. 

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And that other Dominic, the glory of ancient Silos, 
at whose tomb she received the promise of thy 
blessed birth, rejoices at the tenfold splendour given 
by thee for all eternity to the beautiful name he 
bequeathed thee. But what a special welcome dost 
thou receive from the Mother of all grace, who here- 
tofore, embracing the feet of her angered Son, stood 
surety that thou wouldst bring back the world to 
its Saviour ! A few years passed away ; and error, 
put to confusion, felt that a deadly struggle was 
engaged between itself and thy family ; the Lateran 
Church saw its walls, which were threatening to 
fall, strengthened for a time ; and the two Princes of 
the Apostles, who had bidden thee go and preach, 
rejoice that the word has gone forth once more into 
the whole world. 

Stricken with barrenness, the nations, which the 
Apocalypse likens to great waters, seemed to have 
become once for all corrupt; the prostitute of 
Babylon was setting up her throne before the time ; 
when, in imitation of Eliseus, putting the salt of 
Wisdom into the new vessel of the Order founded 
by thee, thou didst cast this divine salt into the 
unhealthy waters, neutralize the poison of the beast 
so soon ripen up again, and in spite of the snares 
which will never cease, didst render the earth 
habitable once more. How clearly thy example 
shows us that they alone are powerful before God 
and over the people, who give themselves up to him 
without seeking anything else, and only give to 
others out of their own fulness. Despising, as thine 
historians tell us, every opportunity and every 
science where Eternal Wisdom was not to be seen, 
thy youth was charmed with her alone; and she, 
who prevents those that seek her, inundated thee 
from tby earliest years with the light and the 
anticipated sweetness of heaven. It is from her 

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that overflowed upon thee that radiant serenity, 
which so struck thy contemporaries, and which no 
occurrence could ever alter. In heavenly peace thou 
didst drink long draughts from th6 ever-flowing 
fountain springing up into eternal life; but while 
thine inmost soul was thus slaking the thirst of its 
love, the divine source produced a marvellous 
fecundity; and its streams becoming thine, thy 
fountains were conveyed abroad in the streets, thou 
didst divide thy waters. Thou hadst welcomed 
Wisdom, and she exalted thee ; not content to adorn 
thy brow with the rays of the mysterious star, she 
gave thee also the glory of patriarchs, and multiplied 
thy years and thy works in those of thy sons. In 
them thou hast not ceased to be one of the strongest 
stay 8 of the Church. Science has made thy name 
wonderful among the nations, and because of it their 
youth is honoured by the ancients; may it ever be 
for them, as it was for their elders, both the fruit of 
Wisdom and the way that leads to her ; may it be 
fostered by prayer ; for thy holy Order so well keeps 
up the beautiful traditions of prayer, as to approach 
the nearest, in that respect, to the ancient monastic 
Orders. To praise, to bless, and to preach will be 
to the end its loved motto ; for its apostolate must 
be, according to the word of the Psalm, the over- 
flowing of the abundance of sweetness tasted in 
communication with God. Thus strengthened in 
Sion, thus blessed in its glorious role of propagator 
and guardian of the truth, thy noble family will ever 
deserve to hear, from the month of our Lady herself, 
that encouragement above all praise: (i Fortiter 9 
"fortiter, viri fortes ! Courage, courage, ye men of 
" courage ! " 

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August 5. 

Rome, delivered from slavery by Peter on the first 
of this month, offers to the world a wonderful 
spectacle. O Wisdom, who, since the glorious Pente- 
cost, hast spread over the whole world, where could 
it be more true to sing of thee that thou hast 
trodden the proud heights under thy victorious feet ? 
On seven hills had pagan Rome set up her pageantry 
and built temples to her false gods ; seven churches 
now appear at the summits on which purified Rome 
rests her now truly eternal foundations. 

By their very site, the basilicas of St. Peter and 
St. Paul, of St. Laurence and St. Sebastian, placed 
at the four outer angles of the city of the Caesars, 
recall the long siege continued for three centuries 
around the ancient Rome, while the new Rome was 
being founded. Helena and her son Constantine, 
recommencing the work of the foundations of the 
holy City, carried the trenches further out; never- 
theless, the churches which were their own peculiar 
work, viz., Holy Cross in Jerusalem, and St. 
Saviour's on the Lateran, are still at the very 
entrance of the pagan stronghold, close to the gates, 
and leaning against the ramparts; just as a soldier, 
setting foot within a tremendous fortress which haa 
been long invested, advances cautiously, surveying 
both the breach through which he has just passed, 

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and the labyrinth of unknown paths opening before 

Who will plant the standard of Sion in the centre 
of Babylon ? Who will force the enemy into his 
last retreat, and casting out the vain idols, set up his 

this word of the Most High : " Thou art my Son, I 
" will thee the Gentiles for thy inheritance," thou 
mighty One, with thy sharp arrows routing armies, 
listen to the cry re-echoing from the whole redeemed 
world: "With thy comeliness and thy beauty set 
"out, proceed prosperously and reign!" But the 
Son of the Most High has a Mother on earth ; the 
song of the Psalmist inviting him to the triumph 
extols also the Queen standing at his right hand in a 
vesture of gold ; if it is from his Father that he holds 
his power, it is from his Mother that he receives his 
crown, and he leaves her in return the spoils of the 
mighty. Go forth then, ye daughters of the new 
Sion, and behold King Solomon in the diadem 
wherewith his Mother crowned him on the joyful 
day, when, taking possession through her of the 
capital of the world, he espoused the Gentile race. 

Truly that was a day. of joy, when Mary, in the 
name of Jesus, claimed her right as sovereign and 
heiress of the Roman soil! To the East, at the 
highest point of the eternal City, she appeared on 
that blessed morning literally like the rising dawn ; 
beautiful as the moon shining by night; more 
powerful than the August sun, surprised to see her 
tempering his heat, and doubling the brightness of 
his light with her mantle of snow ; more terrible 
than an army; for from that date, daring what 
neither Apostles nor Martyrs had attempted, and 
what Jesus himself would not do without her, she 
dispossessed the deities of Olympus of their usurped 
thrones. As was fitting, the haughty Juno whose 

O thou to whom was said 

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altar disgraced the Esquiline, the false queen of 
these lying gods, was the first to flee before Mary's 
face, leaving the splendid columns of her polluted 
sanctuary to the only true Queen of earth and 

Forty years had passed since the days of St. 
Sylvester, when the " image of our Saviour, depicted 
" on the walls of the Lateran, appeared for the first 
" time to the Roman people." 1 Rome, still half 
pagan, beheld to-day the Mother of our Saviour; 
under the influence of the pure symbol at which she 
gazed in surprise, she felt die down within her the 
evil ardour which made her once the scourge of 
nations, whereas now she was to become their 
mother; and in the joy of her renewed youth she 
beheld her once sullied hills covered with the white 
garment of the Bride. 

Even from the times of the Apostolic preaching, 
the elect, who gathered in large numbers in Rome 
in spite of herself, knew Mary and paid to her in 
those days of martyrdom a homage such as no other 
creature could ever receive ; witness in the cata- 
combs those primitive frescoes of our Lady, either 
alone or holding her divine Child, but always seated, 
receiving from her place of honour the praise, 
messages, prayers or gifts of prophets, Archangels, 
and kings. 2 In the Trastevere, where in the reign of 
Augustus a mysterious fountain of oil had sprung 
up, announcing the coming of the Anointed of the 
Lord, Callixtus in 222 had built a church in honour 
of her who is ever the true fons olei> the source 
whence sprang Christ, and together with him all 
unction and all grace. The basilica raised by 
Liberius, the beloved of our Lady, on the Esquiline, 

1 Lectiones ii. Noct. in Dedic. Basilicse Salvatoris. 

2 Cemeteries of Priscilla, of Nereus and Achilleus, &c. 

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was not, then, the most ancient monument dedicated 
by the Christians of Rome to the Mother of God - r 
but it at once took, and has always kept, the first 
place among our Lady's churches in the City, and 
indeed in the world, on account of the solemn and 
miraculous circumstances of its origin. 

Hast thou entered, said the Lord to Job, into the 
storehouses of the snow, or hast thou beheld the 
treasures of the hail ; which I have prepared for 
the time of the enemy, against the day of battle 
and, war? 1 On the 5th August, then, at God's 
command the treasures were opened, and the snow 
was scattered like birds lighting upon the earth, 
and its coming was the signal for the lightnings of 
his judgments upon the gods of the nations. The 
Tower of David now dominates over all the towers 
of the earthly city ; from her impregnable position 
our Lady will never cease her victorious sallies till 
she has taken the last hostile fort. How beautiful will 
thy steps be in these warlike expeditions, O daughter 
of the prince, O Queen, whose standard, by the will of 
thine adorable Son, must wave over the whole world 
rescued from the power of the cursed serpent. The 
ignominious goddess, overthrown from her impure 
pedestal by one glance of thine, left Rome still dis- 
honoured by the presence of many vain idols. But 
thou, all-conquering Lady, didst continue thy tri- 
umphal march. The Church of St. Mary in Ara cceli 
replaced on the Capitol the odious temple of Jupiter; 
the sanctuaries and groves dedicated to Vesta, 
Minerva, Ceres, and Proserpine hastened to take the 
title of one who had been shown in their fabulous 
history under disfigured and degraded forms. The 
deserted Pantheon awaited the day when it was ta 
receive the noble and magnificent name of St. Mary 

i Job xxxviii. 22, 23. 

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ad Martyre8. What a preparation for thy glorious 
Assumption is the series of earthly triumphs which 
this day inaugurates ! The- basilica of St. Mary of 
the Snow, called also of Liberius, from its founder, 
and also of Sixtus, after Sixtus III., who restored 
it, owed to this last the honour of becoming the 
monument of the divine Maternity proclaimed at 
Ephesus ; the name of St. Mary Mother, which it 
received on that occasion, became, under Theodore I., 
who enriched it with the most precious relic, St 
Mary of the Crib : all these noble titles were after- 
wards gathered into that of St Mary Major, which 
is amply justified by the facts we have related, by 
universal devotion, and by the pre-eminence always 
assigned to it by the Sovereign Pontiffs. Though 
the last in order of time of the seven churches upon 
which Christian Rome is founded, it, nevertheless, 
ranked in the Middle Ages next to that of St Saviour; 
in the procession of the greater Litanies on April 25th 
the ancient Roman Ordo assigned to the Cross of 
St. Mary's its place between that of St. Peter's, below 
it, and that of the Lateran, which followed it. 1 The 
important and numerous liturgical Stations appointed 
at the Basilica on the Esquiline testify to the devo- 
tiou of the Romans and of all Catholics towards it. 
It was honoured by having councils celebrated and 
Vicars of Christ elected within its walls ; the Pontiffs 
for a time made it their residence, and were accus- 
tomed on the Ember Wednesdays, when the Station 
is always held there, to publish there the names of 
the Cardinal Deacons or Cardinal Priests whom they 
had resolved to create.* 

As to the annual solemnity of its dedication, which 

1 Museum Italicum: Joan. Diac. Lib. de Eccl., Lateran XVL, 
de Episcopis et Cardinal, per patriarchatus dispositis ; Romani 
Ordin. xi., xii. 

a Paulus de Angelis, Basilieae S. Mariae Maj., descriptio vi., v. 

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is the object of the present feast, there can be no 
doubt that it was celebrated on the Esquiline at a 
very early date. It was, however, not yet kept by 
the whole Church in the thirteenth century ; for 
Gregory IX., in the bull of canonization of St. Dominic, 
whose death occurred on the 6th August, anticipated 
his feast on the 5th of the month, as being at that 
time vacant, whereas the 6th was already occupied, 
as we shall see to-morrow by another solemnity. It 
was Paul IV. who in 1558 definitively fixed the feast 
of the holy founder on the 4th August; and the reason 
he gives is, that the feast of St. Mary of the Snow 
having since been made universal and taking pre- 
cedence of the other, the honour due to the holy 
patriarch might be put in the shade if his feast con- 
tinued to be kept on the same day. The breviary 
of St. Pius V. soon after promulgated to the entire 
world the Office, of which the following is the legend: 

Under the Pontificate of 
Liberius, John, a Roman pa- 
trician, and his wife, who was 
of an equally noble race, 
having no children to whom 
they might leave their estates, 
vowed their whole fortune to 
the Blessed Virgin Mother 
of God, begging her most 
earnestly and continually to 
make known to them by 
some means in what pious 
work she wished them to em- 
loy the money. The Blessed 
'irgin Mary graciously heard 
their heartfelt prayers and 
vows, and answered them by 
a miracle. 

On the Nones of August, 
usually the hottest time of 
the year in Borne, a part of 
the Esquiline hill was covered 

f 1 


Liberio summo Pontifice, 
Joannes patricius Eomanus, 
et uxor pari nobilitate, cum 
liberos non suscepissent, 
quos bonorum haeredes re- 
hnquerent, suam haeredita- 
tem sanctissimae Virgini 
Dei Matri voverunt, ab ea 
summis precibus assidue 
petentes, ut in quod pium 
opus earn pecuniam potissi- 
mum erogari vellet, aliquo 
modo significant. Quorum 
preces et vota ex animo 
facta beata Virgo Maria 
benigne audiens, miraculo 

Nonis igitur Augusti, <^uo 
tempore in Urbe maxuni 
calores esse solent, noctu 
nix partem collis ExquiUni 

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contexit. Qua nocte Dei 
Mater separatim Joannem 
et conjugem in somnis ad- 
monuit, ut quern locum 
nive consperaum viderent, 
in eo ecclesiam aedificarent, 

Suae Mariae Virginis nomine 
edicaretur: se enim ita 
velle ab ipsis haeredem in- 
stitui. Quod Joannes ad 
Liberium Pontificem detu- 
lit, qui idem per somnium 
sibi contigisse affirmavit. 

Quare solemni sacerdo- 
tum et populi supplicatione 
ad collem venit nive co- 
opertum, et in eo locum ec- 
ciesiae designavit, quae Jo- 
annis et uxoris pecunia ex- 
structa est, postea a Xysto 
Tertio restituta. Variis no- 
minibus primum est appel- 
lata, basilica Liberii, sancta 
Maria ad Praesepe. Sed cum 
multae jam essent in Urbe 
ecclesiae sub nomine sanctae 
Mariae Virginis: ut quae 
basilica novitate miraculi 
ac dignitate caeteris ejus-, 
dem nominis basilicis prae- 
staret, vocabuli etiam excel- 
lentia significaretur, eccle- 
sia sanctae Mariae majoris 
dicta est. Cujus dedica- 
tions memoria ex nive, 
quae hac die mirabiliter ce- 
cidit, anniversaria celebri- 
tate colitur. 

with snow during the night. 
That same night the Mother 
of God appeared in a dream 
to John and his wife sepa- 
rately, and told them to build 
a church on the spot they 
should find covered with 
snow, and to dedicate it to 
the Virgin Mary ; for it was 
in this manner that she wish- 
ed to become their heiress. 
John related this to Pope 
Liberius, who said he had 
dreamt the same thing. 

He went, therefore, with a 
solemn procession of priests 
and people to the snow-clad 
hill, and chose the site of a 
church, which was built with 
the money of John and his 
wife. It was afterwards re- 
built by Sixtus III. At first 
it was called by different 
names, the Liberian basilica, 
St. Mary at the Crib. But, 
since there are many churches 
in Borne dedicated to the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, and, 
as this one surpasses all 
other basilicas in dignity, and 
by its miraculous beginning, 
it is distinguished from them 
also by its title of St. Mary 
Major. On account of the 
miraculous fall of snow, the 
anniversary of the dedication 
is celebrated by a yearly 

What recollections, O Mary, does this feast of thy 
greatest basilica awaken within us! And what 
worthier praise, what better prayer, could we offer 
thee to-day than to remind thee of the graces we 

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have received within its precincts, and implore thee 
to renew them and confirm them for ever ? United 
with our Mother-Church in spite of distance, have 
we not, under its shadow, tasted the sweetest and 
most triumphant emotions of the cycle now verging 
on to its term ? 

On the first Sunday of Advent, it was here that 
we began the year, as in the place " most suitable 
"for saluting the approach of the Divine Birth, 
" which was to gladden heaven and earth and mani- 
fest the sublime portent of a Virgin Mother." 1 
Our hearts were overflowing with desire on that 
holy Vigil, when from early morning we were invited 
to the bright basilica, where the "mystical Rose 
" was soon to bloom and fill the world with its 
" fragrance. The grandest of all the churches which 
" the people of Rome have erected in honour of the 
"Mother of God, it stood before us rich in its 
"marble and gold, but richer still in possessing, 
" together with the portrait of our Lady painted by 
" St. Luke, the humble yet glorious Crib of Jesus, 
"of which the inscrutable designs of God have 
"deprived Bethlehem. During that blessed night 
" an immense concourse of people assembled in the 
"basilica awaiting the happy moment when that 
"monument of the love and the humiliation of a 
" God was to be brought in, carried on the shoulders 
"of the priests as an ark of the New Covenant, 
"whose welcome sight gives the sinner confidence 
"and makes the just man thrill with joy." 8 Alas! 
a few months passed away, and we were again in the 
noble sanctuary, this time compassionating our 
" holy Mother whose heart was filled with poignant 
"grief at the foresight of the sacrifice which was 

1 Advent, p. 127. 

2 Christmas, Vol. I., pp. 140, 14 J. 


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"preparing." 1 But sood the august basilica was 
filled once more with new joys, when Rome "justly 
" associated with the Paschal solemnity the memory 
"of her, who, more than all other creatures, had 
" merited its joys, not only because of the excep- 
tional share she had had in all the sufferings of 
"Jesus, but also because of the unshaken faith, 
"wherewith, during those long and cruel hours of 
" his lying in the tomb, she had awaited his Resur- 
rection." 2 Dazzling as the snow which fell from 
heaven to mark the place of thy predilection on 
earth, O Mary, a white-robed band of neophytes 
coming up from the waters formed thy graceful 
court and enhanced the triumph of that great day. 
Obtain for them and for us all, O Mother, affections 
as pure as the white marble columns of thy loved 
church, charity as bright as the gold glittering on 
its ceiling, works shining as the Paschal Candle, 
that symbol of Christ the conqueror of death, which 
offered thee the homage of its first flames. 

1 Pa8siontide, p. 279. Station of Wednesday in Holy Week. 

2 Paschal Time, Vol. I., p. 157. 

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August 6. 


" 0 God, who in the glorious t^nsfiguration of thine 
" only-begotten Son, didst confirm the mysteries of 
" the faith by the testimony of the fathers : and 
" who, in the voice which came from the bright 
i6 cloud, didst in a wonderful manner fore-signify our 
" adoption as sons : mercifully vouchsafe to make us 
" fellow-heirs of that King of glory, and the sharers 
" of his bliss/' Such is the formula which sums up 
the prayer of the Church and shows us her thoughts 
on this day of attestation and of hope. 

We must first notice that the glorious transfigura- 
tion has already been twice brought before us on the 
sacred cycle, viz.: on the second Sunday of Lent, 
and on the preceding Saturday. What does this 
mean, but that the object of the present solemnity 
is not so much the historical fact already known, as 
the permanent mystery attached to it ; not so much 
the personal favour bestowed on Simon Peter and 
the sons of Zebedee, as the accomplishment of the 
great message then entrusted to them for the Church? 
TeU the vision to no man, till the Son of man be 
risen from the dead} The Church, born from the 
open Side of the Man-God on the Cross, was not to 
behold him face to face on earth ; after his Resur- 

1 St. Matth. xvii. 9. 

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rection, when be had sealed his alliance with her m 
the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven, it is on 
faith alone that her love was to be fed. But by the 
testimony which takes the place of sight, her lawful 
desires to know him were to be satisfied. Where- 
fore, for her sake, giving truce, one day of his- 
mortal life, to the ordinary law of suffering and 
obscurity he had taken upon him for the world's 
salvation, he allowed the glory which filled his 
blessed soul to transpire. The King of Jews and 
Gentiles revealed himself upon the mountain, where 
his calm splendour eclipsed for evermore the light- 
nings of Sinai : the covenant of the eternal alliance 
was declared, not by the promulgation of a law of 
servitude engraven upon stone, but by the manifes- 
tation of the Lawgiver himself, coming as Bride- 
groom to reign in grace and beauty over hearts. 
Elias and Moses, representing the prophets and the 
Law whereby his coming was prepared, from their 
different starting points, met beside him, like faith- 
ful messengers reaching their destination ; they did 
homage to the Master of their now finished mission, 
and effaced themselves before him at the voice of 
the Father : This is my beloved Son ! Three 
witnesses the most trustworthy of all assisted at this 
solemn scene : the disciple of faith, the disciple of 
love, and that other son of thunder who was to be 
the first to seal with his blood both the faith and 
the love of an Apostle. By his order they kept 
religiously, as beseemed them, the secret of the 
King, until the day when the Church could be the 
first to receive it from their predestined lips. 

But did this precious mystery take place on the 
6th August? More than one Doctor of sacred rite& 
affirms that it did. 1 At any rate it was fitting. 

1 Sicard. Cremon. Mitrale, ix. 38; Beleth. Rationale, cxliv.;. 
Durand. vii. xxii., &c. 

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to celebrate it in the month dedicated to eternal 
Wisdom. It is she, the brightness of eternal light, 
the unspotted mirror and image of God's goodness, 1 
who, shedding grace upon the Son of man, made 
him on this day the most beautiful amongst all his 
brethren, and dictated more melodiously than ever 
iio the inspired singer the accents of the Epitha- 
lamium: My heart hath uttered a good word: I 
speak my works to the king. 2 

Seven months ago, the mystery was first announced 
by the gentle light of the Epiphany; but by the virtue 
of the mystical seven here revealed once more, the 
" beginnings of blessed hope" 8 which we then cele- 
brated as children with the Child Jesus, have grown 
together with him and with the Church; and the 
latter, established in unspeakable peace by the full 
growth which gives her to her Spouse, calls upon all 
her children to grow like her by the contemplation of 
the Son of God, even to the measure of the perfect 
age of Christ. We understand then, why the Liturgy 
of to-day repeats the formulas and chants of the 
glorious Theophany : Arise, be enlightened, 0 Jeru- 
salem: for thy light is come, and the glory of 
the Lord is risen upon thee : 4 it is because on the 
mountain together with our Lord the Bride also is 
glorified, having the glory of God. 

While the face of Jesus shone as the sun, his 
garments became white as snow. b Now these gar- 
ments so snow-white, as St. Mark observes, that no 
fuller on earth could have bleached them so, are the 
just men, the royal ornament inseparable from the 
Man-God, the Church, the seamless robe woven by 

1 Alleluia verse fr. Wisd. vii. 26. 

2 Gradual fr. Ps. xliv. 2, 3. 

3 Leon, in Kpiph., Sernio ii. 4. 

4 1st Responsory of Matins from Isaias lx. 1. 
h St. Matth. xvii. 2. 

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our sweet Queen for her Son out of the purest wool 
and most beautiful linen that the valiant woman 

into his glory, nevertheless the bright mystery of 
the Transfiguration will not be complete until the 
last of the elect, having passed through the laborious 
preparation at the hands of the Divine Fuller, and 
tasted death, has joined in the Resurrection of our 
adorable Head. 0 Face of our Saviour that dost 
ravish the heavens, then will all glory, all beauty, 
all love shine forth from thee. Expressing God by 
the perfect resemblance of true Son by nature, thou 
wilt extend the good pleasure of the Father to that 
reflection of his Word, which constitutes the sons of 
adoption, and reaches in the Holy Ghost even to the 
lowest fringes of his garment which fills the temple 
below him. According to the doctrine of the Angel 
of the schools, the adoption of sons of God, which 
consists in being conformable to the image of the 
Son of God by nature, is wrought in a double 
manner: first by grace in this life, and this is 
imperfect conformity ; and then by glory in patria, 
and this is perfect conformity, according to the words 
of St. John : We are now the sons of God; and it 
hath not yet appeared what we shall be. We know 
that when lie shall appear, we shall be like to 
him : because we shall see him as he is. 1 The word 
of eternity, Thou art my Son, this day have I 
begotten thee, has had two echoes in time, at the 
Jordan and on Thabor; and God, who never repeats 
himself, did not herein make an exception to the 
rule of saying but once what he says. For although 
tlie terms used on the two occasions are identical, 
they do not tend, as St. Thomas says, to the same 

1 1 John iii. 2. 

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end, but show the different ways in which man 
participates in the resemblance of the eternal filiation. 
At the baptism of our Lord, where the mystery of 
the first regeneration was declared, as at the Trans- 
figuration which manifested the second, the whole 
Trinity appeared : the Father in the voice, the Son 
in his Humanity, the Holy Ghost under the form, 
first of a dove, and afterwards of a bright cloud ; for 
if in baptism this Holy Spirit confers innocence 
symbolised by the simplicity of the dove, in the 
Resurrection he will give to the elect the brightness 
of glory and the refreshment after suffering, which 
are signified by the luminous cloud. 

But without waiting for the day when our Saviour 
will renew our very bodies conformable to the bright 
glory of his own divine Body, the mystery of the 
Transfiguration is wrought in our souls already here 
on earth. It is of the present life that St. Paul says 
and the Church sings to-day : God who commanded 
the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined i/n, 
our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the 
glory of God, in the face of Christ Jesus. 1 Thabor, 
holy and divine mountain rivalling heaven, 2 how can 
we help saying with Peter: "It is good for us to 
"dwell on thy summit!" For thy summit is love, 
it is charity which towers above the other virtues, as 
thou towerest in gracefulness, and loftiness, and fra- 
grance over the other mountains of Galilee, which 
saw Jesus passing, speaking, praying, working pro- 
digies, but did not know him in the intimacy of the 
perfect. It is after six days, as the Gospel observes, 
and therefore in the repose of the seventh which 
leads to the eighth of the resurrection, that Jesus 
reveals himself to the privileged souls who correspond 

1 8th Responsory of Matins fr. 2 Cor. iv. 6. 

2 Joan. Damasc. Orat. in Transfig. iii. 

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to his love. The Kingdom of God is within us ; when, 
leaving all impressions of the senses as it were asleep, 
we raise ourselves above the works and cares of the 
world by prayer, it is given us to enter with the Man- 
God into the cloud : there beholding the glory of the 
Lord with open face, as far as is compatible with our 
exile, we are transformed into the same image from 
glory to glory, as by the Spirit of the Lord. 1 " Let 
"us then," cries St. Ambrose, "ascend the mountain; 
" let us beseech the Word of God to show himself to 
" us in his splendour, in his beauty ; to grow strong 
" and proceed prosperously, and reign in our souls. 
"For behold a deep mystery! According to thy 
"measure, the Word diminishes or grows within 
" thee. If thou reach not that summit, high above 
" all human thought, Wisdom will not appear to thee; 
" the Word shows himself to thee as in a body with- 
"out brightness and without glory." 2 

If the vocation revealed to thee this day be so 
great and so holy, " reverence the call of God," says 
St Andrew of Crete : 8 " do not ignore thyself, despise 
" not a gift so great, show not thyself unworthy of 
" the grace, be not so slothful in thy life as to lose 
" this treasure of heaven. Leave earth to the earth, 
" and let the dead bury their dead ; disdaining all that 
" passes away, all that dies with the world and the 
" flesh, follow even to heaven, without turning aside, 
44 Christ who leads the way through this world for 
" thee. Take to thine assistance fear and desire, lest 
" thou faint or lose thy love. Give thyself up wholly ; 
" be supple to the Word in the Holy Ghost, in order 
" to attain this pure and blessed end : thy deification, 
" together with the enjoyment of unspeakable goods. 

1 Capit of Sext, fr. 2 Cor. iii. 18. 

2 Ambr. in Luc, lib. vii. 12. 

3 Andr. Hierosolymitani, Archiepisc. Cretensis, Oratio in 

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Ai By zeal for the virtues, by contemplation of the 
"truth, by wisdom, attain to Wisdom, who is the 
" principle of all, and in whom all things subsist." 

The feast of the Transfiguration has been kept in 
the East from the earliest times. With the Greeks, 
it is preceded by a Vigil and followed by an Octave, 
and on it they abstain from servile work, from 
commerce, and from law-suits. Under the graceful 
name of Rose-flame, toscb coruscatio, we find it in 
Armenia at the beginning of the fourth century, 
supplanting Diana and her feast of flowers, by the 
remembrance of the day when the divine Rose 
unfolded for a moment on earth its brilliant corolla. 
It is preceded by a whole week of fasting, and 
counts among the five principal feasts of the 
Armenian cycle, where it gives its name to one of 
the eight divisions of the year. Although the 
Menology of this Church marks it on the sixth 
of August like that of the Greeks and the Roman 
Martyrology, it is nevertheless always celebrated 
there on the seventh Sunday after Pentecost; and 
by a coincidence full of meaning, they honour on 
the preceding Saturday the Ark of the Covenant of 
the Lord, a figure of the Church. 

The origin of to-day's feast in the West is not so 
easy to determine. But the authors who place its 
introduction into our countries as late as 1457, 
when Callixtus III. promulgated by precept a new 
Office enriched with indulgences, overlook the fact 
that the Pontiff speaks of the feast as already wide- 
spread and "commonly called of the Saviour." 1 
It is true, that in Rome especially the celebrity of 
the more ancient feast of St. Sixtus II., with its 
double Station at the two cemeteries which received 
respectively the relics of the Pontiff- Martyr and 

1 Callixt III. Const. Inter Divinae dispensations arcana. 

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those of his companions, was for a long time* an 
obstacle to the acceptation of another feast on the 
same day. Some Churches, to avoid the difficulty, 
chose another day in the year to honour the 
mystery. As the feast of our Lady of the Snow, 
so that of the Transfiguration had to spread more 
or less privately, with various Offices and Masses, 1 
until the supreme authority should intervene to 
sanction and bring to unity the expressions of the 
devotion of different Churches. Callixtus III. con- 
sidered that the hour had come to consecrate the 
work of centuries ; he made the solemn and defini- 
tive insertion of this feast of triumph on the universal 
Calendar the memorial of the victory which arrested, 
under the walls of Belgrade in 1456, the onward 
march of Mahomet II., conqueror of Byzantium, 
against Christendom. 

Already in the ninth century, if not even earlier, 
martyrologies and other liturgical documents 2 furnish 
proofs that the mystery was celebrated with more or 
less solemnity, or at least with some sort of com- 
memoration, in divers places. In the twelfth cen- 
tury, Peter the Venerable, under whose government 
Cluny took possession of Thabor, ordained that " in 
"all the monasteries or churches belonging to hi& 
" Order, the Transfiguration should be celebrated 
" with the same degree of solemnity as the Purifica- 
"tion of our Lady;" and he gave for his reason, 
besides the dignity of the mystery, the "custom, 
"ancient or recent, of many Churches throughout 
" the world, which celebrate the memory of the said 
"Transfiguration with no less honour than the 
"Epiphany and the Ascension of our Lord." 3 

On the other hand at Bologna, in 1233, in the 

1 Schulting, on this date ; Tommasi, Antiphoner. 
7 Wandalbert ; Eldefons. 
3 Statuta Cluniac. V. 

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juridical instruction preliminary to the canonization 
of St. Dominic, the death of the Saint is declared to 
have taken place on the feast of St Sixtus, without 
mention of any other. 1 It is true, and we believe 
this detail is not void of meaning, that a few years 
earlier, Sicardus of Cremona thus expressed himself 
in his Mitrale: "We celebrate the Transfiguration 
"of our Lord on the day of St. Sixtus." 2 Is not 
this sufficient indication that while the feast of the 
latter continued to give its traditional name to the 
eighth of the Ides of August, it did not prevent a 
new and greater solemnity from taking its place 
beside it, preparatory to absorbing it altogether? 
For he adds : " Therefore on this same day, as the 
"Transfiguration refers to the state in which the 
" faithful will be after the resurrection, we consecrate 
"the Blood of our Lord from new wine, if it is 
" possible to obtain it, in order to signify what is said 
" in the Gospel : I will not drink from henceforth 
" of this fruit of the vine, until tliat day when I 
" shall drink it with you new in the kingdom of 
" my Father. 3 But if it cannot be procured, then 
"at least a few ripe grapes are pressed over the 
" chalice, or else grapes are blessed and distributed to 
"the people." 4 

The author of the Mitrale died in 1215 ; yet he 
was only repeating the explanation already given in 
the second half of the preceding century by John 
Beleth, Rector of the Paris University. 5 We must 
admit that the very ancient benedictio uvce found in 
the Sacramentaries on the day of St. Sixtus has 
nothing corresponding to it in the life of the greac 
Pope which could justify our referring it to him* 
The Greeks, who have also this blessing of grapes 

1 Deposition of the Prior of St. Nicholas. 3 St. Matth. xxvi. 29* 

2 Sicard. Mitrale, ix., xxxviii. 4 Sicard. Ibid. 

s Beleth. Rationale, cxliv. 

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fixed for the 6th August, 1 celebrate on this day the 
Transfiguration alone, without any commemoration 
of Sixtus II. Be it as it may, the words of the 
Bishop of Cremona and of the Rector of Paris prove 
that Durandus of Mende, giving at the end of the 
thirteenth century the same symbolical interpreta- 
tion, 2 did but echo a tradition more ancient than his 
own time. 

St. Pius V. did not alter the ancient Office of the 
feast, except the Lessons of the first and second 
Nocturns, which were taken from Origen, 3 and the 
three Hymns for Vespers, Matins, and Lauds, which 
resembled somewhat in structure the corresponding 
Hymns of the Blessed Sacrament. 4 The Hymn now 
used for Vespers and Matins, which we here give, is 
borrowed from the beautiful Canticle of Prudentius 
on the Epiphany in his Cathemerinon : 


Quicumque Christum All ye who seek Christ, lift 
quseritis up your eyes to heaven ; there 

Oculos in altum tollite : ye may behold the token of 
Illic licebit visere his eternal glory. 

Signum perennis glorise. 

Illustre quiddam cernimus, A certain brilliance we per- 
Quod nesciat finem pati, ceive that knows no ending, 
Sublime, celsum, interim- sublime, noble, interminable, 
num, older than heaven and chaos. 

Antiquius coelo et chao. 

Hie ille Eex est Gentium, This is the King of the 
Populique Rex Judaici, Gentiles, and King of the 
Promissus Abrahae patri, Jewish people, who was pro- 
Ejusque in sevum semini. mised to Abraham our father, 

and to his seed for ever. 

1 Eucholog. 

2 Durand. Rationale, vii., xxii. 

3 Homil. xii. in Exod. De vultu Moysi glorificato et velamine 
quod ponebat in facie sua. 

4 Qaude, mater pietatis. Exultet laudtbus never ata concio. 
Novum sidu8 exoritur. 

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The prophets testify to him, 
and the Father, who testifies 
with them for his witnesses, 
bids us hear and believe him. 

O Jesus, glory be to thee 
who revealest thyself to little 
ones, with the Father and 
with the Holy Spirit, through 
everlasting ages. Amen. 

Hunc et prophetis testibus 
Iisdemque signatoribus 
Testator et Pater jubet 
Audire nos et credere. 

Jesu, tibi sit gloria, 
Qui te revelas parvulis, 
Cum Patre et almo Spiritu 
In sempiterna saecula. 

Adam of St. Victor has also sung of this glorious 
mystery : 


Come, let us sing with joy, 
and devoutly celebrate these 
sacred solemnities; let the 
Church resound with the 
praises of this day to the hon- 
our of the Most High God. 

For on this festal day did 
Christ give manifest signs of 
his great glory; that we may 
recount the same, may he give 
us his aid and till us with his 

Christ, then, the mighty 
God, the giver of life, and 
conqueror of death, the true 
Sun of justice, to-day trans- 
figured on Thabor's height, 
did glorify the flesh he had 
taken of the Virgin. 

O how happy the lot of the 
good! For such will be the 
resurrection of the blessed. 
As shines the sun in fulness 
of his light, so shone the 
countenance of God and Man, 
as the Gospel testifieth- 

Laetabundi jubilemus 
Ac devote celebremus 

Hsec sacra solemnia ; 
Ad honorem summi Dei 
Hujus laudes nunc diei 

Personet Ecclesia. 

In hac Christus die festa 
Suae dedit manifesta 

Glorias indicia ; 
Ut hoc possit enarrari 
Hie nos suos salutari 

Eepleat et gratia ! 

Christus ergo, Deus f ortis, 
Vitae dator, victor mortis, 

Verus sol justitias, 
Quam assumpsit carnem de 

Transformatus in Thabor 
Glorificat hodie. 

O quam f elix sors bonorum I 
Talis enim beatorum 

Erit resurrectio. 
Sicut fulget sol pleni lumi- 

Fulsit Dei vultus et homi- 


Teste Evangelio. 

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CJandor quoque sacrae vestis 
Deitatis fuit testis 

Et f uturae glorias. 
Minis honor et sublimis : 
Mira, Deus, tuae nimis 

Virtus est potentiae. 

CJumque Christus, virtus 

Petro, natis Zebedaei 

Majestatis gloriam 
Demonstraret mauifeste, 
Ecce vident, Luca teste, 

Moysem et Eliam. 

Hoc habemus ex Matthaeo, 
Quod loquentes erant Deo 

Dei Patris Filio : 
Vere sanctum, vere dignum 
Loqui Deo et benignum, 

Plenum omni gaudio. 

Hujus magna laus diei, 
Quad sacratur voce Dei, 

Honor est eximius ; 
Nubes illos obumbravit, 
Et vox Patris proclamavit : 

Hie est meus Filius. 

Hujus vocem exaudite : 
Habet enim verba vitae, 

Verbo potens omnia. 
Hie est Christus, rex cun- 

Mundi salus, lux Sancto- 

Lux illustrans omnia. 

Hie est Christus, Patris Ver- 

Per quern perdit jus acer- 

Quod in nobis habuit 
Hostis nequam, serpens di- 

<Jui, fundendo suum virus 
Evae, nobis nocuit. 

The brightness, too, of his 
sacred robe gave testimony of 
his Godhead and of the glory 
to come. Wondrous the non- 
our and sublime: wondrous 
exceedingly, O God, is the 
power of thine almightiness. 

And when Christ, the power 
of God, to Peter and the sons 
of Zebedee did clearly show 
the glory of his majesty, lo ! 
they beheld, as Luke doth 
testify, Moses and Elias. 

This we learn of Matthew, 
that they were seen speaking 
with God, the Son of God the 
Father. Oh! how noble and 
how holy, how good and full 
of all joy, to speak to God ! 

Great is the glory of this 
day, consecrated by the voice 
of God, and exceeding is its 
honour; a cloud did over- 
shadow them, and the Father's 
voice proclaimed: "This is 
"my Son." 

Hear ye his voice : for the 
words of life hath he, who can 
do all things by his word. 
This is Christ, tbe King of 
all, the world's salvation and 
the light of Saints, the light 
enlightening all things. 

This is Christ, the Father's 
Word, by whom he destroys 
the bitter law set in us by the 
wicked enemy, the cruel ser- 
pent, who, pouring out his 
poison upon Eve, did work 
our ruin. 

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Christ by dying healed us, 
who by rising restored our life 
and condemned the tyranny 
of death. This is Christ, the 
eternal peace, ruling both 
depths and height ; to whom 
from heaven the Father's 
voice bore testimony. 

At his voice those three 
aforesaid fathers were afraid, 
and prostrated on the earth 
when the word was uttered. 
At length they rise, Christ 
bidding them ; they gaze 
around intently, but at once 
see none but Jesus. 

Wishing these things to be 
concealed, Christ suffers them 
not to be uttered, until the 
restorer of life and conqueror 
of life's enemy should rise 
triumphant over death. This 
is the day so worthy of praise, 
whereon are wrought so many 
holy signs ; may Christ, the 
splendour of God the Father, 
by the prayer of his holy 
Mother, deliver us from 

To thee, O Father, thee, O 
Son, and thee, O Holy Ghost, 
be, together with highest 
power, the praise and honour 
due! Amen. 

Moriendo nos sanavit 
Qui surgendo reparavit 
Vitam Christus et damnavit 

Mortis magisterium. 
Hie est Ch ristus, Pax aeterna, 
Ima regens et superna, 
Cui de co3lis vox paterna 

Confert testimonium. 

Cujus sono sunt turbati 
Patres illi tres praefati 
Et in terram sunt prostrati 

Quando vox emittitur. 
Surgunt tandem, annuente 
Sibi Christo, sed intente 
Circumspectant, cum re- 

Solus Jesus cernitur. 

Volens Christus haec celari 
Non permisit enarrari, 
Donee, vitae reparator, 
Hostis vitae triumphator, 

Morte victa, surgeret. 
Haec est dies laude digna 

8ua tot sancta Hunt signa ; 
hristus, splendor Dei Pa- 

Prece sancta suae matris 
Nos a morte liberet. 

Tibi, Pater, tibi, Nate, 
Tibi, Sancte Spiritus, 

Sit cum summa potestate 
Laus et honor debitus ! 

The Mensea of the Greeks offers us these stanzas 
from St. John Damascene: 

In Matutino. 

O Christ, who with invisible Qui manibus invisibilibus 

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formaeti secundum imagi- 
nem tuam, Christe, homi- 
nem, archetypam tuam in 
figmento pulchritudinem os- 
tendisti non ut in imagine, 
sed ut hoc ipse exsistens per 
substantiam, Deus simul et 

Quam magnum et terri- 
bile visum est spectaculum 
hodie ! e coelo sensibilis, e 
terra vero incomparabilis 
effulsit sol justitise, intelli- 
gibilis, in monte Thabor. 

Begnantium es Bex pul- 
cherrimus, et ubique domi- 
nantium Dominus, princeps 
beatus, et lumen nabitans 
inaceessibile, cui discipuli 
stupefacti clamabant: Pueri, 
benedicite ; sacerdotes, con- 
cinite; populus, superexal- 
tate per omnia saecula. 

Tamquam coelo dominan- 
ti, et terrse regnanti, et sub- 
terraneorum dominium ha- 
benti, Christe, tibi adstite- 
runt : e terra quidem apos- 
toli: tamquam e coelo autem, 
Thesbites Elias ; Moyses 
vero ex mortuis, canentes 
incessanter: Pueri, benedi- 
cite ; sacerdotes, concinite ; 
populus, superexaltate per 
omnia saecula. 

Segnitiem parientes curae 
in terra derelict ae sunt,apos- 
tolorum delectu, o humane, 
ut te secuti sunt ad subli- 
mem e terra divinam poli- 
tiam, unde et jure divinae 
tua3 manifestationis partici- 
pes effecti, canebant : Pueri, 
benedicite ; sacerdotes, con- 
cinite ; populus, superexal- 
tate per omnia ssecuia. 


hands didst form man to thine 
own image, thou hast shown 
thine original beauty in the 
human frame, not as in an 
image, but as being this thy- 
self, both God and Man. 

How grand and awful was 
the spectacle beheld this 
day ! from heaven the visible 
sun, but from earth the in* 
comparable spiritual Sun of 
justice shone upon Mount 

Thou art the King of kings 
most beautiful, and Lord of 
all lords, O blessed Prince, 
dwelling in inaccessible light; 
to thee the disciples, beside 
themselves, cried out: Ye 
children, bless him ; ye priests, 
sing to him ; ye people, exalt 
him above all for ever. 

As before the Lord of hea- 
ven and King of earth and 
Kuler of the regions under 
the earth, before thee, O 
Christ, there stood the Apos- 
ties as from the earth, Elias 
the Thesbite as from heaven, 
Moses as from the dead ; and 
they sang unceasingly : Ye 
children, bless him ; ye priests, 
sing to him ; ye people, exalt 
him above all for ever. 

Leaving to the earth its 
wearying cares, the chosen 
Apostles having followed 
thee, O loving one, to the 
divine city far above the 
earth, are justly admitted to 
behold thy divine manifesta- 
tion, singing: Ye children, 
bless him ; ye priests, sing to 
him ; ye people, exalt him 
above all for ever. 

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Come to me, attend to me, 
ye people, ascending the holy, 
heavenly mountain; casting 
away material things, let us 
stand in the city of the living 
God, and mentally behold 
the immaterial divinity of 
the Father and the Spirit, 
shining forth in the only- 
begotten Son. 

Thou, O Christ, hast won 
me with desire, and inebriated 
me with thy divine love ; but 
burn away my sins with im- 
material fire, and make me 
worthy to be satiated with 
the delights that are in thee ; 
that exulting I may sing thy 
two comings, O thou who art 
so good. 

Agite mihi, parete mini, 
populi ascendentes in mon- 
tem sanctum, coelestem : ab- 
jecta materia stemus in civi- 
tete viventis Dei, et inspi- 
ciamus mente divinitatem 
materiae expertem Patris et 
Spiritus, in Filio unigenito 

Demulsisti desiderio me, 
Christe, et alterasti divino 
tuo amore, sed combure igne 
a materia remoto peccata 
mea, et impleri eis quae in 
te deliciis dignum fac, ut 
duos saltando magnificem, o 
bone, adventus tuos. 

It will be well to borrow also from the Church of 
Armenia, which celebrates this feast with so much 
solemnity : 


O Light intelligible, who, 
transfigured on the mountain, 
didst show thy divine power, 
we glorify thee. 

But this ineffable Light of 
the Godhead thou didst hap- 

Sily bear in thy womb, O 
[ary, Mother and Virgin: 
we glorify and bless thee. 

The choir of the Apostles 
trembled before the diminish- 
ed Light; but in thee dwelt 
fully the fire of the divinity, 
O Mary, Mother and Virgin : 
we glorify and bless thee. 
A bright cloud was spread 

Qui transfiguratus in 
monte vim divinam osten- 
disti, te glorificamus, intelli- 
gibile Lumen. 

Ast ipsum deitatis ineffa- 
bile Lumen propriis visceri- 
bus provide portasti, Maria 
Mater Virgoque : te glorifi- 
camus et benedicimus. 

Lumine abbreviato chorus 
Apostolorum terretur ; ast 
in te plenius habuisti ignem 
divinitatis, Maria MaterVir- 
goque: te glorificamus et 

Apostolis nubes lucida 

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tenditur desuper ; ast in te 
Spiritus Sanctus, virtus Al- 
tis8imi, diffunditur obum- 
brans, sancta Dei Mater : te 
gloriiicamus et benedicimus. 

Christe, Deus noster, da 
ut cum Petro et filiis Zebe- 
daei tua divina visione digni 

Ultra montem terrenum 
aufer nos ad intelligibile 
tabernaeulum coelo celsius. 

Exsultant hodie montes 
Dei Creatori obviam proce- 
dentes, Apostolorum agmina 
et Prophetarum montibus 
aeternis sociata. 

Hodie sponsa Regis im- 
mortalis, Sion excelsa las- 
tatur, adspiciens coalestem 
Sponsum lumine decorum 
in gloria Patris. 

Hodie virga de radice 
Jesse floruit in monte Tha- 

Hodie immortalitatis 
odore manat, inebrians dis- 

Te benedicimus, consub- 
stantialem Patri, qui venisti 
salvare mundum. 

over the Apostles; but upon 
thee was poured the Holy 
Spirit, the Power of the Most 
High, overshadowing thee, O 
holy Mother of God: we 
glorify and bless thee. 

O Christ our God, grant 
that with Peter and the sons 
of Zebedee, we may be deemed 
worthy of thy divine vision. 

Lift us above the earthly 
mountain to the spiritual 
tabernacle higher than the 

To-day the mountains of 
God exult, going to meet the 
Creator, the troops of Apostles 
and Prophets associated to the 
divine mountains. 

To-day the bride of the im- 
mortal King, the lofty Sion 
rejoices, beholding her heaven- 
ly Spouse adorned with light 
in the glory of the Father. 

To-day the rod of the root 
of Jesse blossomed on Mount 

To-day it breathes forth the 
perfume of immortality, in- 
ebriating the disciples. 

We bless thee, O Consub- 
stantial Son of the Father, 
who didst come to save the 

Let us conclude by addressing to God this prayer 
of the Ambrosian Missal : 


Illumina, quaesumus Do- 
mine, populum tuum, et 
splendore gratiae tuae cor 
eorum semper accende: ut 

Enlighten, we beseech thee, 
O Lord, thy people, and ever 
kindle their hearts by the 
brightness of thy grace : that 

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through the glory of the Sa- Salvatoris mundi, aeterni 
viour of the world, the Eter- luminis gloria famulante, 
nal Light, the mystery here manifestata celebritas men- 
manifested may be ever more tibus nostris reveletur sem- 
and more revealed, and may per, et crescat. Per eum- 
grow in our souls. Through aem Dominum. 
the same Jesus Christ our 
Lord. Amen. 

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SAINT SIXTUS II, Pope and Martyr, 



" Xistum in dmiterio animadvermm sciatis oc- 
" tavo iduum augustarum die. Know that Sixtus 
" has been beheaded in the cemetery on the 8th of 
" the Ides of August." 1 These words of St. Cyprian 
mark the opening of a glorious period, both for the 
cycle and for history. From this day to the feast 
of St. Cyprian himself, taking in that of the deacon 
Laurence, how many holocausts in a few weeks does 
the earth offer to the Most High God! One would 
think that the Church, on the feast of our Lord's 
Transfiguration, was impatient to join her testimony 
as Bride, to that of the Prophets, of the Apostles, and 
of God himself. Heaven proclaims him well-beloved r 
the earth also declares its love for him : the testimony 
of blood and of every sort of heroism is the sublime 
echo wakened by the Father's voice through all the 
valleys of our lowly earth, to be prolonged through- 
out all ages. 

Let us, then, to-day salute this noble Pontiff, the 
first to go down into the arena opened wide by 
Valerian to all the soldiers of Christ. Among the 

1 Cyprian., Epist. lxxxii. 

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brave leaders who, from Peter down to Melchiades, 
have headed the straggle whereby Rome was both 
vanquished and saved, none is more illustrious as a 
martyr. He was seized in the Catacomb lying to the 
left of the Appian Way, in the very chair wherein, in 
spite of the recent edicts, he was presiding over the 
assembly of the brethren; and after the sentence 
had been pronounced by the judge, he was brought 
back to the sacred crypt. There in that same chair, 
in the midst of the martyrs sleeping in the surround- 
ing tombs their sleep of peace, the good and peaceful 
Pontiff 1 received the stroke of death. Of the seven 
deacons of the Roman Church, six died with him ;* 
Laurence alone was left, inconsolable at having this 
time missed the palm, but trusting in the invitation 
given him to be at the heavenly altar in three days' 

Two of the Pontiff '8 deacons were buried in the 
cemetery of Praetextatus, where the sublime scene had 
taken place. Sixtus and his blood-stained chair were 
carried to the other side of the Appian Way into the 
crypt of the Popes, where they remained for long 
centuries an object of veneration to pilgrims. When 
Damasus, in the days of peace, adorned the tombs of 
the saints with his beautiful inscriptions, the entire 
cemetery of Callixtus, which includes the burial place 
of the Popes, received the title "of Cecilia and 
" of Sixtus," two glorious names inscribed by Rome 
upon the venerable diptychs of the Mass. Twice 
over on this day, did the Holy Sacrifice summon the 
Christians to honour, at each side of the principal 
Way to the eternal City, the triumphant victims of 
the 8th of the Ides of August. 8 

1 Pontius Diac. De vita et passione S. Cypriani, xiv. 

2 Liber Pontific. in Sixt. II. 

3 Sacramentaria Leon, et Gregor. 

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Xystus Secundus, Atheni- 
ensis, ex philosopho Christi 
discipulus, in persecutions 
Valeriani accusatus quod 
publico Christum praedica- 
ret, comprehensus trahitur 
in templum Martis, proposi- 
ta ei capitali poena, nisi ill! 
simulacro sacrificaret. Qua 
impietate constantissime re- 
cusata, cum ad martyrium 
duceretur, occurrenti sancto 
Laurentio, et dolenter in 
hunc modum interroganti : 
Quo progrederis sine filio 
pater 7 quo sacerdos sancte 
sine ministro properasl Ke- 
spondit : Non ego te desero 
fui: majora te manent pro 
Christi fide certaraina : post 
triduum me sequeris, sacer- 
dotem levita: interea, si 
quid in thesauris habes, pau- 
peribus distribue. Eodem 
jgitur die interfectus est una 
cum Felicissimo et Agapito 
diaconis, Januario, Magno, 
Vincentio et Stephano sub- 
diaconis, et in ccemeterio 
Callisti sepultus octavo idus 
Augusti: caateri vero in cce- 
meterio Praetextati. Sedit 
menses undecim, dies duo- 
decim. Quo tempore habuit 
ordinationem mense Decem- 
bri, creatis presbyteris qua- 
tuor, diaconis septem, epis- 
copis duobus. 


Sixtus II., an Athenian, was 
first a philosopher, and then 
a disciple of Christ. In the 
persecution of Valerianae was 
accused of publicly preaching 
the faith of Christ ; and was 
seized and dragged to the 
temple of Mars, where he was 
given his choice between death 
and offering sacrifice to the 
idols. As he firmly refused 
to commit such an impiety, he 
was led away to martyrdom. 
As he went, St. Laurence met 
him, and with great sorrow, 
spoke to him in this manner : 
" Whither goest thou, Father, 
" without thy son 1 Whither 
"art thou hastening, O holy 
" Priest, without thy deacon %" 
Sixtus answered : 44 I am not 
"forsaking thee, my son, a 
" greater combat for the faith 
" of Christ awaiteth thee. In 
" three days thou shalt follow 
" me, the Deacon shall follow 
"his Priest. In the mean- 
" while distribute amongst the 
44 poor whatever thou hast in 
" the treasury." He was put 
to death that same day, the 8th 
of the Ides of August, together 
with the Deacons Felicissimus 
and Agapitus, and the Sub- 
deacons Januarius, Magnus, 
Vincent, and Stephen. The 
Pope was buried in the ceme- 
tery of Callixtus, but the other 
martyrs in the cemetery of 
Praetextatus. He sat eleven 
months and twelve days; dur- 
ing which time he held an 
ordination in the month of 
December, and made four 
priests, seven deacons, and 
two bishops. 

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ST. SIXTUS II. > 313 

The following Preface from the Leonian Sacramen- 
tary breathes the freshness of the Church's triumph 
over persecution : 


It is truly just to return Vere dignum. Cognosci- 
thanks to thee, O Lord. For mus enim, Domine, tuae pie- 
we know the effects of thy tatis effectus, quibus nos 
loving kindness, whereby thou adeo gloriosi Sacerdotis et 
wouldst not suffer us to omit Martyris tui Xysti semper 
the ever honourable solemnity honoranda solemnia, nec 
of thy glorious Pontiff and inter prseteritas mundi tri- 
Martyr, Sixtus, during the bulationes,omittere voluisti, 
past tribulations of the world, et nunc reddita prsestas 
and dost enable us to celebrate libertate venerari. 
it now that liberty is restored. 

The Prayer now in use is that found in the Gre- 
gorian Sacramentary for Saints Felicissimus and 
Agapitus, the name of Saint Sixtus having been 
placed before theirs : 


O God, who permittest us Deus, qui nos concedis 
to keep the festivals of thy sanctorum Martyrum tuo- 
holy Martyrs, Sixtus, Felicis- rum Xysti, Fehcissimi et 
simus and Agapitus, grant us Agapiti natalitia colere : da 
to rejoice in their society in nobis in aeterna beatitudine 
eternal happiness. Through de eorum societate gaudere. 
our Lord, <fec. Per Dominum. 

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August 7. 


Cajetan appeared in all his zeal for the sanctuary 
at the time when the false reform was spreading 
rebellion throughout the world. The great cause of 
the danger had been the incapacity of the guardians 
of the holy City, or their connivance by complicity 
of heart or of mind with pagan doctrines and manners 
introduced by an ill-advised revival. Wasted by the 
wild boar of the forest, could the vineyard of the Lord 
recover the fertility of its better days? Cajetan 
learned from Eternal Wisdom the new method of 
culture required by an exhausted soil. 

The urgent need of those unfortunate times was 
that the clergy should be raised up again by worthy 
life, zeal, and knowledge. For this object men were 
required, who being clerks themselves in the full 
acceptation of the word, with all the obligations it 
involves, should be to the members of the holy hier- 
archy a permanent model of its primitive perfection, 
a supplement to their shortcomings, and a leaven, 
little by little raising the whole mass. But where, 
save in the life of the counsels with the stability of 
its three vows, could be found the impulse, the power, 
and the permanence necessary for such an enterprise? 
The inexhaustible fecundity of the religious life was 
no more wanting in the Church in those days of 

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decadence than in the periods of her glory. After 
the monks, turning to God in their solitudes and 
drawing down light and love upon the earth seem- 
ingly so forgotten by them; after the mendicant 
Orders, keeping up in the midst of the world their 
claustral habits of life and the austerity of the desert : 
the regular clerks entered upon the battle-field, 
whereby their position in the fight, their exterior 
manner of life, their very dress, they were to mingle 
with the ranks of the secular clergy; just as a few 
veterans are sent into the midst of a wavering troop, 
to act upon the rest by word and example and dash. 

Like the initiators of the great ancient forms of 
religious life, Cajetan was the Patriarch of the 
Regular Clerks. Under this name Clement VII., 
by a brief dated 24th June, 1524, approved the 
institute he had founded that very year in concert 
with the Bishop of Tbeati, from whom the new 
religious were also called Theatines. Soon the 
Barnabites, the Society of Jesus, the Somasques of 
St. Jerome iEmilian, the Regular Clerks Minor of 
St Francis Carracciolo, the Regular Clerks minis- 
tering to the sick, the Regular Clerks of the Pious 
Schools, the Regular Clerks of the Mother of God, 
and others, hastened to follow in the track, and 
proved that the Church is ever beautiful, ever 
worthy of her Spouse; while the accusation of 
barrenness hurled against her by heresy, rebounded 
upon the thrower. 

Cajetan began and carried forward his reform 
chiefly by means of detachment from riches, the love 
of which had caused many evils in the Church. 
The Theatines offered to the world a spectacle 
unknown since the days of the Apostles; pushing 
their zeal for renouncement so far as not to allow 
ihemselves even to beg, but to rely on the spon- 
taneous charity of the faithful. While Luther was 

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denying the very existence of God's Providence, 
their heroic trust in It was often rewarded by 

Let us now read the life of this new patriarch. 

Cajetanus, nobili Thienaea 
gente Vicentiaa ortus, statim 
a matre Deiparse Virgini 
oblatus est. Mira a teneris 
annis morum innocentia in 
eo eluxit, adeo ut Sanctus 
ab omnibus nuncuparetur. 
Juris utriusque lauream Pa- 
tavii adeptus, Romam pro- 
fectusest: ubiinterpraelatos 
a Julio Secundo collocatus, 
et sacerdotio initiatus, tanto 
divini amoris aestu succensus 
est, ut relicta aula se totum 
Deo mancipaverit. Noso- 
comiis proprio aere f undatis, 
etiam morbo pestilenti labo- 
rantibus, suis ipse manibus 
inserviebat. Proximorum 
saluti assidua cura incum- 
bebat, dictus propterea Ve- 
nator animarum. 

Collapsam ecclesiastico- 
rum disciplinam ad formam 
apostolicae vitaa instaurare 
desiderans, ordinem Clerico- 
rum regularium inatituit, 
qui, abdicata rerum omnium 
terrenarum sollicitudine,nec 
reditus possiderent, nec vitae 
subsidia atidelibus peterent, 
sed solis eleemosynis sponte 
oblatis viverent. Itaqueap- 
probante Clemente Septimo 
ad aram maximam basilicas 

Cajetan was born at Vicenza 
of the noble house of Thienna, 
and was at once dedicated by 
his mother to the Virgin 
Mother of God. His inno- 
cence appeared so wonderful 
from his very childhood that 
everyone called him "the 
" Saint." He took the decree 
of Doctor in canon and civil 
law at Padua, and then went 
to Home where Julius II. 
made him a Prelate. When 
he received the priesthood, 
such a fire of divine love was 
enkindled in his soul, that he 
left the court to devote him- 
self entirely to God. He 
founded hospitals with his 
own money and himself served 
the sick, even those attacked 
with pestilential maladies. 
He displayed such unflagging 
zeal for the salvation of his 
neighbour that he earned the 
name of the "Hunter of souls." 

His great desire was to re- 
store Ecclesiastical discipline, 
then much relaxed, to the 
form of the Apostolic life, and 
to this end he founded the 
Orderof Regular Clerks. They 
lay aside all care of earthly 
things, possess no revenues, 
do not beg even the neces- 
saries of life from the faithful, 
but live only on alms spon- 
taneously offered. Clement 
VII. having approved this in- 

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stitution, Cajetan made his 
solemn tows at the High 
Altar of the Vatican basilica, 
together with John Peter Ca- 
raffa, Bishop of Chieti, who 
was afterwards Pope Paul IV., 
and two other men of distin- 
guished piety. During the 
sack of Rome, he was most 
cruelly treated by the soldiers, 
to make him deliver up his 
money, which the bands of 
the poor had long ago carried 
into the heavenly treasures. 
He endured with the utmost 
patience stripes, torture, and 
imprisonment. He persevered 
unfalteringly in the kind of life 
he had embraced, relying en- 
tirely upon Divine Providence : 
and God never failed him, as 
was sometimes proved by 

He was a great promoter of 
assiduity at the divine worship, 
of the beauty of the House of 
God, of exactness in holy 
ceremonies, and of thefrequen- 
t at ion of the most Holy Eucha- 
rist. More than once he 
detected and foiled the wicked 
subterfuges of heresy. He 
would prolong his prayers for 
eight hours, without ceasing 
to shed tears; he was often 
rapt in ecstasy and was famous 
for the gift of prophecy. At 
Home, one Christmas night, 
while he was praying at our 
Lord's crib, the Mother of 
God was pleased to lay the 
Infant Jesus in his arms. 
He would spend whole nights 
in chastising his body with 
disciplines, and could never 
be induced to relax anything 

»F THIENNA. 317 

Vaticanse una cum Joanne 
Petro Caraf a episcopo Thea- 
tino, qui postea Paulus 
Quartus Pontifex Maximus 
fuit, et aliis duobus eximiaa 
pietatis viris, vota solemnia 
emisit. InUrbisdireptione 
a militibus crudellssime 
vexatus ut pecuniam pro- 
deret, auam dudum in cce- 
lestes thesauros manus pau~ 
perum deportaverant, ver- 
bera, tormenta, et carceres 
invicta patientia sustinuit. 
In suscepto vitas instituto 
constantissime perseveravit, 
soli divinae providential in- 
haerens, quam sibi numquam 
defuisse aliquando miracula 

Divini cultus studium, 
nitorem domus Dei, sacro- 
rum rituum observantiam, 
et sanctissimae Eucharistiae 
frequentiorem usum maxi- 
me promovit. Ha3resum 
monstra et. latebras non 
semel detexit, ac profligavit. 
Orationem ad octo passim 
horas jugibus lacrymis pro- 
trahebat: saepe in exstasim 
raptus, ac prophetiae dono 
illustris. Roraae nocte na- 
talitia ad praesepe Domini, 
infantem Jesum accipere 
meruit a Deipara in ulnas 
suas. Corpus integras noc- 
tes interdum verberationi- 
busaffligebat; necumquam 
adduci potuit, ut vitae as- 
peritatem emolliret, testatus, 
in cinere et cilicio velle se 
morL Denique ex animi 

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dolore concepto morbo, quod 
offendi plebis seditione 
Deum videret, coelesti vi- 
sions recreates, Neapoli mi- 
gravit in coelum : ibique 
corpus ejus in ecclesia sancti 
Pauli magna religions coli- 
tur. Quern multis miracu- 
lis in vita et post mortem 
gloriosum, Clemens Deca- 
ni us Pontifex Maximus san- 
ctorum numero adscripsit. 

of the austerity of his life : 
for he would say, he wished 
to die in sackcloth and ashes. 
At length he fell into an 
illness caused by the intense 
sorrow he felt, at seeing the 
people offend God by a sedi- 
tion; and at Naples, after 
being refreshed by a heavenly 
vision, he passed to heaven. 
His body is honoured with 
great devotion in the Church 
of St. Paul in that town. As 
many miracles worked by him 
both living and dead made 
his name illustrious, Pope 
Clement X. enrolled him 
amongst the Saints. 

Who has ever obeyed so well as thou, O ^reat 
Saint, that word of the Gospel : Be not solicitous 
therefore saying: What shall we eat? or wJiat 
shall we drink I or wherewith shall we be clothed? 1 
Thou didst understand, too, that other divine word : 
The workman is worthy of his meat, 2 and thou 
knewest that it applied principally to those who 
labour in word and doctrine. 3 Thou didst not 
ignore the fact that other sowers of the word had 
before thee founded on that saying the right of their 
poverty, embraced for God's sake, to claim at least 
the bread of alms. Sublime right of souls eager for 
opprobrium in order to follow Jesus and to satiate 
their love ! But Wisdom, who gives to the desires 
of the Saints the bent suitable to their times, caused 
the thirst for humiliation to be overruled in thee by 
the ambition to exalt in thy poverty the holy 
Providence of God ; this was needed in an age of 
renewed paganism, which, even before listening to 

J St. Matth. vi. 31. 7 Ibid. x. 10. 3 I Tim. v. 17. 

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heresy, seemed to have ceased to trust in God. 
Alas! even, of those to whom the Lord had given 
himself for their possession in the midst of the 
children of Israel, it could be truly said that they 
sought the goods of this world like the heathen. It 
was thy earnest desire, O Cajetan, to justify our 
Heavenly Father and to prove that he is ever ready 
to fulfil the promise made by his adorable Son : 
Seek ye therefore the kingdom of God, and his 
justice, and all these things shall be added unto 
you. 1 

Circumstances obliged thee to begin in this way 
the reformation of the sanctuary, whereunto thou 
wert resolved to devote thy life. It was necessary, 
first, to bring back the members of the holy militia 
to the spirit of the sacred formula of the ordination 
of clerks, when, laying aside the spirit of the world 
together with its livery, they say in the joy of their 
hearts : " The Lord is the portion of my inheritance 
" and of my cup : it is thou, O Lord, that wilt restore 
"my inheritance to me." 2 

The Lord, 0 Cajetan, acknowledged thy zeal and 
blessed thine efforts. Preserve in us the fruit of 
thy labour. The science of sacred rites owes much 
to thy sons ; may they prosper, in renewed fidelity 
to the traditions of their lather. May thy patriarchal 
blessing ever rest upon the numerous families of 
fiegular Clerks which walk in the footsteps of thine 
own. May all the ministers of holy Church ex- 
perience the power thou still hast, of maintaining 
them in the right path of their holy state, or, if 
necessary, of bringing them back to it. May the 
example of thy sublime confidence in God, teach all 
Christians that they have a Father in heaven, whose 
Providence will never fail his children. 

1 St. Matth. vi. 33. 

5 Pontificate Romanum. De clerico faciendo, ex Ps. xv. 5. 

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Let us honour the holy memory of the Bishop of 
Arezzo whom the persecution of Julian the Apostate 
sent on this day to heaven. The following prayer, 
wherein the Church expresses her unchanging con- 
fidence in his powerful intercession, is found so far 
back as in the Gelasian Sacramentary ; though the 
title of Confessor is there used instead of Martyr, it 
is beyond all question that Donatus died for Christ. 


Deus,tuorum gloria sacer- O God, the glory of thy 
dotum : rjraeata quaesumus ; priests, grant, we beseech thee, 
ut sancti Martyris tui et that we may experience the 
Episcopi Donati, cujus festa succour of thy holy martyr 
gerimus, sentiamus auxi- and bishop, Donatus, whose 
Tium. PerDominum. festival we celebrate. Through 

our Lord, (fee 

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August 8. 


To-DAY a precursor of Laurence appears on the 
cycle, the deacon Cyriacus, whose power over the 
demon made hell tremble, and entitles him to a 
place among the Saints called helpers. He and his 
companions in martyrdom form one of the noblest 
groups of Christ's army in that last and decisive 
battle, wherein the eagerness of the faithful to show 
that they knew how to die, won victory for the 
Cross. Rome, baptized in the blood she had shed, 
found herself Christian in spite of herself; all her 
honours were now to be lavished upon the very men 
whom in the time of her folly she had put to the 
sword. Such are thy triumphs, O Wisdom of God ! 

Mention of the three martyrs celebrated to-day is 
to be found in the most authentic calendars of the 
Church that have come down to us from the fourth 
century. 1 If then, as Baronius acknowledges, 2 there 
is some reason for calling in question certain details 
of the legend, their cultus is none the less im- 
memorial upon earth ; and the unwavering devotion 
of which they are the objects, especially in the 
sanctuaries enriched with their holy relics, proves 
that they have great power before the throne of the 

1 Calendariura Bucherii. " 2 Annal. ad An. 309, vL 


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Cyriacus diaconus, cum 
Sisinio, Largo, et Smaragdo 
diutius inclusus in carcere, 
molta edidit miracula,in qui- 
bus Artbemiam Diocletiani 
filiam precibus a daemone 
liberavit: missusque ad Sa- 
porem Persarum regem, Jo- 
biam etiam ejus filiam a ne- 
fario spiritu eripuit. Rege 
vero ejus patre cum quad- 
ringentis ac trigiuta aliis 
baptizatis Komam rediit : 
ubi Maximiani imperatoris 
jussu comprehensus, eaten is 
vinctus ante rhedam suam 
trahitur : et post dies qua- 
tuor e carcere eductus, pice 
liquata perf usus, et in cata- 
sta extensus, demum cum 
Largo et Smaragdo, aliisque 
viginti securi percussus est 
via Salaria, ad hortos Sallus- 
tianos. Quorum corpora in 
eadem via, decimo septimo 
calendas Aprilis, sepulta a 
Joanne presbytero, postea 
sexto idus Augustia Marcel- 
lo Pontifice, et Lucina nobili 
femina lineis velis involuta, 
et pretiosis unguentis con- 
dita, in ipsius Lucinae prae- 
dium via Ostiensi, septimo 
ab Urbe lapide translata 

Cyriacus, a deacon, under- 
went a long imprisonment to- 
gether with Largus, Sisinius 
and Smaragdus, and worked 
many miracles. Amongst 
others, by his prayers, he freed 
Arthemia, a daughter of Dio- 
cletian, from the possession of 
the devil. He was sent to 
Sapor, king of Persia, and de- 
livered his daughter, Jobia, in 
like manner from the devil. 
He baptized the king, her 
father, and four hundred and 
thirty others, and then return- 
ed to Rome. There he was 
seized by command of the Em- 
peror Maximian, and dragged 
in chains before his chariot. 
Four days afterwards he was 
taken out of prison, boiling 
pitch was poured over him, he 
was stretched on the rack, and 
at length he was put to death 
by the axe, with Largus, Sma- 
ragdus, and twenty others at 
Sallust's Gardens on the Sala- 
rian Way. A priest named 
John buried their bodies on 
that same way, on the 17th of 
the Calends of April, but on 
the 6th of the Ides of August, 
Pope Marcellus and the noble 
lady Lucina wrapt them in 
linen with precious spices, and 
translated them to Lucina's 
estate on the Ostian Way, 
seven miles from Borne. 

The Church to-day recites this prayer in their 
honour : 


Deus, qui no's annua sac- O God, who dost rejoice us 

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by the annual solemnity of thy ctorum Martyrum tuoram 
holv martyrs, Cyriacus,Largus Cyriaci, Largi et Smaragdi 
and Smaragdus, mercifully solemnitate lsetificas: con- 
grant that we may imitate the cede propitius ; ut quorum 
virtue with which they suffer- natalitia colimus, virtutem 
ed, whose festival we celebrate. Quoque passionis imitemur. 

Through, &c. 

pent. rr. 


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August 9. 

■ — ♦ 

" Fear not, my servant, for I am with thee, saith the 
" Lord. If thou pass through fire, the flame shall 
" not hurt thee, and the odour of fire shall not be in 
" thee. I will deliver thee out of the hand of the 
" wicked, and I will redeem thee out of the hand of 
"the mighty." 1 It was the hour of combat; and 
Wisdom, more powerful than flame, was calling 
upon Laurence to win the laurels of victory presaged 
by his very name. The three days since the death 
of Sixtus had passed at length, and the deacon's 
exile was about to close: he was soon to stand 
beside his Pontiff at the altar in heaven, and never 
more to be separated from him. But before going 
to perform his office as deacon in the eternal sacrifice, 
he must on this earth, where the seeds of eternity 
are sown, give proof of the brave faithfulness which 
becomes a Levite of the Law of Love. Laurence was 
ready. He had said to Sixtus: "Try the fidelity 
"of the minister to whom thou didst intrust the 
" dispensation of the Blood of our Lord." He had 

1 2nd Reap, of Matins fr. Isaias xliii. and Jeirem. xv. 

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now, according to the Pontiff's wish, distributed to 
the poor the treasures of the Church ; as the chants of 
the Liturgy tell us on this very morning. 1 But he 
knew that if a man should give all the substance of 
his house for love, he shall despise it as nothing ; % 
and he longed to give himself as well. Overflowing 
with joy in his generosity he hailed the holocaust, 
whose sweet perfume he seemed already to perceive 
rising up to heaven. And well might he have sung 
the offertory of this Vigil's Mass: "My prayer is 
" pure, and therefore I ask that a place be given to 
" my voice in heaven : for my judge is there, and he 
"that knoweth my conscience is on high: let my 
" prayer ascend to the Lord." 3 

Sublime prayer of the just man which pierces the 
clouds! Even now we can say with the Church: 
His seed shall be mighty upon earth? the seed of 
new Christians sprung from the blood of martyrdom ; 
for to-day we greet the first fruits thereof in the 
person of Romanus, the neophyte whom his first 
torments won to Christ, and who preceded him to 
heaven. Let us, with the Church, unite the soldier 
and the deacon in our prayers : 


Attend, O Lord, to our sup- Adesto, Domine, suppli- 
iplications, and by the interces- cationibus nostris : et, in tor- 
sion of blessed Laurence, thy cessione beati Laurentii, 
martyr, whose festival wean ti- Martyris tui, cujus pneve- 
cipate, graciously extend to us nimus festivitatem, perpe- 
perpetual mercy. Through tuam nobis misericordiam 
our Lord, &c. benignus impende. Per 


1 Introit and Gradual of the Vigil fr. Pa. xci. 

2 Cant. viii. 7. 

3 Offertory f r. Job xvi. 

4 Verse of Gradual fr. Ps. cxi. 

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Praesta, qusesumus omni- Grant, we beseech thee, O 
potens Deus: ut, interce- Almighty God, that by the 
dente beato Romano, Mar- intercession of blessed Roma- 
tyre tuo, et a cunctis ad- nus, thy martyr, we may both 
versitatibus liberemur in be delivered from all adversi- 
cor pore, etapra vis cogitatio- ties in body, and be purified 
nibus mundemur in mente. from all evil thoughts in mind. 
Per Dominum. Through our Lord, dec. 

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August 10, 


" Once the mother of false gods, but now the bride 
"of Christ, O Rome, it is through Laurence thou 
"art victorious! Thou hadst conquered haughty 
" monarchs and subjected nations to thine empire ; 
"but though thou hadst overcome barbarism, thy 
"glory was incomplete fill thou hadst vanquished 
" the unclean idols. This was Laurence's victory, a 
" combat bloody yet not tumultuous like those of 
" Camillus or of Caesar ; it was the contest of faith, 
" wherein self is immolated, and death is overcome 
"by death. What words, what praises suffice to 
" celebrate such a death ? How can I worthily sing 
" so great a martyrdom." 1 

Thus opens the sublime poem of Prudentius, com- 
posed little more than a century after the Saint's 
martyrdom. In this work the poet has preserved to 
us the traditions existing in his own day, whereby 
the name of the Roman deacon was rendered so illus- 
trious. About the same time St. Ambrose, with 
his irresistible eloquence, described the meeting of 
Sixtus and his deacon on the way to martyrdom. 2 
-But, before both Ambrose and Prudentius, Pope St. 

1 Prudent. Peristephanon., Hymn ii. 

2 Am br. De offic i. 41. 

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Damasus chronicled the victory of Laurence's faith, 
in his majestic monumental inscriptions, which have 
such a ring of the days of triumph. 1 

Rome was lavish in her demonstrations of honour 
towards the champion who had prayed for her 
deliverance, upon his red-hot gridiron. She inserted 
his name in the Canon of the Mass, and moreover 
celebrated the anniversary of his birth to heaven 
with as much solemnity as those of the glorious 
Apostles her founders, and with the same privileges 
of a Vigil and an Octave. She has been dyed with 
the blood of many other witnesses of Christ, yet, 
as though Laurence had a special claim upon her 
gratitude, every spot connected with him has been 
honoured with a Church. Amongst all these sanc- 
tuaries dedicated to him, the one which contains 
the martyr's body ranks next after the churches of 
St. John Lateran, St. Mary's on the Esquiline, St. 
Peter's on the Vatican, and St Paul's on the Ostian 
Way. St. Laurence outside the Walls completes 
the number of the five great basilicas, that form the 
appanage and exclusive possession of the Roman 
Pontiff. They represent the patriarchates of Rome, 
Alexandria, Antioch, Constantinople, and Jerusalem, 
which divide the world between them, and express 
the universal and immediate jurisdiction of the 
Bishops of Rome over all the churches. Thus 
through Laurence the eternal City is completed, and 
is shown to be the centre of the world and the 
source of every grace. 

Just as Peter and Paul are the riches, not of 
Rome alone, but of the whole world, so Laurence is 
called the honour of the world, for he, as it were, 
personified the courage of martyrdom. At the be- 
ginning of this month, we saw Stephen himself 

1 De Rossi, Inscript. ii. 82. 

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come to blend his dignity of Protomartyr with the 
glory of Sixtus II. 's deacon, by sharing his tomb. 
In Laurence, it seemed that both the struggle and 
the victory of martyrdom reached their highest 
point; persecution, it is true, was renewed during 
the next half century, and made many victims, yet 
his triumph was considered as the death-blow to 

" The devil/' says Prudentius, " struggled fiercely 
" with God's witness, but he was himself wounded 
"and prostrated for ever. The death of Christ's 
" martyr gave the death-blow to the worship of idols, 
" and from that day Vesta was powerless to prevent 
" her temple from being deserted. All these Roman 
" citizens, brought up in the superstitions taught by 
"Numa, hasten, O Christ, to thy courts, singing 
" hymns to thy martyr. Illustrious senators, flamens 
"and priests of Lupercus, venerate the tombs of 
"Apostles and Saints. We see patricians and 
" matrons of the noblest families vowing to God the 
" children in whom their hopes are centered. The 
" Pontiff of the idols, whose brow but yesterday was 
"bound with sacred fillet, now signs himself with 
"the cross, and the Vestal Virgin Claudia visits thy 
"sanctuary, O Laurence." 1 

It need not surprise us, that this day's solemnity 
carries its triumphant joy from the city of the seven 
hills to the entire universe. "As it is impossible 
"for Rome to be concealed," says St. Augustine, 
"so it is equally impossible to hide Laurence's 
"crown." Everywhere, in both East and West, 
churches were built in his honour ; and in return, as 
the Bishop of Hippo testifies, " the favours he con- 

" of his power with God ; who has ever prayed to 
" him and has not been graciously heard ?" 2 

" ferred were innumerable, and 

the greatness 


2 Aug. Serra. 303 and 302. 

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Let us then conclude with St. Maximus of Turin 
that, " in the devotion wherewith the triumph of St 
" Laurence is being celebrated throughout the entire 
" world, we must recognise that it is both holy and 
" pleasing to God to honour, with all the fervour of 
" our souls, the birth to heaven of the martyr, who 
" by his radiant flames has spread the glory of his 
"victory over the whole Church. Because of the 
"spotless purity of soul which made him a true 
" Levite, and because of that fulness of faith which 
"earned him the martyr's palm, it is fitting that 
"we should honour him almost equally with the 
"Apostles." 1 


Laurence lias entered the lists as a martyr, and 
has confessed the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. 
Such is the Antiphon wherewith the Church opens 
the first Vespers of the feast ; and in fact, by this 
hour he has already entered the arena; with noble 
irony he has challenged the authorities, and has 
even shed his blood. 

On the very day of the martyrdom of Sixtus H., 
Cornelius Secularist prefect of Rome, summoned 
Laurence before his tribunal, but granted him the 
delay necessary for gathering together the riches 
required by the imperial treasury. Valerian did not 
include the obscure members of the Church in his 
edicts of persecution; he aimed at ruining the 
Christians by prohibiting their assemblies, putting 
their chief men to death, and confiscating their 
property. This accounts for the fact that, on the 
6th August, the faithful assembled in the cemetery 
of Pretextatus were dispersed, the Pontiff executed, 
and the chief deacon arrested and ordered to deliver 

1 Maxim. Taurin. Homil. 75 and 74. 2 Elenchus, Philocal. 

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up the treasures which the government knew to be 
in bis keeping. " Acknowledge my just and peace- 
" able claims," said the prefect. " It is said that at 
"your orgies, your priests are accustomed, according 
" to the laws of your worship, to make libations in 
"cups of gold; that silver vessels smoke with the 
" blood of the victims, and that the torches that give 
"light to your nocturnal mysteries are fixed in 
"golden candlesticks. And then you have such 
" love and care for the brotherhood : report says you 
" sell your lands in order to devote to their service 
"thousands of sesterces; so that while the son is 
"disinherited by his holy parents and groans in 
" poverty, his patrimony is piously hidden away in 

"immense treasures, the shameful spoils you have 
"won by deceiving the credulous; the public good 
" demands them ; render to Caesar the things that 
" are Caesar's, that he may have wherewith to fill his 
" treasury and pay his armies." 

Laurence, untroubled by these words and as if 
quite willing to obey, gently answered : " I confess 
" you speak the truth ; our Church is indeed wealthy; 
"no one in the world, not even Augustus himself, 
" possesses such riches. I will disclose them all to 
"you, and I will show you the treasures of Christ. 
" All I ask for is a short delay, which will enable 
"me the better to perform what I have promised. 
" For I must make an inventory of all, count them 
" up, and value each article." 

The prefect's heart swelled with joy and gloating 
over the gold he hoped soon to possess, he granted 
him a delay of three days. Meanwhile Laurence 
hastened all over the town and assembled the legions 
of poor whom their Mother the Church supported ; 
lame and blind, cripple and beggars, he called them 
all. None knew them better than the Archdeacon. 

"the secrecy 

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Next he counted them, wrote down their names, and 
arranged them in long lines. On the appointed day 
he returned to the judge and thus addressed him : 
" Come with me and admire the incomparable riches 
" of the sanctuary of our God." They went together 
to the spot where the crowds of poor were standing, 
clothed in rags and filling the air with their suppli- 
cations. " Why do you shudder V 9 said Laurence to 
the prefect, "do you call that a vile and contemptible 
" spectacle ? If you seek after wealth, know that 
" the brightest gold is Christ, who is the light, and 
"the human race redeemed by him; for they are 
" the sons of the light, all these who are shielded by 
"their bodily weakness from the assault of pride 
" and evil passion ; soon they will lay aside their 
" ulcers in the palace of eternal life, and will shine 
" in marvellous glory, clothed in purple and bearing 
" golden crowns upon their heads. See here is the 
"gold which I promised you — gold of a kind that 
" fire cannot touch or thief steal from you. Think 
" not then that Christ is poor : behold these choice 
" pearls, these sparkling gems that adorn the temple, 
"these sacred virgins I mean, and these widows who 
"refuse second marriage; they form the priceless 
" necklace of the Church, they deck her brow, they 
" are her bridal ornaments, and win for her Christ's 
"love. Behold then all our riches; take them: 
" they will beautify the city of Romulus, they will 
"increase the Emperor's treasures, and enrich you 
"yourself" 1 

From a letter of Pope St. Cornelius, written a few 
years after these events, we learn that the number 
of widows and poor persons that the Church of 
Borne supported, exceeded 1500.* By thus exhibit- 
ing them before the magistrate, Laurence knew that 

1 Prudent. 8 Cornelius ad Fabium Antioch. 

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he endangered no one but himself, for the persecution 
of Valerian, as we have already observed, overlooked 
the inferior classes and attacked the leading members 
of the Church. Divine Wisdom thus confronted 
Csesarism and its brutality with Christianity which 
it so despised, but which was destined to overcome 
and subdue it. 

This happened on the 9th August, 258. The 
first answer the furious prefect made, was to order 
Laurence to be scourged and tortured upon the rack. 
But these tortures were only a prelude to the great 
ordeal he was preparing for the noble-hearted 
Deacon. We learn this tradition from St. Damasus, 
for he says that, besides the flames, Laurence tri- 
umphed over "blows, tortures, torments, and chains." 1 

We have also the authority of the notice inserted 
by Ado of Yienne in his martyrology in the ninth 
century, and taken from a still more ancient source. 
The conformity of expression proves that it was 
partly from this same source that the Gregorian 
Antiphonal had already taken the Antiphons and 
Responsories of the feast. 

Besides the details which we learn from Pruden- 
tius and the Fathers, this Office alludes to the converts 
Laurence made while in prison, and to his restoring 
sight to the blind. This last seems to have been the 
special gift of the holy deacon during the days pre- 
ceding his martyrdom. 

1. Ant. Laurence has entered 1. Ant. Laurentius in- 
the lists as a martyr, and has gressus est Martyr, et con- 
confessed the name of our fessus est nomen Domini 

Fa. Dixit Dominus, page 36. 

1 Verbera, carnifices, flammas, tormenta, catenas, 
Vincere Laurenti sola fides potuit. 
Haee Damasus cumulat supplex altaria donis, 
Martyris egregium suspicions meritum. 

Jesu Christi. 

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2. Ant. Laurentiusbonum 
opus operatus est, qui per 
sign u tn crucis csecos illumi- 

3. Ant. Adhaesit anima 
inea post te, quia caro mea 
igne cremata est pro te Deus 

4. Ant. Misit Dominus 
Angelum suum, et liberavit 
me de medio ignis, et non 
sum aestuatus. 

5. Ant. Beatus Laurentius 
orabat, dicens : Gratias tibi 
ago Domine, quia januas 
tuas ingredi merui. 

2. ANT.Laurence has wrought 
a good work, who by the sign 
of the Cross gave sight to the 

Ps. Confitebor tibi Domine, 
page 37. 

3. Ant. My soul has eleaved 
to thee, for my flesh has been 
burnt with fire for thy sake, 
O my God. 

Ps. Beatus vir, page 38. 

4. Ant. The Lord sent his 
Angel and delivered me from 
the midst of the fire, and I 
have not been consumed. 

Ps. Laudate pueri, page 39. 

5. Ant. Blessed Laurence 
prayed, saying: I give thee 
thanks, O Lord, that I have 
been found worthy to enter 
thy gates. 

PSALM 116. 

Laudate Dominum, om- 
nes gentes : * laudate eum, 
omnes populi. 

Quoniam confirmata est 
super nos misericordia ejus: 
* et Veritas Domini manet 
in se tern um. 

O, praise the Lord, all ye 
nations, praise him, all ye 

For his mercy is confirmed 
upon us, and the truth of the 
Lord remaineth for ever. 

Fratres : Qui parce semi- 
nat, parce et metet : et qui 
seminat in benedictionibus, 
de benedictionibus et metet 

CAPITULUM. (2 Cor. ix.) 

Brethren: He who soweth 
sparingly, shall also reap spar* 
ingly : and he who soweth iij 
blessings, shall also reap bless- 

Deus tuorum militum 
Sors, et corona, premium, 


O God! thou the inheri- 
tance, crown and reward of 

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thy Soldiers ! absolve from the 
bonds of our sins us who sing 
the praises of thy Martyr. 

For, counting the joys of the 
world,' and the deceitful bait 
of its caresses, as things em- 
bittered with call, thy Martyr 
obtained the delights of hea- 

Bravely did he go through, 
and manfully did he bear, his 
pains : and shedding his blood 
for thy sake, he now possesses 
thy eternal gifts. 

Therefore, most merciful 
Father! we beseech thee, in 
most suppliant prayer, for- 
give us, thy unworthy servants, 
our sins, for it is the feast of 
thy Martyr's triumph. 

Praise and eternal glory be 
to the Father, and to the Son, 
as also to the Holy Paraclete, 
for everlasting ages. 

'ff. Thou hast crowned him, 
O Lord, with glory and honour. 

And hast placed him 
over the works of thy hands. 

Laudes canentes Martyris 
Absolve nexu criminis. 

Hie nempe mundi gaudia, 
Et blanda fraudum pabula 
Imbuta felle deputans, 
Pervenit ad coelestia. 

Pcenas cucurrit f ortiter, 
Et sustulit viriliter, 
Fundensque pro te sangui- 

iEterna dona possidet. 

Ob hoc precatu supplici 
Te poseimus piissiroe : 
In noc triumpho Martyris 
Dimitte nozam servulis. 

Laus et perennis gloria 
Patri sit, atque Filio, 
Sancto simul Paraclito, 
In sempiterna ssecula. 

^. Gloria et honore coro- 
na8ti eum, Domine. 

1$. Et constituisti eum 
super opera manuum tua* 


Laurence the Levite hath 
wrought a good work: he 
restored sight to the blind by 
the sign of the Cross, and 
distributed to the poor the 
treasures of the Church. 

The Canticle, Magnificat, 
page 44. 

Levita Laurentius bonum 
opus operatus est, qui per 
signum crucis csecos ilium i- 
navit, et thesauros Ecclesiae^ 
dedit pauperibus. 

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Da nobis, qusesumus om- Grant us, we beseech thee, 

nipotens Deus: vitiorum Almighty God, to extinguish 

nostrorum flammas exstin- the flames of our vices : thou 

guere ; qui beato Laurentio who unto blessed Laurence 

tribuisti tormentorum suo- didst give a strength that 

rum incendia superare. Per overcame the fire of his tor- 

Dominum. ments. Through, <fcc. 

The August sun has set behind the Vatican, and 
the life and animation, which his burning heat had 
stilled for a time, begins once more upon the seven 
hills. Laurence was taken down from the rack about 
mid-day. In his prison, however, he took no rest, 
but wounded and bleeding as he was, he baptized the 
converts won to Christ by the sight of his courageous 
suffering. He confirmed their faith, and fired their 
souls with a martyr's intrepidity. When the evening 
hour summoned Rome to its pleasures, the prefect 
re-called the executioners to their work; for a few 
hours' rest had sufficiently restored their energy to 
enable them to satisfy his cruelty. 

Surrounded by this ill-favoured company, the pre- 
fect thus addressed the valiant deacon : " Sacrifice 
"to the gods, or else the whole night long shall be 
"witness of your torments." "My night has no 
" darkness," answered Laurence, " and all things are 
" full of light to me." They struck him on the mouth 
with Btones, but he smiled and said : " I give thee 
" thanks, O Christ" 

Then an iron bed or gridiron with three bars was 
brought'in and the Saint was stripped of his garments 
and extended upon it while burning coals were placed 
beneath it. As they were holding him down with 
iron forks, Laurence said : " I offer myself as a sacri- 
" fice to God for an odour of sweetness." The execu- 
tioners continually stirred up the fire and brought 

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fresh coals, while they still held him down with their 
forks. Then the Saint said : " Learn, unhappy man, 
" how great is the power of my God ; for your burning 
" coals give me refreshment, but they will be your 
" eternal punishment. I call thee, O Lord, to witness: 
" when I was accused, I did not deny thee ; when I 
" was questioned, I confessed thee, O Christ ; on the 
" red-hot coals I gave thee thanks." And with his 
countenance radiant with heavenly beauty, he con- 
tinued: "Yea, I give thee thanks, O Lord Jesus 
" Christ, for that thou hast deigned to strengthen me." 
He then raised his eyes to his judge, and said: "See, 
" this side is well roasted ; turn me on the other and 
" eat." Then continuing his canticle of praise to God: 
" I give thee thanks, O Lord, that I have merited to 
" enter into thy dwelling-place." 1 As he was on the 
point of death, he remembered the Church. The 
thought of the eternal Kome gave him fresh strength, 
and he breathed forth this ecstatic prayer: " O Christ, 
" only God, O Splendour, O Power of the Father, O 
" Maker of heaven and earth and builder of this city's 
" walls ! Thou hast placed Rome's sceptre high over 
" all ; thou hast willed to subject the world to it, in 
" order to unite under one law the nations which 
"differ in manners, customs, language, genius, and 
" sacrifice. Behold the whole human race has sub- 
" mitted to its empire, and all discord and dissensions 
"disappear in its unity. Remember thy purpose: 
"thou didst will to bind the immense universe 
" together into one Christian Kingdom. O Christ, 
" for the sake of thy Romans, make this city Chris- 
" tian ; for to it thou gavest the charge of leading all 
the rest to sacred unity. All its members in every 
" place are united, — a very type of thy Kingdom ; 
" the conquered universe has bowed before it Oh ! 

1 Adon. Martyrol. 

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" may its royal head be bowed in turn ! Send thy 
" Gabriel and bid him heal the blindness of the sons 
" of Jul us that they may know the true God. I see 
"a prince who is to come — an Emperor who is a 
" servant of God. He will not suffer Rome to remain 
" a slave ; he will close the temples and fasten them 
" with bolts for ever." 

Thus he prayed, and with these last words he 
breathed forth his soul. Some noble Romans who 
had been conquered to Christ by the martyr's admir- 
able boldness, removed his body: the love of the 
Most High God had suddenly filled their hearts and 
dispelled their former errors. From that day the 
worship of the infamous gods grew cold ; few people 
went now to the temples, but hastened to the 
altars of Christ. Thus Laurence, going unarmed 
to the battle, had wounded the enemy with his own 
sword. 1 

The Church, which is always grateful in proportion 
to the service rendered her, could not forget thi& 
glorious night. At the period when her children's 
piety vied with her own, she used to summon them 
together at sunset on the evening of the 9th August 
for a first Night-Office, At midnight the second 
Matins began, followed by the first Mass called " of 
"the night or of the ewrty morning." 2 Thus the 
Christians watched around the holy deacon during 
the hours of his glorious combat. " O God, thou hast 
" proved my heart, and visited it by night, thou hast 
" tried me by fire, and iniquity hath not been found 
" in me. Hear, O Lord, my justice ; attend to my 
"supplication." 3 Such is the grand Introit which 
immediately after the night vigils, hallowed the 
dawn of the 10th August, at the very moment when 

1 Prudent. 

2 De nocte, in primo mane: Sacramentar. Greg, apvd H. Menard, 

3 Introit, ex Ps. xvi. : Antiphona ctptid Tommasi. 

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Laurence entered the eternal sanctuary to fulfil his 
office at the heavenly altar. 

Later on certain churches observed on this feast a 
custom similar to one in use at the Matins of the 
commemoration of St. Paul ; it consisted in reciting 
a particular Versicle before repeating each Antiphon 
of the Nocturns. The Doctors of the sacred Liturgy 
tell us that the remarkable labours of the Doctor of 
the Gentiles and those of St. Laurence earned for 
them this distinction. 1 

Our forefathers were greatly struck by the con- 
trast between the endurance of the holy deacon 
under his cruel tortures and his tender-hearted, tear- 
ful parting with Sixtus II., three days before. On 
this account, they gave to the periodical showers of 
" falling stars/' which occur about the 10th August, 
the graceful name of St Laurence's tears : a touch- 
ing instance of that popular piety which delights in 
raising the heart to God through the medium of 
natural phenomena. 


The deacon has followed his Pontiff beyond the 
veil ; the faithful Levite is standing beside the ark 
of the eternal covenant. He now gazes on the 
splendour of that tabernacle not made with hands, 
feebly figured by that of Moses, and but partially 
revealed by the Church herself. 

And yet to-day, though still an exile, Mother 
Church thrills with a holy pride, for she has added 
something to the glory and the sanctity of heaven. 
She triumphantly advances to the altar on earth, 
which is one with that in heaven. Throughout the 
night she has had her eyes and her heart fixed on 

1 Beleth. cxlv. ; Sicard. ix., xxxix. ; Durand. vii., xxiii. 


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her noble son; and now she dares to sing of the 
beauty, the holiness, the magnificence of our father- 
land, as though they were already hers ; for the rays 
of eternal light seem to have fallen upon her as 
the veil lifted to admit Laurence into the Holy of 

The Introit and its verse are taken from Psalm xcv.: 


Confessio et pulchritudo Praise and beauty are be- 
in conspectu ejus: sancti- fore him: holiness and ma- 
tas et magnificentia in san- jesty in his sanctuary, 
ctificatione ejus. 

Ps. Cantate Domino can- Ps. Sing ye to the Lord a 

ticum novum : cantate Do- new canticle ; sing to the 

mino omnis terra. Gloria Lord all the earth, y . Glory, 

Patri. Confessio. <fec Praise. 

No doubt our weakness will not be called upon 
to endure the ordeal of a red-hot gridiron; never- 
theless, we are tried by flames of a different kind, 
which, if we do not extinguish them in this life, will 
feed the eternal fire of hell. The Church, therefore, 
asks on this feast of St. Laurence that we may be 
gifted with prudence and courage. 


Da nobis, qusesumus om- Grant us, we beseech thee, 

nipotens Deus : vitiorum Almighty God, to extinguish 

nostrorum flammas exstin- the names of our vices ; who 

guere ; qui beato Laurentio didst grant to blessed Lau- 

tribuisti tormentorum suo- rence to overcome the fire of 

rum incendia superare. Per his torments. Through our 

Dominum. Lord, &c 


Lectio Epistolae beati Pauli Lesson of the Epistle of St 
Apostoli ad Corinthios, Paul the Apostle to the 
IL Cap. ix. Corinthians, II. Ch. ix. 

Fratres, Qui parce semi- Brethren, he who soweth 

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sparingly, shall also reap 
sparingly ; and he who sow- 
eth in blessings, shall also 
reap of blessings. Every one 
as he has determined in his 
heart ; not with sadness, or 
of necessity; for God loveth 
a cheerful giver. And God is 
able to make all grace abound 
in you ; that ye, always hav- 
ing all sufficiency in all things, 
may abound to every good 
work, as it is written: He 
hath dispersed abroad; he 
hath given to the poor; his 
justice remaineth for ever. 
And he that ministereth seed 
to the sower, will both give 
you bread to eat and will 
multiply your seed, and in- 
crease the growth of the fruits 
of your justice. 

nat, parce et metet : et qui 
seminat in benedictionibus, 
de benedictionibus et me- 
tet. Unusquisque prout des- 
tinavit in corde suo, non 
ex tristitia, aut ex necessi- 
tate: hilarem enimdatorem 
diligit Deus. Potens est au- 
tem Deus oranem gratiam 
abundare facere in vobis: 
ut in omnibus semper om- 
nem sufficientiam haben- 
tes, abundetis in omne 
opus bonum, sicut scrip- 
turn est: Dispersit, dedit 
pauperibus : justitia ejus 
manet in speculum sseculL 
Qui autem administrat se- 
men seminanti: et panem 
ad manducandumpraestabit, 
et multiplicabit semen ves- 
trum, et augebit incrementa 
f rugum justitiae vestrae. 

He hath dispersed abroad, he hath given to the 
poor : his justice remaineth for ever. The Roman 
Church loves to repeat these words of Psalm cxi. in 
honour of her great archdeacon. Yesterday she 
sang them in the Introit and Gradual of the Vigil ; 
again they were heard last night in the Responsories, 
and this morning in the Versicle of her triumphant 
Lauds. Indeed, the Epistle we have just read, which 
also furnishes the Little Chapters for the several 
Hours, was selected for to-day because of this same 
text being therein quoted by the Apostle. Evidently 
the choice graces which won for Laurence his glorious 
martyrdom were, in the Church's estimation, the 
outcome of the brave and cheerful fidelity wherewith 
he distributed to the poor the treasures in his keep- 
ing. He who soweth sparingly, shall also reap 
.sparingly ; and he who soweth in blessings, shall 

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also reap of blessings; such is the supernatural 
economy of the Holy Ghost in the distribution of his 
gifts, as exemplified in the glorious scenes we have 
witnessed during these three days. 

We may add with the Apostle : What touches the 
heart of God, and moves him to multiply his favours r 
is not so much the work itself as the spirit that 
prompts it. God loveth a cheerful giver. Noble- 
hearted, tender, devoted, and self-forgetful, heroic 
with a heroism born of simplicity no less than of 
courage, gracious and smiling even on his gridiron : 
such was Laurence towards God, towards his father 
Sixtus II., towards the lowly; and the same he was 
towards the powerful and in the very face of death. 
The closing of his life did but prove that he was as 
faithful in great things as he had been in small. 
Seldom are nature and grace so perfectly in harmony 
as they were in the young deacon, and though the 
gift of martyrdom is so great that no one can merit 
it, yet his particularly glorious martyrdom seems to 
have been the development, as if by natural evolu- 
tion, of the precious germs planted by the Holy 
Ghost in the rich soil of his noble nature. 

The words of Psalm xvi., which formerly com- 
posed the Introit of the Mass of the night, are re- 
peated in the Gradual of the morning Mass. The 
Alleluia Verse reminds us of the miracles wrought 
by St. Laurence upon the blind ; let us ask him to 
cure our spiritual blindness, which is more terrible 
than that of the body. 


Probasti, Domine, cor Thou hast proved my heart, 
meum, et visitasti nocte. O Lord, and visited it by 


y. Igne me examinasti, p. Thou hast tried me by 
et non est inventa in me fire, and iniquity hath not 
iniquitas. been found in me. 

Alleluia, alleluia. Alleluia, alleluia. 

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ft. The Levite Laurence 
wrought a good work, who 
gave sight to the blind by the 
sign of the cross. Alleluia. 

Levita Laurentius bo- 
num opus operatus est : qui 
per signum crucis caecos ll- 
luminavit Alleluia. 

Sequel of the Holy Gospel 
according to John. Ch. xii. 

At that time : Jeaus said to 
his disciples : Amen, amen, I 
say to you, unless the grain 
of wheat falling into the 
ground die, itself remaineth 
alone • but if it die, it bring- 
eth forth much fruit He 
that loveth his life, shall lose 
it ; and he that hateth his 
life in this world, keepeth it 
unto life eternal. If any man 
minister to me, let him follow 
me; and where I am, there 
also shall my minister be. If 
any man minister to me, him 
will my Father honour. 

Sequentia sancti Evangelii 
secundum Johannem. 
Cap. xii. 

In illo tempore: Dixit 
J esus discipulis suis: Amen, 
amen dico vobis, nisi gra- 
num frumenti cadens in 
terrain, mortuum f uerit, ip- 
sum solum manet: si au- 
tem mortuum fuerit, mul- 
tum fructum affert. Qui 
amat animam suam, perdet 
earn; et qui odit animam 
suam in hoc mundo, in vi- 
tam seternam custodit earn. 
Si quis mihi ministrat, me 
sequatur: et ubi sum ego, 
illic et minister meus erit 
Si quis mihi ministraverit, 
honorificabit eum Pater 

The Gospel we have just read was thus com- 
mented by St Augustine on this very feast : " Your 
" faith recognises the grain that fell into the earth, 
"and, having died, was multiplied. Your faith, I 
" say, recognises this grain, for the same d welleth in 
" your souls." That it was concerning himself Christ 
spake these words no Christian doubts. But now 
that that seed is dead and has been multiplied, many 
grains have been sown in the earth ; among them is 
the blessed Laurence, and this is the day of his 
sowing. What an abundant harvest has sprung from 
these grains scattered over all the earth ! We see it, 
we rejoice in it, nay, we ourselves are the harvest ; 

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if so be, by his grace, we belong to the granary. For 
not all that grows in the field belongs to the granary. 
The same useful, nourishing rain feeds both the 
wheat and the chaff. God forbid that both should 
be laid up together in the granary; although they 
grew together in the field, and were threshed to- 
gether in the threshing floor. 

Now is the time to choose. Let us now, before 
the winnowiDg, separate ourselves from the wicked 
by our manner of life, as in the floor the grain is 
threshed out of the chaff, though not yet separated 
from it by the final winnowing. Hear me, ye holy 
grains, who, I doubt not, are here ; for if I doubted, 
I should not be a grain myself : hear me, I say ; or 
rather, hear that first grain speaking by me. Love 
not your life in this world : love it not if you truly 
love it, so that by not loving you may preserve it ; 
for by not loving, you love the more. He that loveth 
his life in this world, shall lose it} 

Thus because Laurence was as an enemy to 
himself and lost his life in this world, he found it in 
the next. Being a minister of Christ by his very 
title, for deacon means minister, he followed the 
Man-God, as the Gospel exhorts; he followed him 
to the altar, and to the altar of the Cross. Having 
fallen with him into the earth, he has been multi- 

Elied in him. Though separated from St. Laurence 
y distance of time and place, yet we are, ourselves, 
as the Bishop of Hippo teaches, a part of the harvest 
that is ever springing from him. Let this thought 
excite us to gratitude towards the holy deacon ; and 
let us all the more eagerly unite our homage with 
tbe honour bestowed on him by our heavenly Father, 
for having ministered to his Son. 

The Offertory repeats the words of the Introit to 

1 Aug. Sermo cccv., a/, xxvi., in Nat. S. Laurent. 

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a different melody ; it is earth's echo to the music of 
heaven. The. beauty and sanctity that so magnifi- 
cently enhance the worship of praise around the 
eternal altar ought to shine by faith in the souls of 
the Church's ministers, as the Angels beheld them 
shining in Laurence's soul while he was still on 


Praise and beauty are before Conf essio et pulchritudo 
him: holiness and majesty are in conspectu ejus : sanctitas 
in his sanctuary. et magnificentia in aanctifi- 

catione ejus. 

At this point of the Mysteries it was once 
Laurence's duty to present the offerings ; the Church, 
while now presenting them, claims the suffrage of 
his merits. 


Graciously accept the offer- Accipe,qusesumusDomine, 
ings made to thee, O Lord, we munera dignanter oblata, 
beseech thee ; ana the merits et beati Laurentii suffra- 
of blessed Laurence thy mar- gantibus meritis, ad nostrae 
tyr, pleading for us, grant salutis auxilium provenire 
them to become a help to our concede. Per Dominum. 
salvation. Through, &c 

Laurence worthily fulfilled his august ministry at 
the Table of his Lord; and he, to whom he thus 
devoted himself, keeps his promise made in the 
Gospel, by calling him to live for ever where he is 


If any man minister to me, Qui niibi ministrat, me 
let him follow me: and where sequatur : et ubi ego sum, 
I am, there also shall my illic et minister meus erit 
minister be. 

After feasting at the sacred banquet of which 

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Laurence was once the dispenser, we beg that the 
homage of our own service may draw down upon us, 
through his intercession, an increase of grace. 


Sacro nmnere s&tiati, sup- Replenished with thy sacred 

plices te, Domine, depre- gifts, we suppliantly beseech 

camur: ut, quod debitse thee, O Lord, that what we 

servitutis celebramus officio, celebrate with due service, by 

intercedente beato Lauren- the intercession of blessed 

tio Martyre tuo, palvationis Laurence, tby martyr, we may 

tua sentiamus augmentum. perceive to contribute towards 

Per Dominum. our salvation. Through our 

Lord, &c 


This morning, as soon as Laurence had given up 
his brave soul to his Creator, his body was taken, 
like precious gold from the crucible, and wrapt in 
linen cloths with sweet spices. As in the case of 
Stephen the protomartyr, and of Jesus the Bang of 
martyrs, so now, too, noble persons vied with each 
other in paying honour to the sacred remains. In 
the evening of the 10th August, 1 the noble converts 
mentioned by Prudentius bowed their heads beneath 
the venerable burden; and followed by a great 
company of mourners, they carried him along the 
Tiburtian Way, and buried him in the cemetery of 
Cyriacus. The Church on earth mourned for her 
illustrious son; but the Church in heaven was 
already overflowing with joy, and each anniversary 
of the glorious triumph was to give fresh gladness to 
the world. 

The Office of Second Vespers is the same as that 

1 Adon. Martyrolog. 

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of the First, except for the last Psalm, the Versicle, 
and the Magnificat Antiphon. This Psalm, which 
the Church sings for all her Martyrs, is the 115th. 
It admirably expresses Laurence's exulting gratitude: 
his confession of faith was the cause of his triumph 
over suffering and over snares; he filled with his 
own blood the chalice committed to his cq,re, thus 
proving himself a true deacon, a minister of God's 
altar, and a son of the Church, the handmaid of the 
Lord. And now that his bonds are broken, he has 
begun his everlasting service in the company of the 
Saints, in the midst of thee, 0 Jerusalem. 

psalm 115. 

I have believed, therefore Credidi, propter quod lo- 

have I spoken: but I have cutus sum: * ego autem 

been humbled exceedingly. humiliatus sum nimis. 

I said in my excess : Every Ego dixi in excessu meo : 

man is a liar. * Omnis homo mendax. 

What shall I render unto Quid retribuam Domino : 

the Lord, for all the things * pro omnibus quad retribuit 

that he hath rendered unto mihif 

I will take the chalice of Calicem salutaris acci- 

salvation, and I will call upon piam : * et Nomen Domini 

the Name of the Lord. mvocabo. 

I will pay my vows to the Votamea Domino reddam 

Lord before all his people ; coram omni populo ejus : * 

Erecious in the sight of the pretiosa in conspectu Do- 

iord is the death of his saints, mini mors sanctorum ejus. 

0 Lord, for I am thy ser- O Domine, quia ego ser- 
vant : I am thy servant, and vus tuns : * ego servus tuus, 
the son of thy handmaid. et filius ancillse tuaa. 

Thou hast broken my bonds : Dirupisti vincula mea : * 

I will sacrifice unto thee the tibi sacrificabo hostiam 

sacrifice of praise, and 1 will laudis, et Nomen Domini 

call upon the Name of the inrocabo. 

1 will pay my vows to the Votamea Domino reddam 
Lord in the sight of all his in conspectu omnis populi 
people: in the courts of the ejus: * in atriis aomus 

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Domini, in medio tui, Jeru- house of the Lord, in the 
salem. midst of thee, O Jerusalem. 

. After the Hymn the following versicle is sung, and 
then the Magnificat Antiphon : 

"ff. Levita Laurentius bo- J^. The Levite Laurence 

num odus operatus est. wrought a good work. 

1$. Qui per signum cru- Who gave sight to the 

cis caecos illuminavit. blind by the sign of the cross. 


Beatus Laurentius dum While blessed Laurence was 
in craticula superpositus burning, stretched upon the 
ureretur, ad impiissimum gridiron, he said to the wicked 
tyrannum dixit: Assatum tyrant: I am now roasted, 
est jam, versa, et manduca : turn and eat : as to the goods 
nam facultates Ecclesiae, of the Church which thou 
quas requiris, in coelestes demandest, the hands of the 
thesauros manus pauperum poor have already conveyed 
deportaverunt. them into the heavenly trea- 


After the Collect of the Feast a commemoration 
is made of two holy Martyrs, whose passion occurs 

Commemoration of Ss. Tiburtius and Susanna. 

Ant. Istorum est enim Ant. Theirs is the kingdom 

regnum ccelorum, qui con- of heaven, who despising an 

tempserunt vitam mundi, earthly life, have obtained 

et pervenerunt ad praemia heavenly rewards, and washed 

regni, et laverunt stolas suas their robes in the blood of the 

in sanguine Agni. Lamb. 

^. Lsetamini in Domino, J. Be glad in the Lord and 

et exsultate justi. rejoice ye just. 

]$. Et gloriamini omnes IJ. And glory all ye right 

recti corde. of heart. 


Sanctorum Martyrum tuo- May the constant protection 

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of thy holy martyrs, Tiburtius 
and Susanna, support us, O 
Lord ; for thou never ceasest 
mercifully to regard those 
whom thou grantest to be as- 
sisted by such helps. Through, 

rum Tiburtii et Susannae 
nos, Domine, foveant con- 
tinuata presidia : quia non 
desinis propitius intueri, 
^uos talibus auxiliis conces- 
seris adjuvari. Per Domi- 

The Greeks in their Menaea echo the homage paid 
by the West to the conqueror. 

In Matutino. 

The deacon of the Word, 
adorned with the beauty of 
the Word, freely lays down 
his life for love of the Word, 
and justly now he reigneth 
with the Word, inebriated 
with his joy and glory. 

Strengthened with the ar- 
mour of truth and of piety 
against the wicked contradic- 
tions of the erring, thou by 
thy faith and thy wise words 
hast destroyed for ever the 
stronghold of falsehood. 

With thine eyes fixed, O 
Laurence, on the beauty of 
God, thou didst contemn alike 
the flatteries of the world and 
its torments, O hero, worthy 
of admiration ! 

Christ, the true deacon who 
dispenses to us the gifts of 
the Father, had revealed him- 
self to thee ; and thou, long- 
ing to be his own deacon, 
didst go to him by the path 
of love, O thou who art truly 
to be envied ! 

Like an auspicious sun, 
rising in the West by a pro- 

Diaconus Verbi, Verbo 
decorus, vitam amore Verbi 
sponte litat, et cum Verbo 
jure nunc regnat, ipsius lse- 
titia gloriaque inebriatus. 

Contra errantium impias 
redargutiones, veritatis pie- 
tatisque armatura firmatus, 
falsitatis munimentum fide 
tua dictisque ex sententia 
evertisti in finem. 

In Dei pulchritudine, 
Laurenti, fixus oculos, ter- 
ra blanditias necnon et cru- 
ciatus contempsisti, o admi- 

Christus quum diaconus 
seu minister nobis donorum 
quae sunt ex Patre tibi in- 
notuisset, diaconus illius et 
ipse fieri cupiens, per san- 
guinem ad ipsum commi- 
grasti, o invidende. 

Tamquam sol felix ab 
Occidente oriens, stupen- 

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dam et admirabile valde, digy exceeding wonderful, 
universam coruscationibus thou hast enlightened the 
illustrasti Ecclesiam, o ad- whole Church with thy bril- 
mirande, cunctique ardore liant light, O admirable mar- 
fidei tu8B calefacti sunt : tyr, and all mankind have re- 
ideo te omnes glorificamus. ceived warmth from the ar- 
dour of thy faith: therefore 
do we all glorify thee. 

Let us seek from the ancient Liturgies their tri- 
bute of praise to the holy Martyr. The Leonian 
Sacramentary offers us this Preface, which in its 
noble brevity expresses in all their freshness the 
feelings of the Church towards her glorious son: 
u Perfectis gaudiis expleatwr oblatio . . . Gratias 
4< tibi, Domine, quoniam sanctum Lawrentium 
" Martyrem tuvm % te vn&pira/nte diligimus : May 
u our offering be made with perfect joy . • . We give 
4< thanks to thee, O Lord, that, by thy inspiration, we 
"love thy holy Martyr Laurence." Such is the 
character of the formulae which precede and follow, 
in the Holy Sacrifice, the words we here give : 


Vers dignum. Tuam mi- It is truly right and just 
sericordiam deprecantes, ut to glorify thee, O God, be- 
mentibus nostris beati Lau- seeching thy mercy, that thou 
rentii Martyris tui tribuas wouldst ever bestow upon our 
jugiter suavitatem, qua et souls the sweetness of thy 
nos amemus ejus meritum blessed Martyr Laurence, 
passionis, et mdulgentiam whereby we may love the re- 
nobis semper iidelis ille ward of his passion, and he, 
Patronus obtineat as an ever-faithful patron, 

may obtain pardon for us. 

The so-called Gothic Missal, which represents, as 
we know, the Liturgy of the Churches of France 
before Pepin and Charlemagne, is to-day in full 
harmony with the sentiments of the Mother Church. 

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O God, the Saviour and 
guide of thy faithful, Al- 
mighty, eternal God, be pro- 
pitious to our prayers on this 
day of solemnity, and loving- 
ly favour the joys conceived 
by the Church for the glori- 
ous passion of thy blessed 
Martyr Laurence: may the 
faith of all be increased by 
the appearance of such great 
virtue; and may the hearts 
of all who rejoice be kindled 
by the suffering of the mar- 
tyrs : that in presence of thy 
mercy we may be aided by his 
merit, at whose example we 
exult . Through our Lord, <fcc. 

Deus, fidelium tuorum 
Salvator et rector, omnipo- 
tens sempiterne Deus, ad- 
esto votis solemnitatis hodi- 
ernae ; et Ecclesiae gaudiis 
de gloriosa Martyris tui pas- 
sione beati Lauren ti con- 
cepts, benignus adspira : 
augeatur omnium fides tan- 
tse virtutis ortu ; et corda 
laetantium supplicio Mar- 
tyrum igniantur: ut apud 
misericordiam tuam illius 
juvemur merit o, cujus ex- 
sultatnus exemplo. Per 


It is truly right and just, 
O Almighty, eternal God, to 
offer, on the solemnity of the 
great Martyr Laurence, sacri- 
fices of praise to thee: who 
this day, by the ministry of 
the same Martyr Laurence, 
thy blessed Levite, didst re- 
ceive as a living holocaust the 
flower of his chaste body. We 
have heard his voice, attuned 
to the harmony of the melo- 
dious Psalm, singing and say- 
ing : " Thou hast proved my 
" heart, O God, and visited it 
"by night, that is, iu the 
" darkness of this world ; thou 
"hast tried me by fire, and 
44 iniquity hath not been found 
"in me. O glorious valour 
in the strife! O unshaken 
constancy of the confessor! 
His limbs are stretched and 

„ Vere dignum et justum 
est, omnipotens sempiterne 
Deus, tibi in tanti Martyris 
Laurenti laudis hostias : im- 
molare : qui hostiam viven- 
tem hodie in ipsius Levitae 
tui beati Laurenti Martyris 
ministerio per florem casti 
corporis accepisti. Cujus 
vocem per hymnidicum mo- 
dolamini Psalmi audivimus 
canentis atque dicentis : 
Probasti cor meum, Deus, 
et visitasti noctem, id est in 
tenebris saeculi: igne me 
examinasti ; et non est in- 
venta in me iniquitas. O 
gloriosa certaminis virtus ! 
o inconcussa constantia con- 
fitentis! Stridunt membra 
viventis super craticulum 
imposita, et prunis saevien- 
tibus anhelantis, incensum 

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suum in modnm thymiama- 
tis divinis naribus exhibent 
odorem. Dicit enim Mar- 
tyr ipse cum Paulo : Christi 
bonus odor sumus Deo. Non 
enim cogitabat quomodo in 
terra positus, a passionis 
periculo liberaretur, sed 
quomodo inter Martyres 
in ccelis coronaretur. Per 

hiss upon the gridiron, while 
yet he lives, and gasping, 
breathes the fiery heat of the 
burning coals ; and they send 
up their smoke like incense, 
a sweet odour to God. For 
the Martyr himself said with 
Paul: "We are the good odour 
" of Christ to God." For he 
thought not how on earth he 
might escape the danger of 
suffering, but how in heaven 
he would be crowned among 
the martyrs. Through Christ 
our Lord, && 

From the Mozarabic Liturgy we will take but one 
prayer for to-day : 


Domine Jesu Christe, qui 
beatissimum Laurentium 
igne charitatis tuse arden- 
tem, et cupiditatum et pas- 
sionum incendia f ecisti evin- 
cere: dum et aurum calcat 
et flammam, et in pauperum 
erogationem munificus et in 
combustionem suis corporis 
reperitur devotus ; da nobis 
obtentu suffragii illius, ut 
vapore Spiritug Sancti ac- 
censi flammas superemus 
libidinis, et igne concreme- 
mur omnimodae sanctitatis : 
quo inter Sanctos illos sors 
nostra inveniatur post tran- 
situm, pro quibus nunc tibi 
dependimus famulatum. 

O Lord Jesus Christ, who 
didst enable the most blessed 
Laurence, burning with the 
fire of thy charity, to overcome 
the heat both of passions and 
of sufferings : for he trampled 
alike both on gold and the fire, 
and was found liberal in giv- 
ing to the poor, and faithful 
in the burning of his body; 
grant us, through his interces- 
sion, that being kindled by the 
breath of the Holy Spirit, we 
may overcome the names of 
concupiscence and may be 
consumed by the fire of all 
sanctity: so that after our 
passage through this life, our 
lot may be found among those 
saints for whom we now offer 
thee our homage. 

Adam of St. Victor shall crown the day with one 
of his admirable sequences : 

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Let us admire Laurence laid 
upon hot coals: let us with 
praises honour the laurel- 
crowned: let us reverence 
with trembling, and beseech 
with love, this illustrious 

Being accused, he did not 
deny ; but being struck he 
answered back with a long- 
sounding trumpet, when in 
his wished-for sufferings he 
exulted and sounded forth the 
divine praises. 

As the musical chord struck 
with the plectrum gives forth 
its loud melody, so he, stretch- 
ed on the lyre of the torture, 
sounded the strain of the con- 
fessors of Christ. 

See,0 Decius, how he stands 
invincible in faith, amid the 
blows, and threats, and flames: 
hope within, and a voice from 
above, console him and exhort 
him to constancy. 

For the treasures which thou 
seekest are not gotten to thee 
by the torments, but to Lau- 
rence. He gathers them in 

Prunis datum 



Laudibus Laurentium ; 


Cum tremore, 


Cum amore 
Martyrem egregium. 


Non negavit ; 

Sed pulsatus 

In tubis ductilibus, 

Cum in pcenis 

Voto plenis 


Et sonaret 
In divinis laudibus. 

Sicut chorda musicorum 
Tandem sonum dat sonorum 

Plectri ministerio ; 
Sic, in chely tormentorum, 
Melos Christi confessorum 

Dedit hujus tensio. 

Deci, vide 

Quia fide 

Stat invictu 

Inter ictus, 
Minas et incendia : 

Spes interna, 

Vox superna 


Et hortantur 
Virum de constantia. 

Nam thesauros quos exqui- 

Per tormenta non acquiris 
Tibi, sed Laurentio. 

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Hos in Christo coacervat, 
Hujus pugna Christus ser~ 

Triumphantis praemio. 

Nescit sancti nox obscurum, 
Ut in pcenis quid impurum 

Fide tractet dubia ; 
Neque csecis lumen daret, 
Si non eum radiaret 

Luminis prsesentia. 

Christ, and for his combat 
Christ keeps them for him as 
the reward of his triumph. 

Fidei confessio 
Lucet in Laurentio : 
Non ponit sub modio, 
Statuit in medio 
Lumen coram omnibus. 
Juvat Dei famulum 
Crucis suae bajulum, 
Assum quasi ferculum, 
Fieri spectaculum 
Angelis et gentibus. 

Non abhorret prunis volvi, 
Qui de carne cupit solvi 

Et cum Christo vivere, 
Neque timet occidentes 
Corpus, sed non praevalentes 

Animam occidere. 

Sicut vasa figulorum 
Probat fornax, et eorum 

Solidat substantiam, 
Sic et ignis hunc assatum 
Velut testam solidatum 
Eeddit per constantiam. 

Nam cum vetus corrumpa- 

Alter homo renovatur 
- Veteris incendio ; 
Unde nimis confortatus 
Est athletse principatus 
In Dei servitio. 

To the holy one the night 
knows no darkness, nor in his 
sufferings is he defiled by 
wavering faith ; for he could 
not have given light to the 
blind, had not the light been 
present shining upon him. 

The confession of faith 
shines bright in Laurence: he 
hides not the light beneath a 
bushel, but sets it in the midst 
before all. It is pleasant to 
the servant of God, the bearer 
of his Cross, to .be roasted as 
food, to be made a spectacle 
to Angels and to the nations. 

He shrinks not from being 
turned upon the coals, who 
desires to be delivered from 
the flesh, and to live with 
Christ; nor fears he them 
that slay the body, but are not 
able to hurt the souk 

As the furnace proves the 
potter's vessels, and hardens- 
their substance, so does the 
fire, roasting him, make him 
firm by constancy like the 
fired clay. 

For when the old man is 
destroyed, the other is renewed 
in the burning of the old ; 
hence the power of the com- 
batant is exceedingly strength- 
ened in the service of God. 

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Through the strength of his 
love and his zeal for Justice 
he deems this outward heat 
bat dew ; the fire that burns 
but not consumes, outdoes thy 
heaped-up coals, O impious 

Thou knowest not the vir- 
tue of the mustard-seed, un- 
less thou touch it, unless thou 
crush it; and more fragrant 
is the incense when it smokes 
upon the fire; even so, the 
martyr, oppressed and burned 
with suffering and with heat, 
exhales more fully the fra- 
grance of his virtue. 

O Laurence exceedingly 
honourable, having conquered 
a king, thou hast become an 
eminent king, thou, brave sol- 
dier of the King of kings, who 
didst make small account of 
sufferings when fighting for 
Justice ; thou who didst over- 
come so many evils by con- 
templating the good things of 
Christ, make us by the grace 
of thy merits, spurn evil and 
rejoice in good. 


Hunc ardorem 

Factum foris 

Putat rorem 

Vis amoris 
Et zelus Justitiae ; 

Ignis urens, 

Non comburens, 

Vincit nrunas 

Quas aaunas, 
O minister impie. 

Parum sapis 

Vim sinapis, 

Si non tangis, 

Si non frangis ; 

Et plus f ragrat 

Quando flagrat 
Thus injectum ignibus. 

Sic arctatus 

Et assatus, 

Sub labore, 

Sub ardore, 

Dat odoreni 

Martyr de virtutibus. 

O Laurenti, laute nimis, 
Rege victo rex sublimis, 
Regis regum fortis miles, 
Qui duxisti poenas viles 

Certans pro Justitia; 
Qui tot mala devicisti 
Contemplando bona Christi , 
Fac nos malis insultare, 
Fac de bonis exsultare 

Meritorum gratia. 


" Thrice blessed are the Roman people, for they 
"honour thee on the very spot where thy sacred 
"bones repose! They prostrate in thy sanctuary, 

PENT. IV. 2 A 

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" and watering the ground with their tears they pour 
" out their vows. We who are distant from Rome, 
" separated by Alps and Pyrenees, how can we even 
"imagine what treasures she possesses, or how 
" rich is her earth in sacred tombs ? We have not 
" her privileges, we cannot trace the martyrs' bloody 
" footsteps ; but from afar we gaze on the heavens. 
" O holy Laurence ! it is there we seek the memorial 
"of thy passion; for thou hast two dwelling-places, 
" that of thy body on earth and that of thy soul in 
" heaven. In the ineffable heavenly city thou hast 
"been received to citizenship, and the civic crown 
" adorns thy brow in its eternal Senate. So brightly 
" shine thy jewels that it seemeth the heavenly Rome 
" hath chosen thee perpetual Consul. The joy of the 
"Quirites proves how great is thine office, thine 
"influence, and thy power, for thou grantest their 
" requests. Thou nearest all who pray to thee, they 
" ask what they will and none ever goes away sad. 

" Ever assist thy children of the queen city ; give 
" them the strong support of thy fatherly love, and a 
" mother's tender, fostering care. Together with them, 
" 0 thou honour of Christ, listen to thy humble client 
" confessing his misery and sins. I acknowledge that 
" I am not worthy that Christ should hear me ; but 
" through the patronage of the holy Martyrs, my evils 
" can be remedied. Hearken to thy suppliant ; in thy 
" goodness free me from the fetters of the flesh and of 
" the world." 1 

1 Prudent. 

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August 11. 




Laurence is followed to-day by the son of Chro- 
matins, prefect of Rome, Tiburtius, who also suffered 
upon burning coals for the confession of his faith. 
Though forty years intervened between the two 
martyrdoms, it was the same Holy Spirit that 
animated these witnesses of Christ and suggested 
to them the same answer to their executioners. 
Tiburtius, walking upon the fire, cried out : " Learn 
" that the God of the Christians is the only God, for 
" these hot coals seem flowers to me." 

Equally near to the great Archdeacon stands an 
illustrious virgin, so bright herself as not to be 
eclipsed by him. A relative of both the Emperor 
Diocletian and the holy Pope Caius, Susanna, it is 
said, one day beheld the imperial crown at her feet. 
But she obtained a far greater nobility; for, by 
preferring the wreath of virginity, she won at the 
same time the palm of martyrdom. 

Now, as St. Leo remarks, on the glorious solemnity 
whose Octave we are keeping, if no one is good for 
himself alone, if the favours of Divine Wisdom 

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profit not only the recipient, then, no one is more 
wise than the martyr, no eloquence can instruct the 
people so well as his. It is by this excellent manner 
of teaching that, as the Church tells us to-day, 
"Laurence enlightened the whole world with the 
" light of his fire, and by the flames which he endured 
"he warmed the hearts of all Christians. By the 
" example of his martyrdom, faith is enkindled and 
" devotion fostered in our souls. The persecutor lays 
" no hot coals for me, but he sets me on fire with 
" desire of my Saviour." 1 If, moreover, and it is not 
mere theory to repeat it in our days, if, as St. 
Augustine remarks, " circumstances place a man in 
" the alternative of transgressing a divine precept or 
"losing his life, he too must know how to die for 
" the love of God, rather than live at enmity with 
"him." 2 Morality does not change, neither does 
the justice of God, who in all ages rewards the 
faithful, as in ail ages be chastises cowards. 

The Mozarabic Missal eloquently expresses the 
grandeur of St. Laurence's martyrdom in this beauti- 
ful formula which precedes the Consecration on the 
day of his feast. 


Hosanna in excelsis : vere Hosanna in the highest. It 

dignum et justum est, omni is truly meet and just, at all 

quidem tempore, sed praeci- times, but especially in honour 

pue in honorem Sanctorum of thy saints, to return thanks 

tuorum, nos tibi gratias, to thee, O God, co-eternal 

consempiterna Trinitas et Trinity, consubstantial and 

consubstantialis et co-opera- co-operatrix of all good things, 

trix omnium bonorum Deus, and to offer sacrifices of praise 

et pro beatissimi Martyris on this illustrious day of thy 

tui Lauren tii celeberrimo die, most blessed martyr Laurence, 

laudum hostias immolare. The glorious triumph of whose 

Cujus gloriosum passionis passion brought round again 

triumphum, anni circulo re- by the circle of the year, the 

volutum, Ecclesia tua laBta Church doth joyfully cele- 

1 p8eudo*Ava. Sermo 30 de Sanctis. 2 Aug. Tract, in Joan. 51. 

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brate : for in teaching he was 
nearly equal to thine Apostles ; 
but in the confession of his 
Lord not unequal. He adorned 
the snow-white robe of the 
Levite with the purple of the 
blood of martyrdom: thou 
didst so inflame his heart with 
thy fire which thou earnest to 
cast on the earth, that he felt 
not the visible fire; by the 
strong purpose of his mind he 
overcame the flames that sur- 
rounded his body ; and strong 
in faith, feared not the burn- 
ing coal. 

Placed upon the gridiron, 
thy chaste minister offered 
himself a new sacrifice to 
thee: and burnt as a holo- 
caust upon the altar, sent up 
a sweet savour to the Lord. 
There the incomparable Mar- 
tyr, while his heart and bowels 
and the marrow of his bones 
were melting away, suffered 
his limbs to be roasted, with 
invincible virtue of patience. 
There stretched out he lay 
hanging over the fire: crude 
impiety broiled the holocaust 
of piety, and inhaled the hot 
vapours from the liquefying 
members. Thy minister laid 
his own body on the altar, a 
new kind of sacrifice to be 
celebrated. The praiseworthy 
Levite was to himself both 
pontiff and victim. And he 
who had been a minister at 
the offering of the Lord's 
Body, in offering himself per- 
formed the office of priest. 

> SUSANNA, MM. 359 

concelebrat: Apostolis qui- 
dem tuis in doctrina sup- 
parem : sed in Domini con- 
fessione non imparem. Qui 
niveam iliam stolam Levi- 
ticam, martyrii cruore pur- 
pureo decora vit : cujus cor 
in igne tuo, quern veneras 
mittere super terram, ita 
flammasti: ut ignem istum 
visibilem non sentiret: et 
appositas corpori flammas 
mentis ihtentione superaret : 
ardentemque globum fide 
validus non timeret. 

Quique craticulae super- 
positus, novum sacrificium 
tibi semetipsum castus mi- 
nister exhibuit: et veluti 
super aram holocausti more 
decoctus, saporem Domino 
suavitatis ingessit. In quo 
incomparabihs Martyr prae- 
cordiis pariter ac visceribus 
medullisque liquescentibus 
desudavit, ac defluentia 
membra torreri invicta vir- 
tute patientise toleravit. In 
quo extensus ac desuper 
fixus, subjectis jacuit ac 
pependit incendiis : et holo- 
caustum pietatis cruda coxit 
impietas: quae sudorem li- 
quescentium viscerum bi- 
bulis vaporibus suscepit. 
Supra quam velut super 
altare corpus suum, novi 

Veneris sacrificium celebran- 
um minister imposuit: et 
Levita praedicandus ipse 
sibi Pontifex et hostia fuit. 
Et qui fuerat minister Do- 
minici corporis, in offerendo 
semetipsum officio functus 
est sacerdotio. 

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Tuam igitur Domine in 
eo virtutem, tuamque po- 
tentiam prgedicamus. Nam 
quis crederet corpus fragili 
compage conglutinatum,tan- 
tis sine te sufficere conflicti- 
bus potuisse? quis incen- 
diorum sestibus humana 
aestimaret membra non ce- 
dere : nisi flagrantior a te 
veniens interiorem hominem 
Jampas animasset : cujus 
potentia factum est, ut laeta 
rore suo anima, coctione 

Sroprii corporis exsultaret: 
urn versari se Martyr prse- 
cipit, et vorari : ne et para- 
tam coronam uno moriendi 
genere sequeretur: et sic 
lenitate cruciatuum vitalis 
tardaret interitus, non exis- 
teret gloriosus coronatus. 
Per te Dominum qui es 
Salvator omnium et Re- 
demptor animarum. 


It is therefore, O Lord, thy 
power and thy might that we 
raise in him. For who would 
elieve that a body formed of 
fragile structure could, with- 
out thee, endure such tor- 
ments? Who would not think 
that human members would 
yield before the heat of the 
fire, had not a fiercer flame, 
coming from thee, fired the 
interior man 1 By thy power 
it was, that the soul, rejoiced 
with spiritual dew, exulted at 
the broiling of its own body : 
the Martyr bade them turn 
him and devour him : lest he 
should obtain the crown by 
only one death ; and thus, 
the mildness of the torments 
should retard life- givingdeath, 
andhe should be less gloriously 
crowned. Through thee, our 
Lord, who art the Saviour and 
Redeemer of all souls. 

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August 42. 


The same year in which St. Dominic, before making 
any project with regard to his sons, founded the first 
establishment of the Sisters of his Order, the com- 
panion destined for him by heaven received his 
mission from the Crucifix in the church of St. 
Damian, in these words: "Go, Francis, repair my 
"house which is falling to ruin." The new patriarch 
inaugurated his work, as Dominic had done, by 
preparing a dwelling for his future daughters, whose 
sacrifice might obtain every grace for the great 
Order he was about to found. The house of the 
Poor Ladies occupied the thoughts of the seraph of 
Assisi, even before St. Mary of the Portiuncula, the 
cradle of the Friars Minor. Thus, for a second 
time this month, Eternal Wisdom shows us that the 
fruit of salvation, though it may seem to proceed 
from the word and from action, springs first from 
silent contemplation. 

Clare was to Francis the help like unto himself, 
who begot to the Lord that multitude of heroic 
virgins and illustrious penitents soon reckoned by 
the Order in all lands, coming from the humblest 
condition and from the steps of the throne. In the 
new chivalry of Christ, Poverty, the chosen Lady of 
St. Francis, was to be the queen also of her whom 

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God had given him as a rival and a daughter. Follow- 
ing to the utmost limits the Man-God humbled and 
stripped of all things for us, she nevertheless felt 
that she and her sisters were already queens in the 
kingdom of heaven : l "In the little nest of poverty," 
she used lovingly to say, "what jewel could the 
"bride esteem so much as conformity with a God 
" possessing nothing, become a little One whom the 
"poorest of mothers wrapt in humble swathing bands 
"and laid in a narrow crib?" 2 And she bravely 
defended against the highest authorities the privilege 
of absolute poverty, which the great Pope Innocent 
III. feared to grant. Its definitive confirmation, 
obtained two days before the Saint's death, came 
as the long-desired reward of forty years of prayer 
and suffering for the Church of God. 

This noble daughter of Assisi had justified the 
prophecy, whereby sixty years previously, her mother 
Hortulana had learnt that the child would enlighten 
the world; the choice of the name given her at her 
birth had been well inspired. 8 " Oh ! how powerful 
" was the virgin's light," said the sovereign Pontiff 
in the Bull of her Canonization ; " how penetrating 
" were her rays ! She hid herself in the depth of the 
"cloister, and her brightness transpiring filled the 
"house of God." 4 From her poor solitude which 
she never quitted, the vfery name of Clare seemed to 
carry grace and light everywhere, and made far-off 
cities yield fruit to God and to her father, St. 

Embracing the whole world where her virginal 

3 Regula Damianitaruni, viii. * 

2 Regula ii.; Vita S. Clane, coaeva ii. 

3 Clara claris preeclara meritis, magna} in coelo claritate glorise 
ac in terra splendore miraculorum sublimium, clare claret. — Bvlla 

4 Bulla Canonizationis. 

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family was being multiplied, her motherly heart 
overflowed with affection for the daughters she had 
never seen. Let those who think that austerity 
embraced for God's sake dries up the soul, read these 
lines from her correspondence with Blessed Agnes of 
Bohemia. Agnes, daughter of Ottacar I., had re- 
jected the offer of an imperial marriage to take the 
religious Habit, and was renewing at Prague the 
wonders of St Damian's. " 0 my mother and my 
" daughter/' said our Saint, " if I have not written 
" to you as often as my soul and yours would wish, 
" be not surprised : as your mother's heart loved you, 
"so do I cherish you; but messengers are scarce, 
" and the roads full of danger. As an opportunity 
" offers to-day, I am full of gladness, and I rejoice 
" with you in the joy of the Holy Ghost. As the 
" first Agnes united herself to the immaculate Lamb, 
"so it is given to you, 0 fortunate one, to enjoy this 
4 ; union (the wonder of heaven) with him, the desire 
" of whom ravishes every soul ; whose goodness is all 
"sweetness, whose vision is beatitude, who is the 
" light of the eternal light, the mirror without spot ! 
" Look at yourself in this mirror, O queen ! 0 bride ! 
" unceasingly by its reflection enhance your charms ; 
"without and within adorn yourself with virtues; 
"clothe yourself as beseems the daughter and the 
"spouse of the supreme King. O beloved, with 
"your eyes on this mirror, what delight it will be 
" given you to enjoy in the divine grace ! . . . Re* 
" member, however, your poor Mother, and know that 
" for my part your blessed memory is for ever graven 
" on my heart." 1 

Not only did the Franciscan family benefit by a 
charity which extended to all the worthy interests of 
this world. Assisi, delivered from the lieutenants of 

1 S. Clarae ad B Agnetem, Epist. iv. 

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the excommunicated Frederick II. and from the Sara- 
cen horde in his pay, understood how a holy woman is 
a safeguard to her earthly city. But our Lord loved 
especially to make the princes of holy Church and 
the Vicar of Christ experience the humble power, the 
mysterious ascendency, wherewith he had endowed 
his chosen one. St Francis himself, the first of all, 
had in one of those critical moments known to the 
Saints, sought from her direction and light for his 
seraphic soul. From the ancients of Israel, there 
came to this virgin not yet thirty years old, such 
messages as this : " To his very dear Sister in Jesus 
"Christ, to his mother the Lady Clare handmaid of 
" Christ, Hugolin of Ostia, unworthy bishop and 
" sinner. Ever since the hour when I had to deprive 
" myself of your holy conversation, to snatch myself 
"from that heavenly joy, such bitterness of heart 
" causes my tears to flow, that, if I did not find at 
"the feet of Jesus the consolation which his love 
"never refuses, my mind would fail and my soul 
"would melt away. Where is the glorious joy of 
" that Easter spent in your company and that of the 
"other handmaids of Christ? ... I knew that I 
"was a sinner; but at the remembrance of your 
" supereminent virtue, my misery overpowers me, and 
" I believe myself unworthy ever to enjoy again that 
"conversation of the Saints, unless your tears and 
" prayers obtain pardon for my sins. I put my soul, 
"then, into your hands; to you I intrust my mind, 
" that you may answer for me on the day of judgment. 
" The Lord Pope will soon be going to Assisi ; Oh I 
"that I may accompany him, and see you once 
"more! Salute my sister Agnes (i.e. St. Clare's 
"own sister and first daughter in God); salute all 
"your sisters in Christ." 1 
The great Cardinal Hugolin, though more than 

1 Wadding ad an. 1221. 

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eighty years of age, became soon after Gregory IX. 
During his fourteen years' pontificate, which was 
one of the most brilliant as well as most laborious 
of the thirteenth century, he was always soliciting 
Clare's interest in the perils of the Church, and the 
immense cares which threatened to crush his weak- 
ness. For, says the contemporaneous historian of our 
Saint : " He knew very well what love can do, and 
" that virgins have free access to the sacred court : 
" for what could the King of heaven refuse to those, 
"to whom he has given himself?" 1 

At length her exile, which had been prolonged 
twenty-seven years after the death of Francis, was 
about to close. Her daughters beheld wings of 
fire over her head and covering her shoulders, indi- 
cating that she, too, had reached seraphic perfection. 
On hearing that a loss which so concerned the whole 
Church was imminent, the Pope, Innocent IV., came 
from Perugia with the Cardinals of his suite. He 
imposed a last trial on the Saint's humility, by com- 
manding her to bless, in his presence, the bread 
which had been presented for the blessing of the 
sovereign Pontiff ; 2 heaven approved the invitation 
of the Pontiff and the obedience of the Saint, for no 
sooner had the virgin blessed the loaves than each 
was found to be marked with a cross. 

A prediction that Clare was not to die without 
receiving a visit from the Lord surrounded by his 
disciples was now fulfilled. The Vicar of Jesus 
Christ presided at the solemn funeral rites paid by 
Assisi to her who was its second glory before God 
and men. When they were beginning the usual 
chants for the dead, Innocent would have had them 
substitute the Office for holy Virgins ; but on being 
advised that such a canonization, before the body 

1 Vita S. Clarae coteva iii. 

2 Wadding ad an. 1253, though the fact is referred by others 
to the Pontificate of Gregory IX. 

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wa9 interred, would be considered premature, the 
Pontiff allowed them to continue the accustomed 
chants. The insertion, however, of the Virgin's name 
in the catalogue of the Saints was only deferred for 
two years. 

The following lines are consecrated by the Church 
to her memory : 

. Clara nobilis virgo, As- 
sisii nata in Umbria, san- 
ctum Franciscum concivem 
suum imitata, cuncta sua 
bona in eleemosynas et pau- 
perum subsidia distribuit et 
convertit De saeculi stre- 
pitu fugiens, in campestrem 
declinavit ecclesiam, ibique 
ab eodem beato Francisco 
recepta tonsura, consan- 
guineis ipsam reducere con- 
antibus fortiter restitit. Et 
denique ad ecclesiam sancti 
Damiani fuit per eumdem 
adducta, ubi ei Dominus 
plures socias aggregavit, et 
sic ipsa sacrarum sororum 
collegium instituit, quarum 
regimen, nimia sancti Fran- 
cisci devicta importunitate, 
recepit. Suum monasteri- 
um sollicite ac prudenter in 
timore Domini, ac • plena 
Ordinis observantia, annis 
quadraginta duobus mira- 
biliter gubernavit : ejus 
enim vita erat aliis eruditio 
et doctrina, unde caeterse Vi- 
vendi regulam didicerunt. 

Ut came depressa, spi- 
ritu convalesceret, nudam 
humum, et interdum sar- 
menta pro lecto habebat, et 
pro pulvinari sub capite 
durum lignum Una tunica 

The noble virgin Clare was 
born at Assisi, in Umbria. 
Following the example of St. 
Francis, her fellow-citizen, 
she distributed all her goods 
in alms to the poor, and, flee- 
ing from the noise of the 
world, she retired to a country 
church, where blessed Francis 
cut off her hair. Her relations 
attempted to bring her back 
to the world, but sne bravely 
resisted all their endeavours ; 
and then St. Francis took her 
to the church of St Damian. 
Here our Lord gave her several 
companions,so that she found- 
ed a convent of consecrated 
virgins, and her reluctance 
being overcome by the earnest 
desire of her holy father, she 
undertook its government. 
For forty-two years she ruled 
her monastery with wonder- 
ful care and prudence, in the 
fear of God and the full ob- 
servance of the Rule. Her 
own life was a lesson and an 
example to others, showing 
all how to live aright. 

She subdued her body in 
order to grow strong in spirit 
Her bed was the bare ground, 
or, at times, a few twigs, and 
for a pillow she used a piece 
of hard wood. Her dress con- 

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ST. CLABE. 367 

sisted of a single tunic and a cum mantello de vili et his- 
mantle of poor coarse stuff ; pido panno utebatur, aspero 
and she often wore a rough cilicio nonnumquam adhi- 
hair-shirt next to her skin, bito juxta carnem. Tanta 
So great was her abstinence, se fraenabat abstinentia, ut 
that for a long time she took longo tempore tribus in 
absolutely no bodily nourish- hebdomada diebus nihil pe- 
ment for three days of the nitus pro sui corporis ali- 
week, and on the remaining mento gustaverit : reliquis 
days restricted herself to so autem diebus tali se cioo- 
small a quantity of food, that rum parvitate restringens, 
the other religious wondered ut aliae, quomodo subsistere 
how she was able to live, poterat, mirarentur. Binas 
Before her health gave way, quotannis (antequam aegro- 
it was her custom to keep two taret) quadragesimas solo 
Lents in the year, fasting on pane et aqua refecta jejuna- 
bread and water. Moreover, "bat. Vigiliis insuper et ora- 
she devoted herself to watch- tionibus assidue dedita, in 
ing and prayer, and in these his praecipue dies noctesque 
exercises especially she would expendebat. Diutinis per- 
spend whole days and nights, plexa languoribus, cum ad 
She suffered from frequent exercitium corporate non 
and long illnesses ; but when posset surgere per se ipsam r 
she was unable to leave her sororum suffragiis levaba- 
bed in order to work, she tur, et fulcimentis ad ter- 
would make her sisters raise gum appositis, laborabat 
and prop her up in a sitting propriis manibus, ne in suis 
position, so that she could etiam esset infirm itatibus 
work with her hands, and otiosa. Amatrix praecipua 
thus not be idle even in sick- paupertatis, ab ea pro nulla 
ness. She had a very great umquam necessitate disces- 
love of poverty, never de- sit, et possessiones pro so- 
viating from it on account of rorum sustentatione a Gre- 
any necessity, and she firmly gorio Nono oblatas constan- 
refused the possessions offered tissime recusavit. 
by Gregory IX. for the sup- 
port of the sisters. 

The greatness of her sane- Multis et variis miraculis 
tity was manifested by many virtus suae sanctitatis efful- 
different miracles. She re- sit. Cuidam de sororibus 
stored the power of speech to sui monasterii loquelam 
one of the sisters of her mona- restituit expeditam : alteri 
stery, to another the power of aurem surdam aperuit : la- 
hearing. She healed one of a borantem febre, tumentem 
fever, one of dropsy, one of hydropisi, plagatam fistula, 
an ulcer, and many others of aliasque aliis oppressas lan- 

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guoribus liberavit. Fra- 
trem de Ordine Minor urn 
ab insaniae passione sana- 
vit. Cum oleum in mona- 
sterio totaliter defecisset, 
Clara accepit urceum, atque 
lavit, et inventus est oleo, 
beneficio divinae largitatis, 
impletus. Unius panis me- 
dietatem adeo multiplicavit, 
ut sororibus quinquaginta 
suffecerit. Saracenis Assi- 
sium obsidentibus, et Clarae 
monasterium invadere con- 
antibus, aegra se ad portam 
afferri voluit, unaque vas, in 
quo sanctissimum Eucha- 
ristiae sacramentum erat in- 
clusum, ibique oravit: Ne 
tradas, Domine, bestiis ani- 
mas, confitentes tibi, et cus- 
todi famulas tuas, quas pre- 
tioso sanguine redemistL 
In cujus oratione ea vox 
audita est : Ego vos semper 
custodiam. Saraceni autem 
partim se fugas mandarunt, 
partim qui murum ascend- 
erant, capti oculis, praecipi- 
tes ceciderunt. Ipsa deni- 
que Virgo, cum in extremis 
ageret, a candido beatarum 
Virginum coetu (inter quas 
una eminentior ac f ulgidior 
apparebat) visitata, ac sacra 
Eucharistia sumpta, et pec- 
catorum indulgentia ab In- 
nocentio Quarto ditata, pri- 
die Idus Augusti animam 
Deo reddidit Post obitum 
vero quamplurimis miracu - 
lis resplendentem Alexander 
Quartus inter sanctas Vir- 
gines retulit., 


various maladies. She cured 
of insanity a brother of the 
Order of Friars Minor. Once 
when all the oil in the mona- 
stery was spent, Clare took a 
vessel and washed it, and it 
was found filled with oil by 
the loving kindness of God. 
She multiplied half a loaf so 
that it sufficed for fifty sisters. 
When the Saracens attacked 
the town of Assisi and at- 
tempted to break into Clare's 
monastery, she, though sick 
at the time, had herself car- 
ried to the gate, and also the 
vessel which contained the 
most Holy Eucharist, and 
there she prayed, saying : " O 
" Lord, deliver not unto beasts 
" the souls of them that praise 
" thee ; but preserve thy hand- 
" maids whom Thou hast re- 
" deemed with thy precious 
4t Blood." Whereupon a voice 
was heard, which said: " I will 
"always preserve you." Some 
of the Saracens took to flight, 
others who had already scaled 
the walls were struck blind 
and fell down headlong. At 
length, when the virgin Clare 
came to die, she was visited 
by a white-robed multitude 
of blessed virgins, amongst 
whom was one nobler and 
more resplendent than the 
rest. Having received the 
Holy Eucharist and a Plenary 
Indulgence from Innocent IV., 
she gave up her soul to God 
on the day before the Ides of 
August. After her death she 
became celebrated by numbers 
of miracles, and Alexander IV. 
enrolled her among the holy 

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O Clare, the reflection of the Spouse which adorns 
the Church in this world no longer suffices thee ; 
thou now beholdest the light with open face. The 
brightness of the Lord plays with delight in the 
pure crystal of thy soul, increasing the happiness of 
heaven, and giving joy this day to our valley of exile. 
Heavenly beacon, with thy gentle shining enlighten 
our darkness. May we, like thee, by purity of heart, 
by uprightness of thought, by simplicity of gaze, fix 
upon ourselves the divine ray, which flickers in a 
wavering soul, is dimmed by our waywardness, is 
interrupted or put out by a double life divided be- 
tween God and the world. 

Thy life, O Virgin, was never thus divided. The 
most high poverty t which was thy mistress and guide, 
preserved thy mind from that bewitching of vanity 
which takes off the bloom of all true goods for us 
mortals. Detachment from all passing things kept 
thine eye fixed upon eternal realities ; it opened thy 
soul to that seraphic ardour wherein thou didst 
emulate thy father Francis. Like the Seraphim, 
whose gaze is ever fixed on God, thou hadst immense 
influence over the earth ; and St. Damian's, during 
thy lifetime, was a source of strength to the world. 

Deign to continue giving us thine aid. Multiply 
thy daughters ; keep them faithful in following their 
Mother's example, so as to be a strong support to 
the Church. May the various branches of the 
Franciscan family be ever fostered by thy rays, and 
may all Religious Orders be enlightened by thy 
gentle brightness. Shine upon us all, O Clare, and 
show us the worth of this transitory life and of that 
which never ends. 

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August 13. 


Never was such a booty won as that obtained 
by the sons of Clovis in their expedition against 
Thuringia towards the year 530. Receive this 
blessing from the spoils of the enemy, 1 might they 
well say on presenting to the Franks the orphan 
brought from the court of the fratricide prince whom 
they had just chastised. God seemed in haste to 
ripen the soul of Radegonde. After the tragic death 
of her relatives followed the ruin of her country. 
So vivid was the impression made in the child's 
heart, that long afterwards the recollection awakened 
in the queen and the Saint a sorrow and a home- 
sickness which nought but the love of Christ could 
overcome. " I have seen the plain strewn with dead 
"and palaces burnt to the ground; I have seen 
" women, with eyes dry from very horror, mourning 
" over fallen Thuringia ; I alone have survived to 
"weep over them all." 2 

The licentiousness of the Frankish kings was as 
unbridled as that of her own ancestors ; yet in their 
land the little captive found Christianity, which she 

1 1 Kings xxx. 26. 

2 De excidio Thnringiee, i„ v. 5-36, Fortunatus ex persona 

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had not hitherto known. The faith was a healing 
balm to this wounded soul. Baptism, in giving her 
to God, sanctified, without crushing, her high- 
spirited nature. Thirsting for Christ, she wished to 
be martyred for him ; she sought him on the cross 
of self-renunciation ; she found him in his poor 
suffering members; looking on the face of a leper, 
she would see in it the disfigured countenance of her 
Saviour, and thence rise to the ardent contempla- 
tion of the triumphant Spouse, whose glorious Face 
illumines the abode of the Saints. 

What a loathing, therefore, did she feel when 
offering her royal honours, the destroyer of her own 
country sought to share with God the possession of 
a heart that heaven alone could comfort or gladden ! 
First flight, then the refusal to comply with the 
manners of a court where everything was repulsive 
to her desires and recollections, her eagerness to 
break, on the very first opportunity, a bond which 
violence alone had contracted, prove that the trial 
had no other effect, as her Life says, but to bend her 
soul more and more to the sole object of her love. 1 

Meanwhile, near the tomb of St. Martin, another 
queen, Clotilde, the mother of the most Christian 
kingdom, was about to die. Unfortunate are those 
times when the men after God's own heart, at their 
departure from earth, leave no one to take their 
place ; as the Psalmist cried out in a just consterna- 
tion : Save me, 0 Lord, for there is now no saint ! 2 
For, though the elect pray for us in heaven, they 
can no longer fill up those things that are wanting 
of the sufferings of Christ, in their flesh, for his 
body, which is the Church. 3 The work begun at 
the baptistery of Rheims was not yet completed ; 
the Gospel, though reigning by faith over the 

1 Baudonivia, Vita Radegundis, 2. 8 Ps. xi. 2. * CoL i. 24. 
pent. iv. 2 B 

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Frankish nation, had not yet subdued its manners. 
Christ, who loved the Franks, heard the last prayer 
of the mother he had given them, and refused her 
not the consolation of knowing that she should have 
a successor. Radegonde was set free, just in time 
to prevent an interruption in the laborious work of 
forming the Church's eldest daughter ; and she took 
up in solitude the struggle with God, by prayer and 
expiation, begun by the widow of Clovis. 

In the joy of having cast off an odious yoke, for- 
giveness was an easy thing to her great soul; 1 in her 
monastery at Poitiers she showed an unfailing devot- 
edness for the kings whose company she had fled. 
The fortune of France was bound up with theirs; 
France the cradle-land of her supernatural life, where 
the Man-God had revealed himself to her heart, and 
which she therefore loved with part of the love 
reserved for her heavenly country. The peace and 
prosperity of her spiritual fatherland occupied her 
thoughts day and night. If any quarrel arose among 
the princes, say the contemporary accounts, she 
trembled from head to foot at the very thought of 
the country's danger. She wrote, according to their 
different dispositions, to each of the kings, imploring 
them to consider the welfare of the nation; she 
interested the chief vassals in her endeavours to pre- 
vent war. She imposed on her community assi- 
duous watchings, exhorting them with tears to pray 
without ceasing; as to herself, the tortures she in- 
flicted on herself for this end are inexpressible. 2 

The only victory, then, that Radegonde desired, was 
peace among the princes of the earth ; when she had 
gained this by her struggle with the King of heaven, 
her joy in the service of the Lord was redoubled, and 
the tenderness she felt for her devoted helpers, the 

1 Baudonivia, 7. 2 Ibid. xi. 

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nuns of Sainte-Croix, could scarcely find utterance : 
" You, the daughters of my choice," she would say, 
" my eyes, my life, my sweet repose, so live with me 
" in this world, that we may meet again in the hap- 
piness of the next." And they responded to her 
love. " By the God of heaven it is true, that every- 
" thing in her reflected the splendour of her soul." 
Such was the spontaneous and graceful cry of her 
daughter Baudonivia; and it was echoed by the 
graver voice of the historian-bishop, Gregory of Tours, 
who declared that the supernatural beauty of the 
Saint remained even in death; 1 it was a brightness 
from heaven, which purified while it attracted hearts, 
which caused the Italian Venantius Fortunatus to 
cease his wanderings, 3 made him a Saint and a 
Pontiff, and inspired him with his most beautiful 

The light of God could not but be reflected in her, 
who, turning towards him by uninterrupted contem- 
plation, redoubled her desires as the end of her exile 
approached. Neither the relics of the Saints, which 
she had so sought after as speaking to her of her true 
home, nor her dearest treasure, the Cross of her Lord, 
was enough for her ; she would fain have drawn the 
Lord himself from his throne, to dwell visibly on earth. 
She only interrupted her sighs, to excite in others 
the same longings. She exhorted her daughters not 
to neglect the knowledge of divine things ; and ex- 
plained to them with profound science and motherly 
love the difficulties of the Scriptures. As she in- 
creased the holy readings of the community for the 
same end, she would say : " If you do not understand, 
"ask; why do you fear to seek the light of your souls V* 
And she would insist: "Reap, reap the wheat of the 
" Lord ; for I tell you truly, you will not have long 

1 Greg. Turon. De gloria confessorum, cvi. 

2 Fortunat. Miscellanea, viil, i., il, etc. 

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" to do it : reap, for the time draws near, when you 
" will wish to recall the days that are now given you, 
"and your regrets will not be able to bring them 
"back." And the loving Chronicler, to whom we 
owe these sweet intimate details, continues : " In our 
" idleness we listen coolly to the announcement ; but 
" that time has come all too soon. Now is realized 
" in us the prophecy which says : i" will send forth 
" a famine into thy land : not a famine of bread, 
" nor a thirst of water, but of hearing the Word of 
" the Lord} For though we still read her conferences, 
"that voice which never ceased, is now silent; those 
" lips, ever ready with wise advice and sweet words, 
" are closed. O most good God, what an expression, 
" what features, what manners thou hadst given her 1 
" No, no one could describe it. The remembrance is 
" anguish ! That teaching, that gracefulness, that face, 
" that mien, that science, that piety, that goodness, 
" that sweetness, where are we to seek them now ? " 

Such touching sorrow does honour to both Mother 
and daughters ; but it could not keep back the former 
from her reward. On the morning of the Ides of 
August 587, while Sainte-Croix was filled with lam- 
entations, an Angel was heard saying to others on 
high: "Leave her yet longer, for the tears of her 
"daughters have ascended to God." But those who 
were bearing Radegonde away replied: "It is too 
"late, she is already in Paradise." 2 

Let us read the Liturgical account, which will 
complete .what we have said : 

Radegun dis, Bertharii Radegonde was the daughter 

Thuringorum regis filia, de- of Berthaire, king of Thurin- 

cennis captiva a Francis gia. When ten years old she 

abducta, cum insigni et regia was led away captive by the 

esset forma, Francorum re- Franks ; and on account of 

gibus cui ipsa cederet inter her striking and queenly 

1 Amoe viii. 11. 2 Baudonivia. 

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beauty their kings disputed se decertantibus, Clotario 
among themselves for the Suessionum regi sorte ob- 
possession of her. They drew tigit; qui optimis earn ma- 
lots, and she fell to the share gistris credidit, liberalibus 
of Clothaire , king of Soissons. erudiendam disciplinis. 
He entrusted her education to Turn puella, avide acceptis 
excellent masters. Child as fidei christianae documentis, 
she was, she eagerly imbibed et ejurato haereditario, in- 
the doctrines of the Christian anium deorum cultu, non 
faith, and renouncing the wor- prsecepta tan turn, sed et 

had learnt from her fathers, consUia. Adultiorem jam 

she determined to observe not factam Clotarius, qui sibi 

only the precepts, but also the dudum illam addixerat ux- 

counsels of the Gospel. When orem, in conjugium excepit : 

she was grown up, Clothaire, unde licet invita, quin et 

who had long before chosen altera vice fuga elapsa, cunc- 

her, took her to wife, and in tis plaudentibus regina salu- 

spite of her refusal, in spite of tatur. Ad honores igitur 

her attempts at flight, she was solii evecta, beneficentiam 

proclaimed queen, to the great in pauperes, assiduas ora- 

joy of all. When thus raised tiones, crebras vigilias, jgjju- 

to the throne, she joined nia, aliasque corporis afflic- 

charity to the poor, con tin- tationes cum regia dignitate 

ual prayer, frequent watch- conjunxit, adeo ut non re- 

ings, fasting and other bodily gina, sed monacha jugalis ab 

austerities to her regal dignity, aalicis pietatem deridenti- 

so that the courtiers said in bus diceretur. 
scorn that the king had mar- 
ried not a queen, but a nun. 

Her patience shone out Ejus patientia maxime 
brightly in supporting many enituit in tolerandis variis, 
grievous trials caused her by durioribusque molestiisquas 
the king. But when she heard ei rex inferebat. Cum autem 
that her o wn brother had been audivisset f ratrem suum ger- 
unjustly slain by command of manumClotarii jussuinjuste 
Olothaire, she instantly left fuisse occisum, ab aula re- 
the court with the king's con- pente discessit, ipso rege 
sent, and going to the blessed annuente, et beatum Medar- 
bishop Medara she earnestly dum episcopum adiit, in- 
begged him to consecrate her stantissime deprecans ut 
to the Lord. The nobles Domino consecraretur. Pro- 
strongly opposed his giving ceres vero vehementer ob- 
the veil to her whom the king sistebant ne pontifex earn 
had solemnly married. But velaret, quae solemni more 
she at once went into the nupsisset regi. Atillastatim 

;elica decrevit servare 

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ingressa sacrarium, monas- 
tica veste seip?am induit; 
indeque procedens ad altare, 
episcopum sic allocuta est: 
Si me consecrare distule- 
ris, plus hominem reveritus 
quam Deum, erit qui ani- 
mam abs te meam exigat. 
Quibus ille verbis commo- 
tus, reginam sacro velamine 
initiavit, et manu imposita 
diaconissam consecravit. 
Pictavum deinde perrexit, 
ubi mon aster ium virginum 
condidit, quod postea titulo 
sanctae Cruris nuncupatum 
est Virtutum splendore 
praecellens, ad sacrae religio- 
nis amplexum innumerabi- 
les pene virginis pertraxit : 
quibus, ob eximia divinae 
in se gratiae testimonia, om- 
nium efflagit at ion e praefecta, 
ministrare gaudebat magis 
quam praeesse. 

Miraculorum licet multi- 
tudine longe lateque reful- 
gens, prim as dignitatis peni- 
tus immemor, vilissima et 
abjectissima quaevis munia 
expetebat. iEgrorum , egen - 
tium,ac maxime leprosorum 
curam praecipue dilexit : 
quos saspe ab infirmitatibus 
mirabiliter liberabat. Ea 
pietate divinum altaris sa- 
crificium prosequebatur, ut 
propriis manibus conficeret 

Sanes sacrandos, quos dein 
iversis suppeditabat eccle- 
siis. Quas vero inter regales 
delicias totam se carnis mor- 
tificationi impenderat, quse- 
que ab adolescentia martyrii 


sacristy and clothed herself 
in the monastic habit. Then 
advancing to the altar she thus 
addressed the bishop : u If you 
"hesitate to consecrate me 
" because you fear man more 
"than God, there is one who 
"will demand an account of 
"my soul from you." These 
words deeply touched Medard; 
he placed the sacred veil upon 
the queen's head, and impos- 
ing his hands upon her, con- 
secrated her a deaconess. She 
proceeded to Poitiers and there 
founded a monastery of virgins 
which was afterwards called of 
the "Holy Cross." The splen- 
dour of her virtues shone forth 
and attracted innumerable 
virgins to embrace a religious 
life. On account of her ex- 
traordinary gifts of divine 
grace, all wished her to be 
their mistress ; but she desired 
to serve rather than to com- 

The number of miracles she 
worked spread her name far 
and wide ; but she herself, for- 
getful of her dignity, sought 
out the lowest and humblest 
offices. She loved especially 
to take care of the sick, the 
needy, and above all the lepers 
whom she often cured in a 
miraculous manner. She 
honoured the divine Sacrifice 
of the altar with deep piety, 
making with her own hands 
the bread which was to be 
consecrated, and supplying it 
to several churches. Even in 
the midst of the pleasures of 
a court, she had applied her- 
self to mortifying her flesh, 

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and from her childhood she 
had burned with desire of 
martyrdom; now that she was 
leading a monastic life she 
subdued her body with the 
utmost rigour. She girt her- 
self with iron chains, she tor- 
tured her body with burning 
coals, courageously fixed red- 
hot plates of metal upon her 
flesh that thus it also might, 
in a way, be inflamed with 
love of Christ. King Cio- 
thaire, bent on taking her back 
and carrying her off from her 
monastery, set out for Holy 
Cross ; but she deterred him 
by means of letters which she 
wrote to St. Germanus, bishop 
of Paris ; so that prostrate at 
the holy prelate's feet, the 
king begged him to beseech 
his pious queen to pardon him 
who was both her sovereign 
and her husband. 

Radegonde enriched her 
monastery with relics of the 
Saints brought from different 
countries. She also sent some 
clerics to the Emperor Justin 
and obtained from him a large 
piece of the wood of our Lord's 
Cross. It was received with 
great solemnity by the people 
of Poitiers, and all, both clergy 
and laity, sang exultingly the 
hymns composed by Venan- 
tius Fortunatus in honour of 
the blessed Cross. This poet 
was afterwards bishop of 
Poitiers j he enjoyed the holy 
friendship of Radegonde and 
directed her monastery. At 
length the holy queen, being 
ripe for heaven, was honoured 
a few days before her death 

30NDE. 377 

flagrabat desiderio ; nunc 
Vitam agens monasticam, 
rigidissima corpus domabat 
inedia : quinetiam f erreis 
catenis lumbos accincta, 
membra cruciabat ardenti- 
bus carbonibus laminisque 
candentibus in came acriter 
infixis, ut sic etiam caro suo 
modo Christi amore inflam- 
maretur. Clotarium regem, 
qui illam repetere et e coeno- 
bio abripere decreverat, jam- 
que ad ccenobium sanctas 
Crucis iter contulerat, ipsa 
datis ad sanctum Germanum 
Parisiensem episcopum lit- 
teris adeo obsterruit, ut ad 
sancti praesulis pedes pro- 
volutus ilium rogaret ut a 
pia regina regis ac conjugis 
veniam efjlagitaret. 

Sanctorum reliquiis, variis 
ex regionibus allatis, mona- 
sterium suura ditavit. Sed 
et missis clericis ad Justi- 
num imperatorem, insignem 
partem ligni Dominicae Cru- 
cis impetravit: quae solemni 
ritua Pictaviensibus recepta 
est, gestientibus clero omni- 
que populo, atque hymnos 
decantantibus, quos in laud- 
em aim ae Crucis confecerat 
Venantius Fortunatus, post- 
haec episcopus, qui Rade- 
gundis potiebatur sancta 
familiaritate, ejusque coeno- 
bium regebat. Ipsa denique 
sanctissima regina, jam ma- 
ture coalo, paucis diebus an- 
tequam e vita exiret, Christi 
apparitione sub specie spe- 

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ciosissimi adolescentis dig- 
nata est, et ex ejus ore has 
voces audire meruit: Quid 
adeo fruendicupiditatetene- 
ris? quid tot lacrymis gemi- 
tibusque diffunderis? quid 
tam crebro meis altaribus 
suppliciter admoveris ? quid 
tot laboribus corpusculum 
tuum infringis? cum ipse 
tibi semper adhseream. Tu 
gemma nobilis, noveris te in 
diademate capitis mei esse 
e gemmis primariis unam. 
Anno tandem quingentesimo 
octogesimo septimo purissi- 
mam animam in sinu coeles- 
tis Sponsi,quem unice dilex- 
erat, exhalavit, et a sancto 
Gregorio Turonensi in basi- 
lica beatae Marise, ut opta- 
verat, sepulta fuit. 

by an apparition of Christ 
under the form of a moat 
beautiful youth; and she heard 
these words from his mouth : 
" Why art thou consumed by 
"so great a longing to enjoy 
"my presence? Why dost 
" thou pour out so many tears 
" and sighs? Why comest thou 
"as a suppliant so often to 
" my altars % Why dost thou 
"break down thy body with 
" so many labours, when I am 
" always united to thee ? My 
" beautiful pearl ! Know that 
"thou art one of the most 
" precious stones in my kingly 
" crown." In the year 587 she 
breathed forth her pure soul 
into the bosom of the heaven- 
ly Spouse who had been her 
only love. Gregory of Tours 
buned her, as she had wished, 
in the church of St. Mary. 

Thine exile is over, eternal possession has taken 
the place of desire ; all heaven is illumined with the 
brightness of the precious stone that has come to 
enrich the diadem of the Spouse. O Radegonde, 
the Wisdom who is now rewarding thy toils, led 
thee by admirable ways. Thy inheritance, become 
to thee as a lion in the wood spreading death around 
thee, thy captivity far from thy native land ; what 
was all this but love's way of drawing thee from 
the dens of the lions, from the mountains of the 
leopards, where idolatry had led thee in childhood ? 
Thou hadst to suffer in a foreign land, but the light 
from above shone into thy soul, and gave it strength. 
A powerful king tried in vain to make thee share his 
throne; thou wert a queen but for Christ, who in 
his goodness made thee a mother to that kingdom 

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of France, which belongs to him more than to any 
prince. For his sake thou didst love that land 
become thine by the right of the Bride who shares 
the sceptre of her Spouse; for his sake, that nation, 
whose glorious destiny thou didst predict, received 
unstintedly all thy labours, thy unspeakable mortifi- 
cations, thy prayers and thy tears. 

O thou who art ever queen of France, as Christ is 
ever its King, bring back to him the hearts of its 
people, for in their blind error they have laid aside 
their glory, and their sword is no longer wielded for 
God. Protect, above all, the city of Poitiers, which 
honours thee with a special cultus together with its 
great St. Hilary. Bless thy daughters of Sainte- 
Croix, who, ever faithful to thy great traditions, 
prove the power of that fruitful stem, which through 
«o many centuries and such devastations, has never 
ceased to produce both flowers and fruit. Teach us 
to seek our Lord, and to find him in his holy 
Sacrament, in the relics of his Saints, in his suffering 
members on earth; and may all Christians learn 
from thee how to love. 

Not far from the sepulchre of St. Laurence, on 
the opposite side of the Tiburtian Way, lies the 
tomb of St. Hippolytus, one of the sanctuaries 
most dear to the Christians in the days of triumph. 
Prudentius has described the magnificence of the 
crypt, and the immense concourse attracted to it 
each year on the Ides of August. Who was this 
Saint ? Of what rank and manner of life ? What 
facts of his history are there to be told, beyond that 
of his having given his blood for Christ ? All these 
questions have in modern times become the subject 
of numerous and learned works. He was a martyr, 
^and that is nobility enough to make him glorious in 

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our eyes. Let tis honour him then, and together 
with him another soldier of Christ, Cassian of 
Immola, whom the Church offers to our homage at 
the same time. Hippolytus was dragged by wild 
horses over rocks and briars till his body was all 
torn: Cassian, who was a schoolmaster, was de- 
livered by the judge to the children he had taught, 
and died of the thousands of wounds inflicted by 
their styles. The prince of Christian poets has sung 
of him as of Hippolytus, describing his combat and 
his tomb. 


Da, qusesumus omnipo- Grant, we beseech Thee, Al- 
tens Deus: ut beatorum mighty God, that the vener- 
Martyrum tuorum Hippo- able solemnity of thy blessed 
lyti et Cassiani veneranda martyrs, Hippolytus and Cas- 
solemnitas, et devotionem sian, may contribute to the 
nobis augeat, et sal u tern, increase of our devotion, 
Per Dominum. and promote our salvation. 

Through Christ our Lord, <fcc. 

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August 14. 

— ♦ — 

What is this aurora before which the brightest 
constellations pale ? Laurence, who has been shin- 
ing in the August heavens as an incomparable star, 
is well nigh eclipsed, and becomes but the humble 
satellite of the Queen of Saints, whose triumph is 
preparing beyond the clouds, 

Mary stayed on earth after her Son's Ascension, 
in order to give birth to his Church ; but she could 
not remain for ever in exile. Yet she was not to 
take her flight to heaven until this new fruit of her 
maternity had acquired the growth and strength 
which it belongs to a mother to give. How sweet to 
the Church was this dependence ! A privilege given 
to her members by our Lord in imitation of himself. 1 
As we saw, at Christmas time, the God-Man carried 
first in the arms of his Mother, gathering his strength 
and nourishing his life at her virginal breast : so the 
mystical body of the Man-God, the holy Church, 
received, in its first years, the same care from Mary, 
as the divine Child our Emmanuel. 

As Joseph heretofore at Nazareth, Peter was now 
ruling the house of God ; but our Lady was none the 
less to the assembly of the faithful the source of life 
in the spiritual order, as she had been to Jesus in his 

1 Camalia in te Christus libera suxit, ut per te nobis spiritualia 
fluerent.— Richard, a S. Victore, in Cant. Cap. xxiii. 

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Humanity. On the day of Pentecost, the Holy 
Ghost and every one of his gifts rested first upon 
her in all fulness; every grace bestowed on the 
privileged dwellers in the cenacle was given more 
eminently and more abundantly to her. The sacred 
stream of the river maheth the city of God joyful, 
because first of all the Most High has sanctified his 
own tabernacle, made her the well of living waters, 
which run with a strong stream from Libanus. 

Eternal Wisdom herself is compared in the Scrip- 
ture to overflowing waters ; to this day, the voice of 
her messengers traverses the world, magnificent, as 
the voice of the Lord over the great waters r as the 
thunder which reveals his power and majesty: like 
a new deluge overturning the ramparts of false 
science, levelling every height raised against God and 
fertilizing the desert. 0 fountain of the gardens 
hiding thyself so calm and pure in Sion, the silence 
which keeps thee from the knowledge of the profane, 
hides from their sullied eyes the source of thy wave- 
lets which carry salvation to the farthest limits of 
the Gentile world. To thee, as to the Wisdom 
sprung from thee, is applied the prophetic word : I 
have poured out rivers. 1 Thou givest to drink to the 
new-born Church thirsting for the Word. Thou art, 
as the Holy Spirit said of Esther, thy type : " The 
" little fountain which grew into a river, and was 
" turned into a light, and into the sun, and abounded 
u into many waters. 992 The Apostles, inundated 
with divine science, recognised in thee the richest 
source, which having once given to the world the 
Lord God, continued to be the channel of his grace 
and truth to them. 

As a mountain spreads out at its base in proportion 
to the greatness of its height, the incomparable 

1 EcclL xxiv. 40. 2 Esther x. 6. 

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dignity of Mary rested on her ever growing humility. 
Nevertheless we must not think that the Mother of 
the Church was to be nothing more than a silent 
winner of heaven's favours. Tbe time had come for 
her to communicate to the friends of the Spouse the 
ineffable secrets known to her virginal soul alone; 
and as to the public facts of our Saviours history, 
what memory surer or more complete than hers, 
what deeper understanding of the mysteries of salva- 
tion, could furnish the Evangelists with the inspiration 
and the matter of their sublime narrations ? How 
could the chiefs of the Christian people not consult 
in every undertaking the heavenly prudence of her, 
whose judgment could never be obscured by the 
least error, any more than her soul could be tarnished 
by the least fault ? Thus, although her gentle voice 
was never heard abroad, although she loved to put 
herself in the shade and take the last place in their 
assemblies, Mary was truly from that time forward, 
as the Doctors observe, the scourge of heresy, the 
mistress of the Apostles and their beloved inspirer. 
" If," says Rupert, 1 " the Holy Ghost instructed the 
" Apostles, we must not therefore conclude that they 
"had not recourse to the most sweet teaching of 
" Mary. Yea, rather, her word was to them the word 
"of the Spirit himself ; she completed and confirmed 
"the inspirations received by each one from him 
" who divideth as he wills." And St. Ambrose, the 
illustrious Bishop of Milan, speaking of the privilege 
of the beloved disciple at the lasuSupper, does not 
hesitate to attribute the greater sublimity of his 
teachings to his longer and more intimate intercourse 
with our Lady: "This beloved of the Lord, who, 
"resting on his bosom, drank from the depths of 
" Wisdom, I am not astonished that he has explained 

1 Rupert in Cant. i. 

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"divine mysteries better than all the others, for the 
" treasure of heavenly secrets hidden in Mary, was 
" ever open to him." 1 

Happy were the faithful of those days, permitted 
to contemplate the ark of the covenant, wherein, 
better than on tables of stone, dwelt the plenitude 
of the law of love ! At her side, the rod of the new 
Aaron, the sceptre of Simon Peter, kept its vigour 
and freshness, and under her shadow the true manna 
of heaven was accessible to the elect of this world's 
desert. Denis of Athens, Hierotheus, both of whom 
we shall soon see again beside this holy ark, and 
many others, came to the feet of Mary to rest on 
their journey, to strengthen their love, to consult 
the august propitiatory where the divinity had 
resided. From the lips of the Mother of God, they 
gathered words sweeter than honey, calming their 
souls, ordering their life, filling their noble minds 
with the brightness of heaven. To these privileged 
ones of the first age might be addressed those words 
of the Spouse, who in these years was completing 
his gathering from his chosen garden: I have 
gathered my myrrh with my aromatical spices ; I 
have eaten the honeycomb with my honey : I have 
drunk my wine with my milk : eat t 0 friends, and 
drink, and be inebriated, my dearly beloved. 2 

No wonder that in Jerusalem, favoured with so 
august a presence, the first group of faithful rose 
unanimously above the observance of the precepts to 
the perfection of the counsels; they persevered in 
prayer, praising God in gladness and simplicity of 
heart, having favour with all the people ; and they 
were of one heart and one soul. This happy com* 
munity could not but be an image of heaven on 
earth, since the Queen of heaven was a member of 

1 Ambb. De Instit. virg. vii. 2 Cant v. 1. 

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it ; the example of her life, her all-powerful inter- 
cession, her merits more vast than all the united 
treasures of all created sanctities, was Mary's con- 
tribution to this blessed family where all things were 
common to all. 

From the hill of Sion, however, the Church had 
spread its branches over every mountain and every 
sea ; the vineyard of the Pacific King was extended 
among all nations ; it was time to let it out to the 
keepers appointed to guard it for the Spouse. It 
was a solemn moment ; a new phase in the history 
of our salvation was about to begin: Thou that 
dwellest in the gardens, the friends hearken : make 
me hear thy voice. 1 The Spouse, the Church on 
earth, the Church in heaven, all were waiting for her, 
who had tended the vine and strengthened its roots, 
to utter a word such as that which had heretofore 
brought down the Spouse to earth. But to-day 
heaven, not earth, was to be the gainer. Flee away, 
0 my beloved ; 2 it was the voice of Mary about to 
follow the fragrant footsteps of the Lord her Son, 
up to the eternal mountains whither her own per- 
fumes had preceded her. 

Let us enter into the sentiments of the Church, 
who prepares by the fasting and abstinence of this 
Vigil to celebrate the triumph of Mary. Man may 
not venture to join on earth in the joys of heaven, 
without first acknowledging that he is a sinner and 
a debtor to the justice of God. The light task 
imposed on us to-day will appear still easier if we 
compare it with the Lent whereby the Greeks have 
been preparing for our Lady's feast ever since the 
1st of this month. 


O God, who didst vouch- Deus, qui virginalem au- 

1 Cant. viii. 13. 2 Ibid. 14. 

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lam beatae Marias, in qua safe to choose for thy habita- 
habitares, eligere dignatus tion the virginal womb of the 
es : da, qusesumus ; ut sua Blessed Mary, grant, we be- 
nos defensione munitos, seech thee, that, defended by 
jucundos facias suae inter- her protection, we may joyfully 
esse festivitati. Qui vivis. assist at her festival. Who 

livest, &c. 

To this Collect of the Vigil let us add, with the 
Holy Liturgy, the commemoration of a holy Con- 
fessor, whose imprisonment and sufferings at Rome, 
in the time of the Arians, made him well-nigh equal 
to the martyrs. As he is honoured with a Church 
in the eternal City, Eusebius is entitled to the 
homage of the whole world. 


Deus, qui nos beati Euse- O God, who givest us joy by 
bii, Confessoris tui, annua the annual solemnity of the 
solemnitate laetificas: con- blessed Eusebius, thy Con- 
cede propitius; ut, cujus fessor, mercifully grant, that 
natalitia colimus, per ejus celebrating his festival, we 
ad te exempla gradiamur, may approach to thee by fol- 
Per Dominum. lowing his example. Through 

our Lord, <fcc. 

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August 15. 



"To-day the Virgin Mary ascended to heaven; 
"rejoice, for she reigns with Christ for ever." 1 The 
Church will close her chants on this glorious day 
with this sweet antiphon which resumes the object 
of the feast and the spirit in which it should be 

No other solemnity breathes, like this one, at 
once triumph and peace ; none better answers to the 
enthusiasm of the many and the serenity of souls 
consummated in love. Assuredly that was as great 
a triumph when our Lord, rising by his own power 
from the tomb, cast hell into dismay; but to our 
souls, so abruptly drawn from the abyss of sorrows 
on Golgotha, the suddenness of the victory caused a 
sort of stupor to mingle with the joy of that greatest 
of days. In presence of the prostrate Angels, the 
hesitating Apostles, the women seized with fear and 
trembling, one felt that the divine isolation of the 
Conqueror of death was perceptible even to his most 
intimate friends, and kept them, like Magdalene, at 
a distance. 

Mary's death, however, leaves no impression but 
peace; that death had no other cause than love. 

1 Magniticat Ant. for 2nd Vesp. 

PENT. IV. 2 C 

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Being a mere creature, she could not deliver herself 
from that claim of the old enemy; but leaving her 
tomb filled with flowers, she mounts up to heaveu, 
flowing with delights, leaning upon her Beloved. 1 
Amid the acclamations of the daughters of Sion, who 
will henceforth never cease to call her blessed, she 
ascends surrounded by choirs of heavenly spirits 
joyfully praising the Son of God. Nevermore will 
shadows veil, as they did on earth, the glory of the 
most beautiful daughter of Eve. Beyond the im- 
movable Thrones, beyond the dazzling Cherubim, 
beyond the flaming Seraphim, onward she passes, 
delighting the heavenly city with her sweet perfumes. 
She stays not till she reaches the very confines of 
the Divinity ; close to the throne of honour where 
her Son, the King of ages, reigns in justice and in 
power ; there she is proclaimed Queen, there she will 
reign for evermore in mercy and in goodness. 

Here on earth Libanus and Amana, Sanir and 
Hermon dispute the honour of having seen her rise 
to heaven from their summits ; and truly the whole 
world is but the pedestal of her glory, as the moon 
is her footstool, the sun her vesture, the stars of 
heaven her glittering crown. "Daughter of Sion, 
"thou art all fair and sweet," 2 cries the Church, as 
in her rapture she mingles her own tender accents 
with the songs of triumph : " I saw the beautiful 
" one as a dove rising up from the brooks of waters ; 
"in her garments was the most exquisite odour; and 
" as in the days of spring, flowers of roses surrounded 
" her and lilies of the valley." 3 

The same freshness breathes from the facts of 
Bible history wherein the interpreters of the sacred 
Books see the figure of Mary's triumph. As long 

1 Cant viii. 5. 

2 Mag. Ant. of 1st Veap. 

3 1st Resp. of Matins fr. Cant. v. 12 and Eccli. 1. 8. 

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as this world lasts a severe law protects the entrance 
to the eternal palace ; no one, without having first 
laid aside the garb of flesh, is admitted to contem- 
plate the King of heaven. There is one, however, 
of our lowly race, whom the terrible decree does not 
touch; the true Esther, in her incredible beauty, 
advances without hindrance through all the doors. 
Full of grace, she is worthy of the love of the true 
Assuerus ; but on the way which leads to the awful 
throne of the King of kings, she walks not alone: 
two handmaids, one supporting her steps, the other 
holding up the long folds of her royal robe, accom- 
pany her; they are the angelic nature and the 
human, both equally proud to hail her as their mis- 
tress and lady, and both sharing in her glory. 

If we go back from the time of captivity, when 
Esther saved her people, to the days of Israel's 
greatness, we find our Lady's entrance into the city 
of endless peace, represented by the Queen of Saba 
coming to the earthly Jerusalem. While she con- 
templates with rapture the magnificence of the 
mighty prince of Sion, the pomp of her own retinue, 
the incalculable riches of the treasure she brings, 
her precious stones and her spices, plunge the whole 
city into admiration. TJiere was brought no more, 
says the Scripture, such abundance of spices as 
these which the Queen of Saba gave to King 
Solomon. 1 

The reception given by David's son to Bethsabee, 
his mother, in the third Book of Kings, no less 
happily expresses the mystery of to-day, so replete 
with the filial love of the true Solomon. Then Beth- 
sabee came to King Solomon .... and the king 
arose to meet her, and bowed to her, and sat down 
upon his throne: and a throne was set for the 

. 1 3 Kings x. 10. 

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king* 8 mother : and she sat on his right hand. 1 O 
Lady, how exceedingly dost thou surpass all the 
servants and ministers and friends of God! "On 
" the day when Gabriel came to my lowliness/' are 
the words St. Ephrem puts into thy mouth, " from 
"handmaid I became Queen; and I, the slave of 
" thy divinity, found myself suddenly the mother of 
" thy humanity, my Lord and my Son ! O Son of 
" the King who hast made me his daughter, 0 thou 
" heavenly One, who thus bringest into heaven this 
"daughter of earth, by what name shall I call 
"thee?" 2 The Lord Christ himself answered; the 
God made Man revealed to us the only name which 
fully expresses him in his two-fold nature: he is 
called The Son. Son of Man as he is Son of God, on 
earth he has only a Mother, as in heaven he has only 
a Father. In the august Trinity he proceeds from 
the Father, remaining consubstantial with him ; only 
distinguished from him in that he is Son; pro- 
ducing together with him, as one Principle, the Holy 
Ghost. In the external mission he fulfils by the 
Incarnation to the glory of the Blessed Trinity, — com- 
municating to his humanity the manners, so to say, 
of his Divinity, as far as the diversity of the two 
natures permits, — he is in no way separated from his 
Mother, and would have her participate even in the 
giving of the Holy Ghost to every souL This in- 
effable union is the foundation of all Mary's great- 
nesses, which are crowned by to-day's triumph. The 
days within the Octave will give us an opportunity 
of showing some of the consequences of this prin- 
ciple ; to-day let it suffice to have laid it down. 

" As Christ is the Lord," says Arnold of Bonneval, 
the friend of St. Bernard, " Mary is Lady and sove- 
reign. He who bends the knee before the Son, 

1 3 Kings ii. 19. 8 Ephrem. in NataL Dom., Sermo iv. 

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"kneels before the Mother. At the sound of her 
" name the devils tremble, men rejoice, the Angels 
" glorify God. Mary and Christ are one flesh, one 
" mind, and one love. From the day when it was 
" said, The Lord is with thee, the grace was irrevo- 
cable, the unity inseparable; and in speaking of 
" the glory of Son and Mother, we must call it not 
"so much a common glory as the self-same glory." 1 
" 0 thou, the beauty and the honour of thy Mother," 
adds the great deacon of Edessa, " thus hast thou 
"adorned her in every way; together with others 
"she is thy sister and thy bride, but she alone con- 
ceived thee." 2 

Rupert in his turn cries out: "Come then, O 
"most beautiful one, thou shalt be crowned in 
" heaven Queen of saints, on earth Queen of every 
" kingdom. Wherever it shall be said of the Beloved 
" that he is crowned with glory and honour, and set 
" over the works of his Father's hands, everywhere 
"also shall they proclaim of thee, O well beloved, 
" that thou art his Mother, and as such Queen over 
"every domain where his power extends; and, 
" therefore, emperors and kings shall crown thee 
" with their crowns and consecrate their palaces to 
"thee." 3 


Among the feasts of the Saints this is the solemnity 
of solemnities. "Let the mind of man," says St. 
Peter Damian, " be occupied in declaring her magni- 
"ficence; let his speech reflect her majesty. May 
"the sovereign of the world deign to accept the 
"good will of our lips, to aid our insufficiency, to 

1 Arnold. Carnotensis. De laudibus Mariae. 

2 Ephrem in Natal. Dom., Sermo viii. 

3 Rupert in Cant., lib. iii., c. iv. 

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" illumine with her own light the sublimity of this 
"day/' 1 

It is no new thing, then, that Mary's triumph fills 
the hearts of Christians with enthusiasm. Before 
our times the Church showed by the prescriptions 
kept in the Corpus juris the pre-eminence she 
assigned to this glorious anniversary. Thus, under 
Boniface VIII., she granted to it, as to no other 
feast, except Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost, the 
privilege of being celebrated with ringing of bells 
and the customary splendour in countries laid under 
interdict. 2 

In his instructions to the newly-converted Bul- 
garians, St. Nicholas I., who occupied the Apostolic 
See from 858 to 867, had already united these four 
solemnities when recommending the fasts of Lent, 
of the Ember days, and of the Vigils of these feasts : 
" Fasts," he says, "which the holy Roman Church has 
"long since received and observed." 3 

We must refer to the preceding century the com- 
position of the celebrated discourse which, until the 
time of St. Pius V., furnished the Lessons for the 
Matins of the feast ; while its thoughts, and even its 
text are still found in several parts of the Office. 4 
The author, worthy of the greatest ages for style and 
science, but screening himself under a false name, 
began thus : " You wish me, 0 Paula and Eusto- 
" chium, to lay aside my usual form of treatises, and 
" strive (a new thing to me), to celebrate in oratorical 
"style the Assumption of the Blessed Mary ever 
"Virgin." And the supposed St. Jerome eloquently 
declared the grandeur of this feast : " Incomparable 
" as is she who thereon ascended glorious and happy 

1 Petr. Dam. Sermo in Assuinpt. B.M.V. 

2 Cap. Alma Mater, De sent, excommunicat. in vi°. 
* Mansi, xv. 403. 

4 Especially the Mag* Ant. for 2nd Vesp., already quoted. 

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" to the sanctuary of heaven : a solemnity, the ad- 
" miration of the heavenly hosts, the happiness of 
" the citizens of our true country, who, not content 
" with giving it one day as we do, celebrate it un- 
" ceasingly in the eternal continuity of their venera- 
" tion, of their love, and of their triumphant joy." 1 
Unfortunately a just aversion for the excesses of 
certain apocryphal writers led the author of this 
beautiful exposition of the greatness of Mary to 
hesitate in his belief as to the glorious privilege of 
her corporal Assumption. This over-discreet pru- 
dence was soon exaggerated in the martyrologies of 
Usuard and of Odo of Vienne. 

That such a misconception of the ever-growing 
tradition should be found in Gaul, is truly astonish- 
ing, since it was the ancient Gallican liturgy which 
gave to the West the explicit formula of that com- 
plete Assumption, the consequence of a divine and 
virginal maternity: "No pain in child-birth, no 
" suffering in death, no dissolution in the grave, for 
" no tomb could retain her whom earth had never 
"sullied." 2 

When the first Carlovingians abandoned the 
Gallican liturgy, they bowed to the authority of the 
false St. Jerome. 3 But the faith of the people could 
not be suppressed. In the 13th century the two 
princes of theology, St. Thomas and St. Bonaventure, 
subscribed to the general belief in our Lady's 
anticipated resurrection. Soon this belief, by reason 
of its universality, claimed to be the doctrine of the 
Church herself. In 1497 the Sorbonne severely 

1 P«e?tdo-HiERONYMUS. De Assumpt. B.M.V., i., viil, xiv. 

2 Missale Gothicum. 

3 H» sunt festivitates in anno quae per omnia servari debent. 
. . . De Assumptione Sanctse Marie interrogandum reliquimus. 
Oapitulare Carou Magni, i. 158 ; cui pro festo admittendo 
responsum a Ludovico Pio, capit. n., 33, ex can. xxxvi. concilii 
Mogunt. anni 813. 

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censured all contrary propositions. 1 In 1870 an 
earnest desire was expressed to have the doctrine 
defined ; but the Vatican Council was unfortunately 
suspended too soon to complete our Lady's glorious 
crown. Yet the proclamation of the Immaculate 
Conception, of which our times can boast, gives us 
hope for the future. The corporal Assumption of 
our Lady follows naturally from that dogma as its 
necessary result. Mary, having known nothing of 
original sin, contracted no debt with death, the 
punishment of that sin ; she freely chose to die in 
order to be conformable to her Divine Son ; and, as 
the Holy One of God, so the holy one of his Christ, 
could not suffer the corruption of the tomb. 

If certain ancient calendars give to this feast the 
title of Sleep or Repose, dormitio or pausatio of the 
Blessed Virgin, we cannot thence conclude that at 
the time they were composed the feast had no other 
object than Mary's holy death; the Greeks, from 
whom we have the expression, have always included 
in the solemnity the glorious triumph that followed 
her death. The same is to be said of the Syrians, 
Chaldeans, Copts, and Armenians. 

Among the last-named, according to the custom 
of arranging their feasts by the day of the week 
rather than the date of the month, the Assumption 
is fixed for the Sunday which occurs between the 
12th and 18th August. It is preceded by a week 
of fasting, and gives its name to the series of Sundays 
following it, up to the Exaltation of the Holy Cross 
in September. 

At Rome the Assumption or Dormitio of the holy 

1 Propositio J. Morcelli ; Non tenemur credere sub poena peccati 
mortal™ quod Virgo fuit assumpta in corpore et aroma, quia non 
est articulus fidei ; qualificatur : Ut jacet, temeraria, scandalosa, 
impia, devotionis populi ad Virginem diminutiva, falsa et h<rre- 
tica ; ideo revocanda publice. 

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Mother of God, appears in the seventh century to 
have already been celebrated for an indefinite length 
of time j 1 nor does it seem to have had any other 
day than the 15th August. According to Nicephorus 
Callistus, 2 the same date was assigned to it for 
Constantinople by the Emperor Mauritius at the 
end of the sixth century. The historian notes, at the 
same time, the origin of several other solemnities, 
while of the dormitio alone, he does not say that it 
was established by Mauritius on such a day ; hence 
learned authors have concluded that the feast itself 
already existed before the imperial decree was issued, 
which was thus only intended to put an end to its 
being celebrated on various days. 3 

At that very time, far away from Byzantium, 
the Merovingian Franks celebrated the glorification 
of our Lady on the 18th January, with ail the 
plenitude of doctrine we have mentioned above. 
However the choice of this day may be accounted 
for, it is remarkable that to this very time the Copts 
on the borders of the Nile announce in their 
synaxaria on the 21st of the month of Tobi, our 
28th January, the repose of the Virgin Mary, 
Mother of God, and the Assumption of her body 
into heaven; they, however, repeat the announce- 
ment on the 16th of Mesori, or 21st August, and 
on the 1st of this same month of Mesori they begin 
their Lent of the Mother of God, lasting a fortnight 
like that of the Greeks. 4 

Some authors think that the Assumption has been 
kept from Apostolic times; but the silence of the 
primitive liturgical documents is not in favour of 
the opinion. The hesitation as to the date of its 

1 Liber pontific. : in Sergio I. 

2 NicbphI Call. Hist. Eccli., Liber xviL, cap. 28. 

3 Benedict XIV. de festis B.M.V., c. viii. 

4 Nilles, Kalendarum utriusque ,Kccl. orientalis et occidentalis. 

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celebration, and the liberty so long allowed with 
regard to it, point rather to the spontaneous initiative 
of divers churches, owing to some fact attracting 
attention to the mystery, or throwing some light 
upon it. Of this nature we may reckon the account 
everywhere spread abroad about the year 451, in 
which Juvenal of Jerusalem related to the empress 
St. Pulcheria and her husband Marcian the history 
of the tomb which was empty of its precious deposit, 
and which the Apostles had prepared for our Lady 
at the foot of Mount Olivet. The following words of 
Si Andrew of Crete in the seventh century show how 
the new solemnity gained ground in consequence of 
such circumstances. The Saint was born at Damascus, 
became a monk at Jerusalem, was afterwards deacon 
at Constantinople, and lastly Bishop of the celebrated 
Island from which he takes his name ; no one then 
could speak for the East with better authority: 
"The present solemnity," he says, "is full of mystery, 
" having for its object to celebrate the day whereon 
"the Mother of God fell asleep; this solemnity is 
"too elevated for any discourse to reach; by some 
" this mystery has not always been celebrated, but 
" now, all love and honour it. Silence long preceded 
"speech, but now love divulges the secret. The 
"gift of God must be manifested, not buried; we 
" must show it forth, not as recently discovered, but 
" as having recovered its splendour. Some of those 
"who lived before us knew it but imperfectly: that 
"is no reason for always keeping silence about it; 
"it has not become altogether obscured; let us 
"proclaim it and keep a feast. To-day let the 
" inhabitants of heaven and of earth be united, let 
" the joy of Angels and men be one, let every tongue 
"exult and sing Hail to the Mother of God." 1 

1 Andr. Ckkt. Oratio xiii. in Dormitionem Deipare, ii. 

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Let us, too, do honour to the gift of God ; let us 
be grateful to the Church for having given us this 
feast whereon to sing with the Angels the glory of 

The Psalms and Hymn of Vespers are the same as 
for the other feasts of our Lady. The Antiphons, 
Capitulum, and Versicle gracefully express the 
mystery of the day. 

1. Ant. Mary is taken up 
into heaven: the Angels re- 
price, and praising bless the 

Fa. Dixit Dominus,/>a0re36. 

2. Ant. The Virgin Mary 
is taken up into the heavenly 
dwelling, where the King of 
kings sits on his starry throne. 
: Pa. Laudate pueri, page 39. 

3. Ant. We run after thee 
to the odour of thy ointments : 
young maidens have loved 
thee exceedingly. 

1. Ant. Assumpta est Ma- 
ria in coelum: gaudent An- 

feli, laudantes benedicunt 

2. Ant. Maria Virgo as- 
sumpta est ad sethereum 
thalamum, in quo Bex re- 
gum stellato sedet solio. 

3. Ant. In odorem un- 
guentorum tuorum curri- 
mus : adolescentulae dilexe- 
Tunt te nimis. 

Psalm 121. 

I rejoiced at the things that 
were said to me : We shall go 
into the house of the Lord. 

Our feet were standing in 
thy courts, O Jerusalem ! our 
heart loves and confides in 
thee, 0 Mary. 

Mary is like to Jerusalem, 
that is built as a city, which 
is compact together. 

For thither did the tribes 
go up, the tribes of the Lord : 
the testimony of Israel, to 
praise the name of the Lord. 

Because seats sat there in 

Laetatus sum in his qu» 
dicta sunt mihi : * In do- 
mum Domini ibimus. 

Stantes erant pedes nos-* 
tri : * in atriis tuis, Jerusa- 

Jerusalem quae aedificatur 
ut civitas: * cujus partici- 
pate ejus in idipsum. 

Illuc enim ascenderunt 
tribus, tribus Domini: * 
testimonium Israel ad con- 
ti tend urn Nomini Domini 

Quia illic sederunt sedes 

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in judicio: * 
domum David. 


Bogate quae ad pacem 
sunt Jerusalem : * et abun- 
dantia diligentibus te. 

Fiat pax in virtute tua: 
* et abundantia in turribus 

Propter f ratres meos et 
proximos meos : * loquebar 
pacem de te. 

Propter domum Domini 
Dei nostri : * quaesivi bona 

judgment: seats upon the 
house of David ; and Mary is 
of a kingly race. 

Pray ye, through Mary, for 
the things that are for the 
peace of Jerusalem : and may 
abundance be on them that 
love thee, 0 Church of our 

The voice of Mary: let 
peace be in tby strength, 0 
thou new Sionf and abund- 
ance in thy towers. 

I, a daughter of Israel* for 
the sake of my brethren and 
of my neighbours, spoke 
peace of thee. 

Because of the house of the 
Lord our God, I have sought 
good things for thee. 

4. Ant. Benedicta filia 4. Ant. Daughter of Sum, 

tu a Domino : quia per te thou art blessed of the Lord : 

f ructum vitae communica- for by thee we have partaken 

vimus. of the fruit of life. 

Psalm 126. 

Nisi Dominu8 aedificave- 
rit domum : * in vanum la- 
boraverunt qui aedificant 

Nisi Dominus custodierit 
.civitatem : * frustra vigilat 
qui custodit earn. 

Vanum est vobis ante lu- 
cem surgere : * surgite post- 
quam sederitis, qui mandu- 
catis panem doloris. 

Cum dederit dilectis suis 
somnum : * ecce haereditas 
Domini, filii, merces, fruc- 
tus ventris. 

Sicut sagittae in manu 

Unless the Lord build the 
House, they labour in vain 
that build it. 

Unless the Lord keep the 
City, he watcheth in vain that 
keepeth it 

It is vain for you to rise 
before light; rise ye after 
you have sitten, you that eat 
of the bread of sorrow. 

When he shall give sleep to 
his beloved: behold the in- 
heritance of the Lord are 
children; the reward, the 
fruit of the womb. 

As arrows in the hand of 

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the mighty, so the children of 
them that have been shaken. 

Blessed is the man that 
hath filled his desire with 
them; he shall not be con- 
founded when he shall speak 
to his enemies at the gate. 

5. Ant. Thou art beautiful 
and comely, O daughter of 
Jerusalem, terrible as an army 
set in array. 


Praise the Lord, 0 Mary, 
thou true Jerusalem : 0 Mary, 
O Sion ever holy, praise thy 

Because he hath strength- 
ened against sin the bolts of 
thy gates: he hath blessed 
thy children within thee. 

Who hath placed peace in 
thy borders, and filleth thee 
with the fat of corn, with 
Jesus, who is the Bread of 

Who sendeth forth by thee 
his Word to the earth; his 
Word runneth swiftly. 

Who giveth snow like wool ; 
scattereth mists like ashes. 

He sendeth his crystal like 
morsels : who shall stand be- 
fore the face of his cold ? 

He shall send forth his 
Word by Mary, and shall 
melt them: his Spirit shall 
breathe, and the waters shall 

Who declareth his Word to 
Jacob : his justices and his 
judgments to Israel. 


potentis: * ita filii excus- 

Beatus vir qui implevit 
desiderium suum ex ipsis: 
* non confundetur cum lo- 
quetur inimicis suis in porta. 

5. Ant. Pulchra es et de- 
cora, filia Jerusalem, terri- 
bilis ut castrorum acies or- 


Lauda, Jerusalem, Domi- 
num : * lauda Deum tuum, 

Quoniam confortavit se- 
ras portarum tuarum : * be- 
nedixit filiis tuis in te. 

Qui posuit fines tuos pa- 
cem : * et adipe frumenti 
satiat te. 

Qui emittit eloquium su- 
um terrse: * velociter cur- 
rit sermo ejus. 

Qui dat nivem sicut lan- 
am: * nebulam sicut cine- 
rem spargit. 

Mittit crystallum suam 
sicut buccellas : * ante f aci- 
em frigoris ejus, quis susti- 
nebit 1 

Emittet Verbum suum, 
et liquefaciet ea: * flabit 
Spiritus ejus,et fluent aquae. 

Qui annuntiat Verbum 
suum Jacob: * justitias, 
et judicia sua Israel. 

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Non fecit taliter omni 
nationi: * et judicia sua 
non manif estavit eis. 

He hath not done in like 
manner to every nation ; and 
his judgments he hath not 
made manifest to them. 

CAPITULUM. (Eccli. xxiv.) 

In omnibus requiem quse- 
sivi, et in haereditate l)o- 
mini morabor. Tunc prae- 
cepit, et dixit mihi Creator 
omnium : et qui creavit me, 
requievit in tabernaculo 

In all things I sought rest, 
and I shall abide in the in- 
heritance of the Lord. Then 
the Creator of all things com- 
manded and said to me : and 
he that made me rested in my 


Ave, Maris Stella, 
Dei Mater alma, 
Atque semper Virgo, 
Felix cceli porta. 

Sumens illud Ave 
Gabrielis ore, 
Funda nos in pace, 
Mutans Evas nomen. 

Solve vincla reis, 
Prof er lumen caecis, 
Mala nostra pelle, 
Bona cuncta posce. 

Monstra te esse Matrem, 
Sumat per te preces, 
~ui, pro nobis natus, 
lit esse tuus. 



Virgo singularis, 
Inter omnes mitis, 
Nos culpis solutos, 
Mites fac et castos. 

Vitam praesta puram, 
Iter para tutum, 
Ut videntes Jesum, 
Semper collaetemur. 

Hail, Star of the Sea ! Bles- 
sed Mother of God, yet ever a 
Virgin ! O happy gate of hea- 
ven ! 

Thou that didst receive the 
Ave from Gabriel's lips, con- 
firm us in peace, and so let 
Eva be changed into an Ave 
of blessing for us. 

Loose the sinner's chains, 
bring light to the blind, drive 
from us our evils, and ask all 
good things for us. 

Show thyself a Mother, and 
offer our prayers to him who 
would be born of thee when 
born for us. 

O incomparable Virgin and 
meekest of the meek, obtain 
us the forgiveness of our sins, 
and make us meek and chaste. 

Obtain us purity of life and 
a safe pilgrimage; that we 
may be united with thee in 
the blissful vision of Jesus. 

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Praise be to God the Father, 
and to the Lord Jesus, and to 
the Holy Ghost : to the Three 
one self-same praise. 


f. The holy Mother of God 
has been exalted. 

]$. Above the choirs of 
Angels, to the heavenly king- 

Sit laus Deo Patri, 
Summo Christo decus, 
Spiritui Sancto, 
Tribus honor unus. 

(t. Exaltata est sancta 
Dei Genitrix. 

IJ. Super choros Angelo- 
rum ad ccelestia regna. 


Virgin most prudent, whi- 
ther goest thou, like to the 
rosy dawn? Daughter of 
Sion, all beautiful and sweet 
art thou, fair as the moon, 
chosen as the sun. 

Virgo prudentissiina, quo 
progrederis, quasi aurora 
valde rutilans % Filia Sion 
tota formosa et suavis es, 
pulchra ut luna, electa ut 


Pardon, we beseech thee, O 
Lord, the sins of thy servants; 
that we, who are not able to 
please thee by our deeds, may 
be saved by the intercession 
of the Mother of thy Son. 
Who lives, etc. 

Famulorum tuorum, quae- 
sumus Domine, delictis ig- 
nosce : ut qui tibi placere 
de actibus nostris non vale- 
mus; Genitricis Filii tui 
Domini nostri intercession 
salvemur. Qui tecum. 

"When the time came for the Blessed Mary to 
' leave this earth, the Apostles were gathered to- 
' gether from all lands ; and, having learnt that the 
' hour was at hand, they watched with her. Now 
1 the Lord Jesus came with his Angels and received 
'her soul. In the morning the Apostles took up 
' her body and placed it in the tomb. And again 
' the Lord came, and the holy body was taken up in 
'a cloud." 1 

To this testimony of Gregory of Tours the whole 

1 Greg. Turon. De gloria Martyr., iv. 

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West and East respond, extolling " the solemnity of 
"the blessed night whereon the venerated Virgin 
" made her entry into heaven." 1 " What a brilliant 
"light pierces the darkness" of this night, says St 
John Damascene ; 2 and he goes on to describe the 
assembly of the faithful, eagerly pressing during the 
sacred night to hear the praises of the Mother of 
God. 3 

How could Rome, so devout to Mary, allow her- 
self to be outdone ? On the testimony of St. Peter 
Damian, the whole people spent the glorious night 
in prayer, singing and visiting the different churches; 
and, according to several privileged persons en- 
lightened from above, still greater, at that blessed 
hour, was the number of souls delivered from Pur- 
gatory by the Queen of the universe, and all visiting 
likewise the sanctuaries consecrated to her name. 4 
But the most imposing of all demonstrations in the 
city was the memorable litany or procession, which 
dates back to the Pontificate of St Sergius (687- 
701) ;* up to the second half of the sixteenth century 
it continued to express, as Borne alone knows how to, 
the august visit our Lady received from her Son 
at the solemn moment of her departure from this 

Two principal sanctuaries in the eternal City 
represent, as it were, the residences or palaces of 
Mother and Son : the basilica of our Saviour on the 
Lateran and that of St. Mary on the Esquiline. As 
the latter rejoices in possessing the picture of the 
Blessed Virgin painted by St. Luke, the Lateran 

1 Inter opera Hildbfonsi Tolet. De Assumptione B.M. V., 
Sermo iv. 

2 Joan. Damasc. in Dormitionem B.M.V., Homilia i. 
8 Ibid., Homilia iii. 

4 Pktr. Dam. Opusc. xxxiv. Disputat. De variis apparit. et 
miraculis, Cap. 3. 

5 Liber Pontine, in Sergio I. 

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preserves in a special oratory, holy of holies, the 
picture not made by hand of man representing the 
form of our Saviour upon cedar-wood. 1 On the 
morning of the Vigil the Sovereign Pontiff, accom- 
panied by the Cardinals, went barefoot, and, after 
seven genuflections, uncovered the picture of the 
Virgin's Son. In the evening, while the bell of 
Ara cceli gave from the Capitol the signal for the 
preparations prescribed by the city magistrates, the 
Lord Pope went to St. Mary Major, where, sur- 
rounded by his court, he celebrated First Vespers. 
At the beginning of the night the Matins with nine 
Lessons were chanted in the same church. 

Meanwhile an ever-growing crowd gathers on the 
piazza of the Lateran, awaiting the Pontiff's return. 
From all sides appear the various guilds of the arts 
and crafts, each led by its own head and taking up 
its appointed position. Around the picture of the 
Saviour, within the sanctuary, stand the twelve 
bearers who form its perpetual guard, all members 
of the most illustrious families, and near them are 
the representatives of the senate and of the Roman 

But the signal is given that the papal retinue is re- 
descending the Esquiline. Instantly lighted torches 
glitter on all sides, either held in the hand, or carried 
on the brancards of the corporations. Assisted by 
the deacons, the Cardinals raise on their shoulders 
the holy image, which advances under a canopy, 
escorted in perfect order by the immense multitude. 
Along the illuminated and decorated streets, 2 amid 
the singing of Psalms and the sound of instruments, 
the procession reaches the ancient Triumphal Way, 
winds round the Coliseum, and, passing through the 

1 Imago SS. Salvatoris acheropita, quae servatur in oratorio 
dicto Sancta Sanctorum. 
a Hittobp. Ordo Rom. 

pent. iv. 2D 

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arches of Constantine and Titus, halts* for a first 
Station on the Via Sacra, before the church called 
St. Mary Minor or Nuova. 1 In this church, while 
the second Matins with three Lessons are being 
chanted in honour of tbe Mother, some priests wash, 
with scented water in a silver basin, the feet of her 
Son, our Lord, and then sprinkle the people with the 
water thus sanctified. Then the venerable picture 
sets out once more, crosses the Forum amidst accla- 
mations, and reaches the church of St. Adrian, thence 
returning to mount the slopes of the Esquiline by 
the streets where lie the churches of that part : St. 
Peter-ad- Vincula, St. Lucy, St. Martin-on-the-hill, 
St. Praxedes, it at last enters the piazza of St. Mary 
Major. Then the delight and the applause of the 
crowd are redoubled; all, men and women, great 
and little, as we read in a document of 1462,* forget- 
ting the fatigue of a whole night spent without sleep, 
cease not till morning to visit and venerate our Lord 
and Mary. In this glorious basilica, adorned as a 
bride, the glorious Office of Lauds celebrates the 
meeting of the Son and the Mother and their union, 
for all eternity. 

Striking miracles often showed the divine pleasure 
in this manifestation of the people's faith and love. 
Peter the Venerable, 8 and other reliable witnesses, 4 
mention the prodigy annaally renewed, of the torches 
burning throughout the whole night, and being found 
on the morrow to be of the same weight as on the eve. 
In the year 847, as the procession headed by St. Leo 
IV. passed by the church of St. Lucy, a monstrous 
serpent, which had lived in a cavern hard by to the 
continual terror of the inhabitants, took to flight and 

1 Now St. Frances of Rome. 

* Archivio della Corapagnia di Sancta Sanctorum. 

3 Petr. Venerab. De miraculis, n. xxx. 

4 Marangoni, Istoria dell' Oratorio di Sancta Sanctortim, p. 127: 

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was never seen again. In gratitude for this deliver- 
ance an Octave was added to the feast. 1 Four cen- 
turies later, in the Pontificate of the heroic Gregory 
IX., when the sacred cort&ge stopped according to 
custom before the church of St. Mary Nuova, the 
partisans of the excommunicated Frederick II., 
occupying the tower of the Frangipani not far off, 
began to cry out: "Here is the Saviour, let the 
"Emperor come!" when suddenly the tower fell to 
the ground crushing them under its ruins. 2 

But let us return to the great basilica where other 
recollections invite us. On another night we joy- 
fully celebrated within its walls the birth of our 
Emmanuel. How ineffable are the divine harmonies! 
At the same hour, when for the first time Mary had 
pressed to her heart the Infant God in the stable, she 
herself now awakes in the arms of her Well-Beloved 
at the very height of heaven. The Church, who 
.reads during this month the Books of Divine Wisdom, 
did well to select for to-night the Canticle of Canticles. 

The Bishop of Meaux thus describes this death : 
" The Most Holy Virgin gave up her soul without 
"pain and without violence into the hands of her 
"Son. It was not necessary for her love to exert 
"itself by any extraordinary emotions. As the 
"slightest shock causes the fully ripe fruit to drop 
" down from the tree, so was this blessed soul culled, 
" to be suddenly transported to heaven ; thus the 
"holy Virgin died by a movement of divine love: 
" her soul was carried to heaven on a cloud of sacred 
" desires. Therefore the holy Angels said : Who is 
"she that goeth up ... as a pillar of smoke of 
" aromatical spices, of myrrh, and frankincense P 
" — a beautiful and excellent comparison admirably 

1 Liber Pontific. in Leone IV. 3 Cant. iii. 6. 

2 Raynald. ad an. 1239. 

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" explaining the manner of her happy, tranquil death, 
" The fragrant smoke that we see rising up from a 
" composition of perfumes, is not extracted by force, 
" nor propelled by violence : a gentle, tempered heat 
" delicately detaches it and turns it into a subtile 
" vapour which rises of its own accord. Thus was 
" the soul of the holy Virgin separated from her body r 
" the foundations were not shaken by a violent con- 
cussion ; a divine heat detached it gently from the 
" body and raised it up to its Beloved. 1 

" For a few hours that sacred body remained in 
" our world, ' the treasure of the earth, soon to become 
" 'the wonder of the heavens.' 3 Who could tell the 
"sentiments of the august persons gathered by our 
" Lord around his Mother, to render her in his name 
"the last duties? An illustrious witness, Denis of 
"Athens, reminded Timothy, who had been there 
" present with him, of the discourses which, coming 
"from hearts filled with the Holy Ghost, rose up as 
" so many hymns to the Almighty goodness, whereby 
" our littleness had been divinized. There was James, 
" the brother of the Lord, and Peter, the leader of the 
" choir, and the Pontiffs of the Sacred College, and 
" all the brethren who had come to contemplate the 
" body which had given us life, and had borne God - r 
"above them all, after the Apostles, did Hierotheus 
"distinguish himself; for being ravished far from 
"earth and from himself, he seemed to all like a 
": divine cantor. 3 

" But this assembly of men, in whom reigned the 
"light of: God, understood that they must carry out 
" to the end the desires of her, who even in death 

1 Bossuet, First Sermon on the Assumption. 

2 Dom. Gueranger, Essai historique sur l'abbaye de Solesmes r 
suivi de la description de P^glise abbatiale, avec Texplication des 
monuments qu'elle renferme, p. 113. 

*Dionys. Areopagit. De divinis nominibus, cap. iii, § ii. 

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" was still the humblest of creatures. Carried by the 
" Apostles, escorted by the Angels of heaven and the 
" Saints of earth, the virginal body was borne from 
Sion to the valley of Gethsemani, where so often 
" since that bleeding Agony our Lady had returned 
" either in body or in heart. For a last time * Peter 
" 'joining his venerable hands gazed attentively at 
" 6 the almost divine features of the Mother of our 
" ' Saviour ; his glance, full of faith, sought to discover 
" * through the shades of death some rays of the glory 
" ' wherewith the Queen of heaven was already shin- 
" ' ing/ 991 John, her adopted son, cast one long, last, 
sorrowful look upon the Virgin's countenance, so calm 
and so sweet. The tomb was closed; earth was , 
deprived for ever of the sight of which it was un- 

More fortunate than men, the Angels, whose gaze 
could penetrate the marble monument, watched 
beside the tomb. They continued their songs until, 
after three days, the most holy soul of the Mother 
of God came down to take up her sacred body ; then 
leaving the grave, they accompanied her to heaven. 
Let us too, then, have our hearts on high ! Let us 
to-day forget our exile to rejoice in Mary's triumph; 
aud let us learn to follow her by the odour of her 
sweet perfumes. 

Let us make our own this ancient formula which 
was said at Rome over the assembled people, when 
about to start on the solemn Litany we have 
described above. 


It behoves us to honour, O Veneranda nobis, Domine, 
Lord, the solemnity of this hujus est diei festi vitas, in 
day, whereon the holy Mother qua sancta Dei Genitrix 
of God suffered temporal death; mortem subiit temporalem ; 

1 Dom. Gderanger, ubi supra* 

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nee tamen mortis nexibus yet she could not be held by 

deprimi potuit, quae Filium the bonds of death, who of her 

tuum Dominum nostrum de own flesh brought forth our 

se genuit incarnatum. Qui Lord, thy Son, Incarnate. Who 

tecum. livetn and reigneth with thee. 


Who is this King of glory t asked the keepers 
of the eternal gates, on the day of Emmanuel's 
triumphant Ascension. Their question is twice re- 
peated in the Psalm, 1 and a third time in Isaias, 
who cries out in the name of the heavenly citizens : 
' Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed 
garments from Bosra, this beautiful one in his 
robe, walking in the greatness of his strength ? 2 In 
like manner do the Angelic Princes twice express 
their admiration of the Virgin Mother. It is the 
sacred Canticle that tells us so. Who is she that 
cometh forth as the morning rising P This first 
question, as St. Peter Damian says, refers to Mary's 
birth, which put an end to the night of sin. 

Who is she that goeth up by the desert, as a pillar 
of smoke of aromatical spices ? 4 This is the ex- 
pression of the Angels' astonishment at the Virgin's 
incomparable life, with its uninterrupted progress in 
all the virtues, like the sweet smoke rising from the 

Who is this that cometh up from the desert, 
flowing with delights, leaning upon her beloved ? 5 
Such, in the sight of the Angels, was Mary rising 
from her tomb. 

She had fulfilled her mission, accomplished the 

1 Ps. xxiii. 8, 10. 4 Cant. iii. 6. 

2 Isaias Ixiii. I. 5 Ibid. viii. 5. 

3 Cant. vi. 9. 

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prophecy, crushed the head of the serpent. The 
blessed spirits who accompanied her, cried out to the 
guardians of the heavenly ramparts, in the words of 
the triumphant Psalm: "Open your gates!" So 
Judith, a type of Mary returning victorious, had cried : 
Open the gates, for God is with us, who hath shown 
his power in Israel. 1 The eternal gates were lifted 
up, and all the inhabitants of heaven, from the least 
to the greatest, went forth to meet the second 
Judith coming up from earth's lowly valley ; and 
they rejoiced with far greater exultation than did 
Israel when David brought the figurative Ark into 
the holy city. . 

Let us echo heaven's joy, and with our solemn 
Introit as a triumphal march, usher Mary into the 
true Jerusalem. The Verse is taken from the 
forty-fourth Psalm, the Epithalamium, thus linking 
the chants of the Holy Sacrifice with last night's 
Lessons from the sacred Canticle. 


Let us all rejoice in the Lord, Gaudeamus omnes in Do- 
celebrating a festival day in mino, diem f estum celebran- 
honour of the Blessed Virgin tes sub honore beatae Mariee 
Mary, for whose Assumption Virginis : de cujus Assump- 
the Angels rejoice and give tione gaudent Angeli, et col- 
praise to the Son of God. laudant Filium Dei. 

Ps. My heart hath uttered a Ps. Eructavit cor meum 

good word : I speak my works verbuin bonum : dico ego 

to the King. $\ Glory, dec. opera mea Regi. ^. Gloria 

Let us all. Patri. Gaudeamus. 

The following Prayer asks for pardon and salva- 
tion through the intercession of the Mother of God. 
Its apparent want of harmony with the mystery of 
the feast might surprise us, did we not remember 

1 Judith xiii. 13. 

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that At is only the second Collect for the day, in the 
Sacramentary ; the first, which we have given above, 
and which was said over the faithful at the beginning 
of the assembly, expressly declares that Mary covZa 
not be held by the bonds of death. 


Famulorum tuorum, quae- 
sumus Domine, delictis ig- 
nosce: ut, qui tibi placere 
de actibus nostris non vale- 
mus, Genitricis Filii tui Do- 
mini nostri intercessione sal- 
vemur. Qui tecum. 

Pardon, we beseeeh thee, O 
Lord, the sins of thy servants ; 
that we, who are not able to 
please thee by our deeds, may 
be saved by the intercession 
of the Mother of thy Son. 
Who lives, <fcc 


Lectio libri Sapientise. 
Eccli. xxiv. 

In omnibus requiem quae- 
sivi, et in haereditate Do- 
mini morabor. Tunc prae- 
cepit, et dixit mihi Creator 
omnium: et qui creavit me, 
requievit in tabernaculo 
meo, et dixit mihi : In Jacob 
inhabita, et in Israel haere- 
ditare, et in electis meis 
mitte radices. Et sic in 
Sion firmata sum, et in civi- 
tate sanctificata similiter re- 
quievi, et in Jerusalem po- 
testas mea. : Et radicavi in 
populo honorificato, et in 
parte Dei mei haereditas 
illius, et in plenitudine sanc- 
torum detentio mea. Quasi 
cedrus exaltata sum in Liba- 
no, et quasi cypressus in 
monte Sion. Quasi palma 
exaltata sum in Cades, et 
quasi plantatio rosae in Jeri- 
cho. Quasi oliva speciosa 

Lesson from the Book of 
Wisdom. Eccli. xxiv. 

In all things, I sought rest, 
and I shall abide in the in- 
heritance of the Lord. Then 
the Creator of all things com- 
manded, and said to me ; and 
he that made me rested in my 
tabernacle. And he said to 
me: Let thy dwelling be in 
Jacob, and thy inheritance in 
Israel, and take root in my 
elect. And so was I establish- 
ed in Sion, and in the holy 
city likewise I rested, and my 
power was in Jerusalem : and 
I took root in an honourable 
people, and in the portion of my 
Goa his inheritance, and my 
abode is in the full assembly 
of saints. I was exalted like 
a Cedar in Libanus, and as a 
cypress-tree on Mount Sion: 
I was exalted like a palm-tree 
in Cades, and as a rose-plant 
in Jericho: as a fair olive-tree 

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in the plains, and as a plane- 
tree by the water in the streets 
was I exalted. I gave a sweet 
smell like cinnamon and aro- 
matic balm: I yielded a sweet 
odour like the best myrrh. 

in campis, et quasi platanus 
exaltata sum juxta aquam 
in plateis. Sicut cinnamo- 
mum, et balsamum aroma- 
tizans odorem dedi: quasi 
myrrha electa dedi suavita- 
tem odoris. 

The Epistle we have just read is closely connected 
with the Gospel that is to follow. The rest that 
Mary sought is the better part, the repose of the 
soul in the presence of the Peaceful King; and 
when a soul is thus full of peace, she forms the 
choicest part of her Lord's inheritance. No creature 
has attained so nearly as our Lady to the eternal, 
unchangeable peace of the ever- tranquil Trinity; 
hence no other has merited to become, in the same 
degree, the resting-place of God. 

A soul occupied by active works cannot attain the 
perfection or the fruitfulness of one in whom our 
Lord takes his rest, because she is at rest in him ; 
for this is the nuptial rest. As the Psalm says: 
" When the Lord shall give sleep to his beloved, 
" then shall their fruit be seen." 

Let us then, who became Mary's children on the 
day the Lord first rested in her tabernacle, under- 
stand these magnificent expressions of Eternal 
Wisdom; for they reveal to us the glory of her 
triumph. The branch that sprang from the stock of 
Jesse bears the divine Flower on which rests the 
fulness of the Holy Ghost ; but it has taken root 
also in the elect, into whose branches it passes the 
heavenly sap, which transforms them and divinizes 
their fruit. These fruits of Jacob and of Israel, i.e., 
the works of the ordinary Christian life or of the 
life of perfection, belong therefore to our Blessed 
Mother. Rightly then does Mary enter to-day upon 
her unending rest in the eternal Sion — the true holy 

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city and glorified people — the Lord's inheritance. 
Her power will be established in Jerusalem and the 
Saints will for ever acknowledge that they owe to 
her the fulness of their perfection. 

But the plenitude of Mary's personal merits far 
surpasses that of all the Saints together. As the 
cedar of Libanus towers above the flowers of the 
field, far more does our Lady's sanctity, next to that 
of her divine Son, surpass the sanctity of every 
other creature. The Angelic Doctor says: "The 
" trees to which the Blessed Virgin is compared in 
"this Epistle, may be taken to represent the dif- 
" ferent orders of the blessed This passage there* 
" fore means : that Mary has been exalted above the 
"Angels, Patriarchs, Prophets, Apostles, Martyrs, 
" Confessors, Virgins, and all the Saints, because she 
"possesses all their merits united in her single 
" person." 1 

The Gradual is taken, as was the Verse of the 
Introit, from the 44th Psalm. In it we sing those 
perfections of the Bride that have caused the King 
of kings to call her to himself. The Alleluia Verse 
tells us how the angelic army hailed the entrance of 
its Queen. 


Propter veritatem, et man- Because of truth, and meek- 
suetudinem, et justitiam, et ness, and justice, and thy 
deducet te mirabiliter dex- right hand shall conduct thee 
tera tua. wonderfully. 

^. Audi filia, et vide, et fl. Hearken, O daughter, 

inclina aurem tuam : quia and see, and incline thy ear : 

concupivit Rex speciem for the King hath greatly 

tuam. desired thy beauty. 

Alleluia, alleluia. Alleluia, alleluia. 

*ff. Assumpta est Maria in Jf\ Mary is assumed into 

ccelum, gaudet exercitus An- heaven: the host of Angels 

gelorum. Alleluia. rejoiceth. Alleluia. 

1 Thom. Aquin. Sermo in Assumpt. B.M.V. 

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Sequel of the Holy Gospel 
according to Luke. Ch. x. 

At that time, Jesus entered 
into a certain town ; and a 
certain woman, named Mar- 
tha, received him into her 
house : and she had a sister 
called Mary, who sitting also 
at the Lord's feet, heard his 
-word. But Martha was busy 
about much serving : who 
stood and said, Lord, hast 
thou no care that my sister 
hath left me alone to serve? 
Speak to her, therefore, that 
she help me. And the Lord 
answering said to her, Martha, 
Martha, thou art careful, and 
art troubled about many 
things: but one thing is ne- 
cessary. Mary hath chosen 
the best part, which shall not 
be taken away from her. 

Sequentia sancti Evangelii 
secundum Lucam. Cap.x. 

In illo tempore: Intra vit 
Jesus in quoddam castel- 
lum: et mulier quaedam 
Martha nomine, ezcepit il- 
ium in domum suam, et 
huic erat soror nomine Ma- 
ria, quae etiam sedens secus 
pedes Domini, audiebat ver- 
bum illius. Martha autem 
satagebat circa frequens 
ministerium : quae stetit, et 
ait: Domine, non est tibi 
curse, quod soror mea reli- 
quit me solam ministrare? 
die ergo illi, ut me adjuvet 
Et respondens dixit illi Do- 
minus : Martha, Martha, 
sollicita es, et turbaris erga 
piurima. Porro unum est 
necessarium. Maria opti- 
mam partem elegit, quae 
non auferetur ab ea. 

To this Gospel the Roman Liturgy 1 formerly 
added, as the Greek and the Mozarabic still add, 
the following verses from another chapter of St 
Luke : As he spoke these things, a certain woman 
from the crowd lifting up her voice said to him : 
Blessed is the womb that bore thee, and the paps 
that gave thee mck. But he said : Yea rather, 
blessed are they who hear the word of God, and 
keep it. 2 

The words thus added turned the people's thoughts 
towards our Lady; still the episode of Martha and 
Mary in the Gospel of the day remained unexplained. 
We will use the words of St. Bruno of Asti to 

1 Thomasii Capitulare Evangeliorum. 2 St. Luke xi. 27, 28. 

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express the reason tradition gives for the choice of 
this GospeL "These two women," he says, "are 
" the leaders of the army of the Church, and all the 
"faithful follow them. Some walk in Martha's 
" footsteps, others in Mary's ; but no one can reach 
"our heavenly fatherland unless he follows one or 
" the other. Rightly then have our fathers ordained 
" that this Gospel should be read on the principal 
" feast of our Lady, for she is signified by these two 
" sisters. For no other creature combined the privi- 
"leges of both lives, active and contemplative, as 
" did the Blessed Virgin. Like Martha she received 
"Christ, — yea, she did more than Martha, for she 
" received him not only into her house, but into her 
" womb. She conceived him, gave him birth, carried 
" him in her arms, and ministered to him more 
" frequently than did Martha. On the other hand, 
"she listened, like Mary, to his words, ancj kept 
"them for our sake, pondering them in her heart. 
"She contemplated his Humanity and penetrated 
" more deeply than all others into his Divinity. She 
" chose the better part, which shall not be taken 
"away from her." 1 

" He," continues St. Bernard, " whom she received 
"at his entrance into this poor world, receives her 
" to-day at the gate of the holy City. No spot on 
" earth so worthy of the Son of God as the Virgin's 
"womb: no throne in heaven so lofty as that 
"whereon the Son of Mary places her in return. 
" What a reception each gave to the other ! It is 
"beyond the power of expression, because beyond 
" the reach of our thought. Who shall declare the 
" generation of the Son, and the Assumption of the 
"Mother?" 2 

In honour of both Mother and Son, let us put 

1 Bruno Ast. Honril. cxvii. in Assunipt. S.M.V. 

2 Bern, in Assumpt. B.M.V., Sermo i. 

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this Lesson of the Gospel into practice in our lives. 
When our soul is troubled, like Martha, or distracted 
with many anxieties, let us always remember, as 
Mary did, that there is but one thing necessary. 
Our Lord alone, either in himself or in his members, 
should be the one object of our thoughts. 

Every human thing is of more or less importance 
in proportion to its relation to God's glory; we 
should value everything in this proportion, and then 
the gtface of God which surpasseth all understand- 
ing will keep our hearts and minds in Christ 

To-day the Church on earth, represented by 
Martha, complains that she has been left alone to 
struggle and labour; but our Lord defends Mary, 
and confirms her in her choice of the better part. 
The Angels are keeping a great feast in heaven ; the 
Offertory once more tells of their joy. 


Mary is assumed into heaven, Asaumpta est Maria in 
the Angels rejoice, praising ccelum: gaudent Angeli, 
together they bless the Lord, collaudantes ben edicunt Do- 
Alleluia, minum. Alleluia. 

We must not allow anything like regret or envy 
to cast a shadow over our hearts. Mary has finished 
her pilgrimage and left our earth ; but now that she 
has entered into her glory, she still prays for us. So 
says the Secret. 


May the prayer of the Mother Subveniat, Domine, plebi 
of God assist thy people, O tuae Dei Genitricis oratio : 
Lord ; though we know her quam etsi pro conditione 
to have passed out of this carnismigrassecognoscimus, 
world, may we experience her in coeleati gloria apud te 

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pro nobis intercedere sentia- 
mus. Per eumdem. 

intercession for us with thee 
in the glory of heaven. Through 
the same Lord, <fcc. 


Vere dignum et justum 
est, aequum et salutare, nos 
tibi semper et ubique gratias 
agere: Domine sancte, Pater 
omnipotens, aeterne Deus: 
Et te in Assumptione beatse 
Mariae semper Virginis col- 
laudare, benedicere et prae- 
dicare. Quae et Unigenitum 
tutfm Sancti Spiritus obum- 
bratione concepit, et virgi- 
nitatis gloria permanente, 
lumen aeternum mundo ef- 
fudit, Jesum Christum Do- 
minum nostrum. Per quern 
majestatem tuam laudant 
Angeli, adorant Domina- 
tiones, tremunt Potestates ; 
Cceli, coslorumque Virtutes, 
ac beata Seraphim, socia 
exsultatione concelebrant. 
Cum quibus et nostras voces 
ut admitti jubeas depreca- 
mur, supplici confessione 
dicentes : Sanctus, Sanctus, 

It is truly meet and just, 
right and available to salva- 
tion, that we should always 
and in all places give thanks 
to thee, O holy Lord, Father 
Almighty, eternal God: and 
that we should praise, bless 
and glorify thee on the As- 
sumption of the blessed Mary, 
ever a Virgin, who by the 
overshadowing of the Holy 
Ghost, conceived thy Only 
Begotten Son, and tne glory 
of her Virginity still remain- 
ing, brought forth to the 
world the eternal Light, Jesus 
Christ our Lord. By whom 
the Angels praise thy majesty, 
the Dominations adore it, the 
Powers tremble before it ; the 
heavens and the heavenly Vir- 
tues, and the blessed Sera- 
phim, with common jubilee, 
glorify it. Together with 
whom, we beseech thee that 
we may be admitted to join 
our humble voices, saying : 
Holy ! Holy ! Holy ! 

If you loved me, said our Lord to his disciples 
when about to leave them, you would indeed be 
glad because I go to the Father. Let us, who love 
our Lady, be glad because she goes to her Son, and, 
as we sing in the Communion Anthem, the better 
part is hers for ever. 


Optimam partem elegit Mary hath chosen for her- 

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self the best part : which shall sibi Maria : quae non auf e- 
not be taken from her for retur ab ea in seternum. 

The sacred Bread, for which we are indebted to 
. Mary, remains always with us. May It, through her 
intercession, preserve us from all evils ! 


Having been made partakers Mensae coelestis participes 

of a heavenly banquet, we efFecti, imploramus clemen- 

implore thy mercy, O Lord tiam tuam, Domine Deus 

our God : that we who cele- noster : ut, qui Assumptio- 

brate the Assumption of the nem Dei Genitricis colimus, 

Mother of God, may by her a cunctis malis imminenti- 

intercession be delivered from bus, ejus intercessione li- 

all threatening evils. Through beremur. Per eumdem. 
the same Lord, etc. 


The Antiphons, Psalms, Capitulum, Hymn, and 
Versicle are the same as at First Vespers, page 397. 


This day the Virgin Mary Hodie Maria Virgo coelos 
went up to heaven: rejoice ascendit : gaudete, quia cum 
that she reigneth for ever with Christo regnat in aeternum. 

After the Prayer of the Feast, a commemoration 
is made of a holy Confessor, who had the happiness 
to be called to heaven on the day of our Lady's 
triumph. The Church, in order to celebrate his 
feast better, postponed it till to-morrow. 

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Commemoration of St Hyacinth, Confessor. 

Ant. Similabo eum viro Ant. I will liken him to a 
sapienti, qui aedificavit do- wise man, who built his house 
mum suam supra petram. upon a rock. 

^. AmaviteumDominus, $\ The Lord loved him and 

et ornavit eum. adorned him. 

Stolam glorise induit 1$. He clothed him with a 

eum. robe of glory. 


Deus, qui nos beati Hya- O God, who givest us joy 

cinthi Confessoris tpi an- by the annual solemnity of 

nua solemnitate laetificas : Blessed Hyacinth, thy conf es- 

concede propitius; ut cujus sor, mercifully grant that we 

natalitia colimus, etiam ac- may imitate the actions of 

tiones imitemur. Per Do- him whose festival we cele- 

minum. brate. Through our Lord, <fcc. 

In all the churches of France there takes place 
to-day the solemn procession which was instituted in 
memory of the vow whereby Louis XIII. dedicated 
the most Christian Kingdom to the Blessed Virgin. 

By letters given at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 
February 10th, 1638, the pious king consecrated to 
Mary his person, his kingdom, his crown, and hi* 
people. Then he continued: "We command the 
"Archbishop of Paris to make a commemoration 
" every year, on the Feast of the Assumption, of this 
" decree at the High Mass in his cathedral ; and after 
" Vespers on the said day let there be a procession 
" in the said church, at which the royal associations 
"and the Corporation shall assist, with the same 
"ceremonies as in the most solemn processions. 
" We wish the same to be done also in all churches, 
" whether parochial or monastic, in the said town 
" and its suburbs, and in all the towns, hamlets, and 
"villages of the said diocese of Paris. Moreover, 

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" we exhort and command all the Archbishops and 
"Bishops of our kingdom to have Mass solemnly 
" celebrated in their cathedrals and in all churches 
"in their dioceses:; and we wish the Parliaments 
"and other royal associations and the principal 
" municipal officers to be present at the ceremony. 
"We exhort the said Archbishops and Bishops to 
" admonish all our people to have a special devotion 
" to the holy Virgin, and on this day to implore her 
" protection, so that our Kingdom may be guarded 
" by so powerful a patroness from all attacks of its 
" enemies, and may enjoy good and lasting peace ; 
" and that God may be so well served and honoured 
"therein, that both we and our subjects may be 
"enabled happily to attain the end for which we 
" were created ; for such is our pleasure." 

Thus was France again proclaimed Mary's king- 
dom. Within a month after the first celebration of 
the feast, according to the royal prescriptions, the 
Queen, after twenty years' barrenness, gave birth 
on the 5th September, 1638, to, Louis XIV. This 
prince also consecrated his crown and sceptre to 
Mary. The Assumption then will always be the 
national feast of France, except for those of her sons 
who celebrate the anniversaries of revolutions and 

The following are the special prayers said every 
year, until the fall of the monarchy, in fulfilment of 
the vow of Louis XIII. We give the original text 
of the Collect : 


We fly to thy patronage, O Sub tuum presidium con- 
holy Mother of God ! despise fugimus, sancta Dei Geni- 
not our petitions in our neces- trix : nostras deprecationes 
sities, but deliver us from all ne despicias in necessitatis 
dangers, O ever glorious and bus ; sed a periculis cunctis 
Blessed Virgin. libera nos semper, Virgo 

gloriosa et benedicta. 

PENT. IV. 2 B 

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Deus judicium tuum 
regi da, et justitiam tuam 
filio regis. 

Judicare populum tu- 
um in justitia, et pauperes 
tuos in judicio. 

f. Give to the King thy 
judgment, O God ; and to the 
King's Son thy justice. 

To judge thy people with 
justice: and thy poor with 


Deus, regum et regnorum 
rex, moderator et custos, 
qui Unigenitum Filium 
tuum, Beatissimae Virginis 
Mariae filium, et ei sub- 
jectum esse voluisti, famuli 
tui christianissimi Franco- 
rum regis, fidelis populi et 
totius regni sui vota, se- 
cundo favore prosequere, ut 
qui ejusdem se Virginis im- 
perio mancipant, et ipsius 
servituti devota sponsione 
consecrant, perennis in vita 
tranquillitatis ac pacis et 
asternae libertatis in ccelo 
prsemia consequantur. Per 

O God of kings and of king- 
doms, the King and Guide 
and Protector, who didst will 
thy only-begotten Son to be 
the Son of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary, and to be subject to 
her; graciously regard the 
prayers of thy servant, the 
most Christian king of the 
Franks, of "his faithful people, 
and of all his kingdom. They 
have put themselves under 
the rule of that Blessed Virgin 
and consecrated themselves 
by vow to her service. May 
they obtain in reward perpe- 
tual tranquillity and peace in 
this life and everlasting liberty 
in heaven. 

We must not forget that Hungary was similarly 
consecrated to the holy Mother of God by its first 
kiDg, St. Stephen. From that time the Hungarians 
called the Feast of the Assumption, the "Day of the 
" great Queen, Dies magnce Domince." Our Lady 
recompensed the piety of the apostolic king by 
calling him, on 15th August, 1038, to exchange his 
earthly for a heavenly crown ; we shall find his feast 
in the cycle on the 2nd September. 

In the sixteenth century the Lutherans in several 
places continued to celebrate the Assumption of our 
Lady, even after they had apostatised, because the 
people would not give up the feast. Many of the 

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churches of Germany, as we learn from their brevi- 
aries and missals, were accustomed to celebrate 
Mary's triumph for thirty days by canticles and 

Let us offer to Mary a garland of liturgical pieces 
on this day of her triumph. We could find nothing 
better to commence with than these beautiful and 
fragrant flowers produced by Gaul in early times. 
They are taken from the Mass of 16th January, in 
which our forefathers celebrated both the Maternity 
and the triumph of our Lady. 


Ineffable is the mystery of 
this glorious day sacred to the 
Mother of our Lord ; yet it is 
meet that we praise it exceed- 
ingly, for it has been made 
singularly honourable by the 
Assumption of the Virgin. In 
this mystery we see virginity 
bearing a Son, and a death 
that never found its like. Her 
passing away was no less won- 
derful than her child-bearing 
had been joyful. Admirable 
in conceiving her Son by her 
faith, she was admirable also 
in her passage to God. With 
special joy and increased love, 
with faithful prayer and at- 
tentive heart, let us, beloved 
brethren, call upon Mary: that 
we may be aided and protected 
by her intercession, while we 
proclaim her a fruitful Virgin 
and a happy Mother, glorious 
in merits, and blessed in her 
death. Let us beseech our 
merciful Redeemer, to deign 
to lead the people here present 
to the heaven whereunto he 

Generosae diei Dominicae 
Genitricis inexplicabile Sac- 
ramentum, tanto magis prae- 
conabile, quantum est inter 
homines Assumptione Vir- 
ginis singulare. Apud quern 
vitae integritas obtinuit Fi- 
lium ; et mors non invenit 
par exemplum. Nec minus 
mgerens stuporem de tran- 
situ, quam exultationeferens 
unico beata de partu. Non 
solum mirabilis p ignore, 
quod fide concepit; sed 
translatione praedicabilis, 
qua migravit, Speciali tri- 
pudio, affectu multimodo, 
fideli voto, Fratres dilectis- 
simi, corde deprecemur at- 
tento : ut ej us adjuti munia- 
mursuffragio; quaefcecunda 
Virgo, beata de partu, clara 
de merito, felix praedicatur 
abscessu : obsecrantes mis- 
ericordiam < Redemptoris 
nostri : ut circumstantem 
plebem iliuc dignetur intro- 
duces ; quo Beatam Ma* 
trem Mariam, famulantibus 

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Apostolis, transtulit ad ho- 
norem. Quod ipse praestare 
digpetur : qui cum Patre et 
Spiritu Sancto vivit, et reg- 
nat Deus in saecula. 

gloriously assumed his blessed 
Mother Mary, while the Apos- 
tles stood around her. May 
he deign to grant us this grace 
who with the Father and the 
Holy Ghost liveth and reign- 
eth God for ever and ever. 


Habitatorem Virginalis 
hospitii, Sponsum beati tha- 
lami, Dominum tabernaculi, 
Kegem Templi, qui earn in- 
nocentiam contulit Geni- 
trici, qua dignaretur incar- 
nata Deitas generari: qua3 
nihil sseculi conscia, tantum 
precibus mens attenta, ten- 
uit puritatem in moribus, 
quam perceperat Angeli be- 
nedictione, visceribus: nec 
per Assumptionem de morte 
sensit inluviem: quaa vitae 
portavit Auctorem : Fratres 
Karissimi, fusis precibus 
Dominum imploremus: ut 
ejus indulgentia illuc de- 
functi liberentur a tartaro ; 
quo Beatse Virginis transla- 
tum corpus est de sepulchre 
Quod ipse prsestare digne- 
tur ; qui in Trinitate per' 
fecta vivit. 

Let us beseech the divine 
Guest of the Virgin's womb, 
the Spouse of the sacred nup- 
tial chamber, the Lord of the 
Tabernacle, the King of the 
Temple, who bestowed such 
innocence upon his Mother, 
that his Deity deigned to take 
flesh and be born of her. She 
knew nothing of the world ; 
and with her mind fixed upon 

Erayer, she showed forth in 
er manners that purity which 
she had conceived at the 
Angel's greeting ; and by her 
Assumption she was preserved 
from the corruption of death, 
she who had borne the Author 
of life. Yea, dearly beloved 
brethren, let us earnestly be- 
seech our Lord, that in his 
mercy he would save the souls 
of the dead from hell and bring 
them to that place whither the 
body of the Blessed Virgin was 
translated. May he deign to 
hear our prayer who liveth in 
perfect Trinity. 


Dignum et justum est, 
omnipotens Deus, nos tibi 
magnas merito gratias agere, 
tempore celeberrimo, die prae 
ceteris honorando. Quo fl- 

it is right and just, 0 Al- 
mighty God, that we . duly 
give thee great thanks at this 
glorious season, on this most 
venerable day, whereon the 

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faithful Israel came forth from 
Egypt ; whereon the Virgin 
Mother of God passed from 
this world to Christ. She 
knew no corruption in life, no 
dissolution in the tomb; for 
she was free from all stain of 
sin, glorious by her divine 
Offspring ; and being set free 
by her Assumption, she was 
made Queen of Paradise for 
her dower. Ever a spotless 
Virgin, she was filled with joy 
by the fruit of her womb. She 
knew no pain in childbirth, no 
sorrow in death. Her life and 
her death were above the laws 
of nature. She was the loveli- 
est of bridal chambers whence 
came forth the noblest of bride- 
grooms, he who is the light of 
the nations, the hope of the 
faithful, the spoiler of the 
demons, and the shame of the 
Jews. She was a vessel of 
light, a tabernacle of glory, a 
heavenly temple. Now the 
better to proclaim the merits 
of this Virgin, let us compare 
her life with that of the first 

Mary brought forth life for 
the world, and Eve brought 
upon it the law of death. She 
by her sin ruined us, Mary by 
her divine Child saved us. Eve 
poisoned our very root by the 
fruit of the tree ; Mary is the 
branch whence springs the 
flower that refreshed us with 
its fragrance and healed us by 
its fruit. Under the curse 
Eve brings forth her children 
in sorrow, Mary gives us bless- 
ing and salvation. Faithless 
Eve yielded to the serpent, 


delis Israhel egressus est de 
•iEgypto. Quo Virgo Dei 
Genitrix de mundo raigravit 
ad Christum. Quae nec de 
corruptione suscepit con- 
tagium ; nec resolutionem 
pertulit in sepulchro, pol- 
lutione libera, germine glo- 
riosa, assumptione secura, 
Paradiso dote praslata, ne* 
sciens damna decoitu, su- 
mens vota de fructu, non 
subdita dolori per partum, 
non labori per transitum, 
nec vita voluntate, nec 
funus solvitur vi naturae. 
Speciosus thalamus, de quo 
dignus prodit Sponsus, lux 
gentium, spes fidelium, prae- 
do daemonum, confusio Ju- 
daeorum: vasculum vitae; 
tabernaculum gloriae, tem- 
plum cceleste : cujus juven- 
culae melius praedicantur 
inerita; cum veteris Evae 
conferuntur exempla. 

Siquidem ista mundo vi- 
tam protulit; ilia legem 
mortis invexit. Ilia pre- 
varicando, nos perdidit; ista 
generando, salvavit. Ilia 
nos porno arboris in ipsa 
radice percussit; ex hujus 
virga flos exiit, qui nos odore 
reficeret, f ruge curaret. Hla 
maledictione in dolore ge- 
nerat; ista benedictionem 
in salute confirmat. Illius 
perfidia serpen ti consensit, 
conjugem decepit, prolem 
damnavit; hujus obedien- 

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tia Patrem conciliavit, Fi- 
lium meruit, posteritatem 
absolvit. Ilia amaritudi- 
nem pomi suco propinat; 
ista perennem dulcedinem 
Nati fonte desudat. Ilia 
acerbo gustu natorum den- 
tes deterruit ; haec suavis- 
simi panis blandimenti cibo 
formavit: cui nullus depe- 
ret, nisi qui de hoc pane 
saturare fauce fastidit. Sed 
jam veteres gemitus in gau- 
dia nova vertamus. 

Ad te ergo revertimur 
Virgo foeta, Mater intacta, 
nesciens virum, puerpera, 
honorata per Filium non 
polluta. Felix, per quam 
nobis inspirata gaudia sue- 
cesserunt. Cuj us sicut gra- 
tulati sumus ortu, tripudia- 
vimus partu; ita glorifica- 
mur in transitum. Par urn 
f ortasse f uerat si te Christus 
solo sanctificasset introitu ; 
nisi etiam talem Matrem 
adornasset egressu. Eecte 
ab ipso suscepta es in As- 
sumptione feliciter; quern 
pie suscepisti conceptura 
per fidem: ut quae terras 
non eras conscia, non tene- 
ret rupes inclusa. 

Vere diversis insolis ani- 
ma redempta: cui Apostoli 

deceived her husband, and 
ruined her children ; Mary by 
her obedience appeased the 
Father's wrath, merited to 
have God for her Son, and 
saved her posterity. Eve 
gave us to drink the juice of 
a bitter fruit, Mary pours upon 
us unending sweetness from 
its fountain-head, her Son. 
Eve's bitter apple set her 
children's teeth on edge, our 
Lady has made us the sweet- 
est bread for our food; near 
her none can perish unless he 
disdain to feast upon this 
bread. But let us turn from 
mourning past evils to our 
present joy. 

To thee, then, we return, 
O fruitful Virgin, spotless 
Mother, Maiden not knowing 
man, ennobled not polluted 
by thy Son. 0 happy one ! 
the joy thou didst conceive 
thou hast transmitted to us. 
We were glad at thy birth, 
we exulted at thy pure de- 
livery, and in like manner we 
glory in thy passing. It were 
a small thing that Christ 
sanctified thee at thine en- 
trance into the world, had he 
not also honoured thee, O 
worthy Mother, at thy de- 
parture hence. Justly then 
did thy Son joyfully receive 
thee in thy Assumption, for 
thou didst lovingly receive 
him when thou conceivedst 
him by faith. Thou knewest 
nought of earth's bonds, how 
could that rocky tomb hold 
thee prisoner ? 

O soul redeemed amidst 
unwonted marvels ! The Apos- 

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ties pay thee the last sacred sacrum reddunt obsequium, 

duties; the Angels sing thy Angeli cantum, Christus 

praises; Christ welcomes thee amplexum,nubisvehiculum, 

with his embrace ; a cloud is Assumptio Paradisum, inter 

thy chariot ; thou art assumed choros Virginum gloria prin- 

into Paradise, there to reign cipatum. Per Christum 

in glory as Queen of the Dominum nostrum. Cui 

choirs of Virgins. Through Angeli atque Archangeli. 
Christ our Lord, to whom the 
Angels and Archangels, etc. 

In the Ambrosian Liturgy the Preface for the 
Mass of the Vigil is composed of the very same 
words as the Roman Collect said in the great 
Procession described above. We will borrow the 
two following Antiphons from the Mass of the day : 


Rejoice, O Virgin, Mother Laetare Virgo, Mater Chria- 

of Christ, standing at his right ti, stans a dextris ejus in 

hand in a vesture of gold, vestitu deaurato, circuma- 

surrounded with delights. micta jucunditate. 


We extol thee, O Mother of Magnificamus te, Dei 
God ; for from thee was born Genitrix ; quia ex te natus 
Christ, saving all who glorify est Christus, salvans omnes, 
thee. O holy Lady, Mother qui te glorificant. Sancta 
of God, give unto us thy Domina, Dei Genitrix, san- 
sanctifying graces. ctificationes tuas transmitte 


The Mozarabic Liturgy gives us these pieces from 
the Vespers of the feast : 


O Virgin of Israel, be ready Virgo Israel, ornare tym- 
with thy timbrels. panis tuis. 

1$. And go forth with a B. Et egredere in choro 
choir of singers. psailentium. 

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ft. Beata es Kegina, quae 
prospicis quasi lumen. 

1$. Etegredere. 

Dominus sit semper vo- 

5. Et cum spiritu tuo. 

ft. Blessed art thou, O 
Queen, who risest as the light. 

1$. And go forth. 

May the Lord be ever with 

5. And with thy spirit. 


Dominus Deus cceli bene- 
dicat tibi: honor regni David 
in manu tua. 

1$. Et adorabunt coram 
te filii multarum gentium. 

Jft. Audi, filia Sion, quia 
exaltata es, et facies tua 
fulget in templo Dei: Sol 
justitise ingressu tuo orietur. 

1$. Et adorabunt. 
Dominus sit. 
1$. Et cum. 

May the Lord God of heaven 
bless thee: the honour of 
David's kingdom is in thy 

1$. And the sons of many 
nations shall adore before 
thee. Alleluia. 

ft. Hearken, O daughter of 
Sion, for thou art exalted, 
and thy countenance shineth 
in the temple of God: the 
Sun of Justice riseth up at 
thine entrance. 

5. And the sons. 

May the Lord. 

1$. And with. 


Benedicta tu Deo altis- 
simo, prae omnibus mulier- 

1$. Propter hoc non dis- 
eedet laus tua ab ore homi- 
num usque in saeculum. 

ft. Non det in commotio- 
nem pedem tuum: neque 
dormiet qui custodit te. 

]$. Propter. 

ft. Gloria et honor Patri, 
et Eilio, et Spiritui Sancto 
in sa&cula sa&culorum. Amen. 

1$. Propter. 
Dominus sit. 
B. Et cum. • 

Blessed art thou by the 
Most High God above all 

S. Wherefore thy praise 
1 not depart out of the 
mouth of men for ever. 

ft. He shall not suffer thy 
foot to be moved, neither 
shall he slumber that keepeth 
.1$. Wherefore. 
ft. Glory and honour be to 
the Father, and to the Son, 
and to the Holy Spirit for 
ever and ever. Amen. 
1$. Wherefore. 
May the Lord. 
3$. And with. 

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My branches are branches 
of honour and grace. Alleluia. 

1$. As the vine I have 
brought forth a pleasant odour. 
Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia, 

But I, as a fruitful olive- 
tree in the house of the Lord, 
will hope in the mercy of my 
God for ever, yea for ever and 

]$. As the vine. 

y. Glory and honour be to 
the Father. 

1$. As the vine. 

Kami mei rami honoris 
et gratiae. Alleluia. 

1$. Ego quasi vitis fruc- 
tificavi suavitatem odoris. 
Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia, 

Ego autem, sicut oliva 
fructifera in domo Domini, 
sperabo in misericordja Dei 
mei in aeternum, et in sae- 
culum saeculi. 

1$. Ego quasi. 

Gloria et honor Patri. 

3$. Ego quasi. 


Behold, O Lord God, the 
glorious Virgin Mary, who 
from the valley of tears and 
the desert of this world, is 
known to have been taken up 
this day, leaning upon her 
Beloved, thine only begotten 
Son and her Son, even to an 
unspeakable height. We show, 
as it were, her special seal 
and most precious jewel, when 
we confess the unity of nature 
between the Immaculate Mo- 
ther and the human Body 
taken of her by the Divinity. 
Therefore we beseech thee, O 
ineffable, most high God, that 
thither all our energy may 
turn, whither on this day 

{>recedes us in her mighty 
ove, our worthy advocate, the 
most Blessed Virgin. 

B. Amen. 
. Through thy mercy, O our 
God, who art blessed, who 

Haec est, Domine Deus, 
gloriosa ilia Virgo Maria, 
quae hodie a convalle la- 
chrymarum et mundi de- 
serto cognoscitur superas- 
sumi incumbens super di- 
lectum Unigenitum tuum, 
Filiumque suum loco vide- 
licet inenarrabili : cuj us vero 
ouasi signaculum et monile 
aetegitur pretiosum, dum 
unius naturae illud corpus 
confitemur Dominicum isti- 
us inlibatae genitricis a Di- 
vinitate assumptum. Pro- 
inde quaesumus, ineffabilis 
summe Deus, ut illic exten- 
datur nostra intentio, quo 
per forte m dilectionem hodie 
praecessit digna suffragatrix 
pro nobis ac beatissima 

1$. Amen. 

Per misericordiam tuam, 
Deus noster, qui es bene- 

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dictus, et vivis, et omnia 
regis in saecula saeculorura. 
1$. Amen. 

livest and rulest all things for 
ever and ever. 
1$. Amen. 

The Greeks offer us this graceful composition, the 
first eight stanzas of which are set to the eight 
musical tones, while the ninth returns to the first, 
thus making all the modes sing the triumph of 
Mary. 1 


Divinae majestatis nutu, 
undecumque deiferi aposto- 
li nubium sublati culmine, 

Ad metam ubi pervene- 
rant, immacuJatum vas tu- 
um, vitae principium, summa 
veneration e salutarunt. 

At illae sublimissimse coe- 
lorum potestates, cum suo 
Domino accedentes, Dei 
capaz et illibatum corpus 
occursu honorabant, tremore 
corripiebantur, turn ad su- 
pernas sedes procedebant. 

Et arcana voce clamabant 
superioribus agminum du- 
cibus : Ecce universi mundi 
regina, mater Dei accedit. 

Tollite portas, inque su- 
perna recipite earn, lucis uti 
perpetuae matrem. 

Per ipsam enim mortali- 
um omnium salus facta est, 
in quam dirigere oculos non 
possum us. 

By the will of the Divine 
Majesty, the God- bearing 
Apostles were taken up from 
all parts and borne upon the 
clouds ; 

Having reached their desti- 
nation, they salute with deep- 
est veneration thy immaculate 

But the most high powers 
of heaven coming with their 
Lord, honoured with their 
company the spotless body 
which had held God; they 
were seized with trembling as 
they returned to the heavenly 

With mysterious voice they 
cried fo the chiefs of the 
heavenly hosts: Behold the 
Queen of the universe, the 
Mother of God approaches. 

Lift up your gates and re- 
ceive her into the highest 
places, as the Mother of eter- 
nal light. 

The salvation of all man- 
kind was wrought through 
her, upon whom we cannot 
fix our gaze. 

1 J. B. Pint a, Analecta Spioilegio Solesmensi, parata I. lxx. 
ex Anthologio. 

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No condign honour can be 
given to her, for her excellence 
surpasses all thought. 

Wherefore, O Immaculate 
Mother of God, ever living 
with the King of life, thy 
Son, intercede for us unceas- 
ingly, so as to protect and 
save from every attack of the 
enemy the youth who are 
thine, for in thee we have our 

Thee we proclaim blessed 
in the eternal splendours. 

Ipsi namque dari dignum 
prsemium nequit ; ejus enim 
praastantia omnem superat 

ldcirco intemerata Dei- 
para, semper cum vivifico 
rege et filio vivens, inter- 
cede continuo, ut circum- 
munias et salves ab omni 
inimico impetu juventutem 
tuam. In te enim tutelam 

Te per saecula in splen- 
doribus, beatam dicentes. 

Let us now gather from the Chaldsean chants. 


The lips of man are not 
worthy to praise the Mother 
of the Lord of Angels and of 
man, for neither can men un- 
derstand her, nor Angels know 
her sufficiently : 

Admirable in her mortal life, 
marvellous in her life-giving 
death, living she was dead to 
the world, dying she raised 
the dead to life. The Apostles 
hasten to her from distant 
lands, the Angels descend from 
on high, to pay her honour 

The Virtues animate each 
other, the Principalities come 
forward like flaming clouds, 
the Dominations rejoice, the 
Powers exult. 

The Thrones redouble their 
praise: while the Seraphim 
cry out: O blessed and glo- 
rious body ; and the Cherubim 

Matrem Domini arigelo- 
rum hominumque labia ho- 
minis laudare non sufficiunt, 
quam nec homines plane 
mente assequuntur, nec an- 
geli sat perspiciunt : 

Mirandam in vita mortali, 
stupendam in morte vitali. 

Vivens mundo mortua 
fuit, moriens mortuos ex- 

Ad ipsam Appstoli pro- 
perant e longinquis, angeli 
descendunt e superis, ho- 
noris causa debiti. 

Virtutes invicem cohor- 
tantur, Principatus ut flam- 
meae nubes exspatiantur, 
laetantur Dominatibnes, Po- 
testates tripudiant. 

Throni laudem ingemi- 
nant ; Seraphim claman- 
tibus: Beatum o corpus 
glorias; dum Cherubim il- 

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lam cantibus extollunt inter 
ipsos procedentem. 

JSthera, nubes, ipsi se 
sub mitt unt; tonitrua plau- 
dunt, collaudantia Filium ; 
pluvia et ros uberibus ejus 
amulantur : 

Siquidem virentia pas- 
cunt, haec autem virentium 
Dominum enutrivit. 

extol her with their songs, as 
she passes through their midst. 

The sky and the clouds bend 
down before her ; the thunder 
claps, praising her Son; the 
rain and the dew envy her 
breasts : for they indeed nour- 
ish the plants, but she fed the 
Lord of the plants. 

Ralph of Tongres, who wrote in the fourteenth 
century of the observance of the canons in the 
Offices of the Church, points out the following 
Hymn as used in bis time for to-day's feast i 1 


O quam glorifica luce corus- 

Stirpis Davidicae regia pro- 

Sublimis residens Virgo 

Supra cceligenas a^theris 

Tu cumvirgineo mater ho- 

Angelorum Domino pectoris 
.' aulam, 

Sacris visceribus casta pa- 

Natus hinc Deus est corpore 
. Christus. 

Quern cunctus venerans or- 

bis adorat, 
Cui nunc rite genu flectitur 


A quo te, petimus, sub- 

Abjectis tenebris, gaudia 


Oh, with what glorious light 
thou dost shine, royal daughter 
of David's race: seatedon high, 
O Virgin Mary, above all the 
dwellers in heaven. 

Thou with thy virginal hon- 
our art Mother; a home in 
thy heart for the Lord of the 
Angels, thou, pure one, pre- 
pared st in thy sacred womb: 
the Christ born of thee is Goa 
in the flesh. 

'Tis he whom the whole 
world doth trembling adore, 
he before whom each knee 
rightly bends; from him we 
implore, by thy intercession, 
the dispelling of darkness, the 
joys of light 

Radulph. De canon, observ., Prop. xiii. 

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This do thou grant us, O 
Father of light, through thine 
own Son, in the Holy Spirit : 
who liveth with thee in the 
glittering heavens, reigning 
and governing all the ages. 


Hoc largire, Pater luminis 

Natum per proprium, Fla- 

mine sacro : 
Qui tecum nitida, vivit in 


Regnans, ac moderans specu- 
la cuncta. 

Let us conclude with this sweet Sequence: 


Flowing with delights the 
daughter of King David is 
borne in the Bridegroom's 
arms to the heavenly thrones ; 
the beloved hastens, seeking 
among the lilies the Spouse 
where he had gone. 

To-day the chamber of the 
King opens to Esther seeking 
to avert the danger brought 
about by her enemy Aman, 
eager with his deceits, who 
prepares death for the world 
with the ropes of sin. 

She traverses the mansions 
of heaven, passing through all 
the doors, into the court of 
the King: there to-day her 
virginal mouth kisses the gol- 
den sceptre Christ, that peace 
may be given to the Church. 

Here in Rama the voice of 
Rachel is heard: there sweet 
music is sung to thee, where 
the Spouse embraces thee 
and converses with thee ; the 
Spouse whom thou, O blessed 
one, enjoy est more than all 
the heavenly citizens. 

Affluens deliciis, 
David regis filia, 
Sponsi fertur brachiis 
Ad cceli sedilia : 
Et arnica properat 
Sponsum, quo abierat, 
Quserens inter lilia. 

Hodie cubiculum 
Regis Hester suscipir, 
Sedare periculum, 
Quod hostilis efficit 
Aman instans fraudibus, 
Peccati rudentibus 
Mundo mortem conficit. 

Per cceli palatia 
Cuncta transit ostia 
Intra regis atria, 
Ubi sceptrum aureum, 
Christum, os virgineum 
Osculatur hodie, 
Ut sit pax Ecclesise. 

Vox Rachelis in Rama 
Hie auditur : sed drama 
Tibi dulce canitur, 
Ubi te amplectitur 
Sponsus, et alloquitur, 
Quo beata frueris 
Plusquam cunctis superis. 

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Te transmittit hodie 
Tellus coeli curiae, 
David regis Thecuitem, 
Helisaei Sunamiteni, 
Ut fugati revocemur, 
Et prostrati suscitemur 
Ad aeterna gaudia, 
Ubi es in gloria. 

To-day our earth sends thee 
to the heavenly court, as the 
wise woman of Thecua to king 
David, as the Sunamitess to 
Eliseus, that we exiles may be 
called home, we who are cast 
down may be raised up even 
to the eternal joys, where thou 
art in glory. 



Thou didst taste death, O Mary ! But that death, 
like the sleep of Adam at the world's beginning, was 
but an ecstasy leading the Bride into the Bride- 
groom's presence. As the sleep of the new Adam on 
the great day of salvation, it called for the awakening 
of resurrection. In Jesus Christ our entire nature, 
soul and body, was already reigning in heaven ; but 
as in the first paradise, so in the presence of the 
holy Trinity, it was not good for man to be alone. 1 
To-day at the right hand of Jesus appears the new 
Eve, in all things like to her Divine Head in his 
vesture of glorified Flesh: henceforth nothing is 
wanting in the eternal Paradise. 

O Mary, who, according to the expression of thy 
devout servant John Damascene, hast made death 
blessed and happy, 2 detach us from this world, where 
nothing ought now to have a hold on us. We have 
accompanied thee in desire ; we have followed thee 
with the eyes of our soul, as far as the limits of our 
mortality allowed ; and now, can we ever again turn 
our eyes upon this world of darkness? O Blessed 
Virgin, in order to sanctify our exile, and help us to 
rejoin thee, bring to our aid the virtues whereby, as 
on wings, thou didst soar to so sublime a height. 
In us, too, they must reign ; in us they must crush 
the head of the wicked serpent ; that one day they 

1 Gen. ii. 1& * Joan. Damasc. in Dormit. B.M.V., Homil. L 

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may triumph in us. O day of days, when we shall 
behold not only our Redeemer, but also the Queen 
who stands so close to the Sun of J ustice as even to 
be clothed therewith, eclipsing with her brightness 
all the splendours of the Saints ! 

The Church, it is true, remains to us, O Mary, 
the Church who is also our Mother, and who con- 
tinues thy struggle against the dragon with its 
seven hateful heads. But she, too, sighs for the time 
when the wings of an eagle will be given her, and 
she will be permitted to rise like thee from the 
desert and to reach her Spouse. Look upon her 
passing, like the moon, at thy feet, through her 
laborious phases; hear the supplications she ad- 
dresses to thee as Mediatrix with the divine Sun: 
through thee may she receive light; through thee 
may she find favour with him who loved thee, and 
clothed thee with glory and crowned thee with 

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Sunday within the Octave of the Assumption. 


From time immemorial the Greeks have celebrated 
the feast of St. Joachim on the day following our 
Lady's birthday. The Maronites kept it on the day 
after the Presentation in November, and the Ar- 
menians on the Tuesday after the Octave of the 
Assumption of the Mother of God. The Latins at 
first did not keep his feast. Later on it was admitted 
and celebrated sometimes on the day after the Octave 
of the Nativity, September 16th, sometimes on the 
day following the Conception of the Blessed Virgin, 
December 9th. Thus both East and West agreed in 
associating St. Joachim with his illustrious daughter 
when they wished to do him honour. 

About the year 1510, Julius II. placed the feast 
of the grandfather of the Messias upon the Roman 
Calendar with the rank of double major; and re- 
membering that family, in which the ties of nature 
and of grace were in such perfect harmony, he fixed 
the solemnity on the 20th March, the day after that 
of his son-in-law, St. Joseph. The life of the glorious 
patriarch resembled those of the first fathers of the 
Hebrew people ; and it seemed as though he were 
destined to imitate their wanderings also, by con- 
tinually changing his place upon the sacred cycle. 

Hardly fifty years after the Pontificate of Julius II. 

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the critical spifjjb of the day cast doubts upon the 
history of St. Jbachim, and his name was erased 
from the Roman breviary. Gregory XV., however, 
re-established his feast in 1622 as a double, and the 
Church has since continued to celebrate it. Devo- 
tion to our Lady's father continuing to increase 
very much, the Holy See was petitioned to make his 
feast a holiday of obligation, as it had already 
made that of his spouse, St. Anne. In order to 
satisfy the devotion of the people without increasing 
the number of days of obligation, Clement XII. in 
1738 transferred the feast of St. Joachim to the 
Sunday after the Assumption of his daughter, the 
Blessed Virgin, and restored it to the rank of double 

On the 1st August 1879, the Sovereign Pontiff, 
Leo XIII., who received the name of Joachim in 
baptism, raised both the feast of his glorious patron 
and that of St. Anne to the rank of doubles of the 
second class. 

The following is an extract from the decree Urbi 
et Orbi, announcing this final decision with regard 
to the said feasts: " Ecclesiasticus teaches us that 
" we ought to praise our fathers in their generation ; 
" what great honour and veneration ought we then 
" to render to St. Joachim and St. Anne, who begot 
"the Immaculate Virgin Mother of God, and are on 
" that account more glorious than all others." 

"By your fruits are you known," says St. John 
Damascene, "you have given birth to a daughter 
"who is greater than the Angels and has become 
"their Queen." 1 Now since, through the divine 
mercy, in our unhappy times the honour and 
worship paid to the Blessed Virgin is increasing in 
proportion to the increasing needs of the Christian 

1 J. Damasc. Oratiai. de V.M. Nativit. 
pent. iv. 2 F 

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people, it is only right that the ffcw glory which 
surrounds their blessed daughter Should redound 
upon her happy parents. May this increase of devo- 
tion towards them cause the Church to experience 
still more their powerful protection. 


Prayer is good with fasting and alms more than 
to lay up treasures of gold. 1 Far better than Tobias, 
did Joachim experience the truth of the Archangel's 
word. Tradition says that he divided his income 
into three parts: one for the Temple, the second for 
the poor, and the third for his family. The Church, 
wishing to honour Mary's father, begins by praising 
this liberality, and also his justice which earned him 
such great glory. 


Dispersit, dedit pauperi- He hath distributed, he hath 
bus: justitia ejus manet in given to the poor: his justice 
sasculum saeculi : cornu ejus remaineth for ever and ever : 
exaltabitur in gloria. his horn shall be exalted in 


Fs. Beatus vir qui timet Fs. Blessed is the man that 
Dominum: in mandatis ejus feareth the Lord : he delight- 
eupit nimis. eth exceedingly in his com- 


Gloria PatrL Dispersit Glory, eta He hath. 

Mother of God: such is the title which exalts 
Mary above all creatures; but Joachim, too, is en- 
nobled by it ; he alone can be called, for all eternity, 
Grandfather of Jesus. In heaven, even more than 
on earth, nobility and power go hand in hand. Let 
us then, with the Church, become humble clients of 
one so great. 

1 Tobiaa xii. 8. 

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O God, who before all thy 
Saints wert pleased that bless- 
ed Joachim should be the 
father of her who bore thy 
Son ; grant, we beseech thee, 
that we may ever experience 
his patronage, whose festival 
we venerate. Through the 
same Lord, etc. 

Deus, qui prae omnibus 
Sanctis tuis beatutn Joachim 
Genitricis Filii tui patrem 
esse voluisti : concede, quaa- 
sumus; ut cujus festa vene- 
ramur, ejus quoque perpetuo 
patrocinia sentiamus. Per 
eumdem Dominum. 

A commemoration is here made of the occurring 


Lesson from the Book of 

Eccli. xxxi. 

•Blessed is the man that is 
found without blemish, and 
that hath not gone after gold, 
nor put his trust in money, nor 
in treasures. Who is he, and 
we will praise him? For he 
hath done wonderful things in 
his life. Who hath been tried 
thereby, and made perfect, he 
shall have glory everlasting: 
he that could have transgress- 
ed, and hath not transgressed, 
and could do evil things, aud 
hath not done them : therefore 
are his goods established in 
the Lord, and all the church 
of the saints shall declare his 

Lectio libri Sapientiae. 

Eccli, xxxi. 

Beatus vir qui inventus 
est sine macula : et qui post 
aurum non abiit, nec spera- 
vit in pecunia et thesauris. 
Quis est hie, et laudabimus 
eum ? Fecit enim mirabilia 
in vita sua. Qui probatus 
est in illo et perfectus est, 
erit ill! gloria aeterna: qui 
potuit transgredi, et non est 
transgressus: facere mala,et 
non fecit. Ideo stabilita 
sunt bona illius in Domino, 
et eleemosynas illius enarrar 
bit omnis ecclesia Sancto- 

Joachim's wealth, like that of the first patriarchs, 
consisted chiefly in flocks and herds. The holy use 
he made of it, drew down God's blessing upon it. 
But the greatest of all his desires heaven seemed to 

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refuse him. His holy spouse Anne was barren. 
AmoDgst all the daughters of Israel expecting the 
Messias, there was no hope for her. One day the 
victims Joachim presented in the Temple were con- 
temptuously rejected. Those were not the gifts the 
Lord of the Temple desired of him ; later on, instead 
of lambs from his pastures, he was to present the 
Mother of the Lamb of God, and his offering would 
not be rejected. 

This day, however, he was filled with sorrow and 
fled away without returning to his wife. He hastened 
to the mountains where his flocks were at pasture; 
and living in a tent, he fasted continually, for he said : 
" I will take no food till the Lord my God look merci- 
fully upon me; prayer shall be my nourishment." 

Meanwhile Anne was mourning her widowhood 
and her barrenness. She prayed in her garden as 
Joachim was praying on the mountain. 1 Their 
prayers ascended at the same time to the Most High, 
and he granted them their request. An Angel of 
the Lord appeared to each of them and bade them 
meet at the Golden Gate ; and soon Anne could say : 
" Now I know that the Lord hath greatly blessed me. 
" For I was a widow and I am one no longer, and I 
" was barren, and lo ! I have conceived !"* 

The Gradual again proclaims the merit of alms- 
giving and the value God sets upon holiness of life. 
The descendants of Joachim shall be mighty and 
Uessed in heaven and upon earth. May he deign 
to exert his influence with his all holy daughter, and 
with his grandson Jesus, for our salvation. 


Dispersit, dedit pauperi- He hath distributed, he bath 
bus: justitia ejus manet in given to the poor: his justice 
saeculuui saecuJi. remaineth tor ever and ever. 

1 Epiphan. Oratio de laudibus Virg. 2 Protevang. Jacobi. 

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His seed shall be mighty Potens in terra erit 

upon the earth: the generation semen ejus: generatio rec- 

of the mighty shall be blessed, torura benedicetur. 

Alleluia, alleluia. Alleluia, alleluia. 

If. O Joachim, holy spouse ^. O Joachinisancte^on- 
of Anne, father of the glorious jux Aunse, pater altnae Vir- 
Virgin, assist now thy servants ginis, hie famulis confer 
unto salvation. Alleluia. salutis opera. Alleluia. 


The beginning of the Holy Initium sancti Evangelii 
Gospel according to St. secundum Matthaeum. 

Ch. i. Gap. i. 

The book of the generation Liber generationis Jesti 
of Jesus Christ, the son of Ohristi, filii David, filii 
David, the Son of Abraham. Abraham. Abraham genuit 
Abraham begot Isaac; and Isaac. Isaac autem genuit 
Isaac begot Jacob ; and Jacob Jacob. Jucob autem gendit 
begot J udas and his brethren ; Judam,etf rat res ej us. Judas 
and Judas begot Phares and autem genuit rhares, et 
Zara of Thamar ; and Phares Z iram de Tbamar. Phares 
begot Esron; and Esron begot autem genuit Esron. Esron 
Aram ; and Aram begot Am- autem genuit Aram. Aram 
inadab; and Am inadab begot autem genuit Aminadab. 
Naasaon ; and Naasson begot Aminadab autem genuit 
Salmon; and Salmon begot Naasson. Naasson autem 
Booz of Rahab; and Booz genuit Salmon. Salmon 
begot Obed of Ruth ; and Obed autem genuit Booz de Ra- 
begot Jesse ; and Jesse begot hab. Booz autem genuit 
David the king. And David Obed ex Ruth. Obed autem 
the king begot Solomon, of genuit Jesse. Jesse autem 
her who had been the wife of genuit David regem. David 
Unas; and Solomon begot autem rex genuit Salomo- 
Roboam ; and Roboam begot nem, ex ea quae f uit Uria. 
Abia ; and Abia begot Asa : Salomon autem genuit Ro- 
and Asa begot Josaphat ; and boam. Roboam autem gen- 
Josaphat begot Joram; and uit Abiam. Abias autem 
Joram begot Ozias; and Ozias genuit Asa. Asa autem gen- 
begot Joatham ; and Joatham uit Josaphat. Josaphat au- 
begot Achaz ; and Ac haz begot tem genuit Joram. Joram 
Ezechias ; and Ezechias begot autem genuit Oziam. Ozias 
Manasses ; and Man asses be- autem genuit Joatham. Jo- 
got Amon ; and Amon begot atham autem genuit Achaz. 

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Achaz autem genuit Eze- 
chiam. Ezechias autem gen- 
uit Manassen. Manasses au- 
tem genuit Amon. Amon 
autem genuit Josiam. Josias 
autem genuit Jechoniam, et 
fratres ejus in transmigra- 
tione Babylonis. Et post 
transmigrationem Babylo- 
nis : J echonias genuit Sala- 
thiel. Salathiei autem gen- 
uit Zorobabel. Zorobabel 
autem genuit Abiud. Abiud 
autem genuit Eliacim. Elia- 
cim autem genuit Azor. 
Azor autem genuit Sadoc. 
Sadoc autem genuit Achim. 
Actum autem genuit Eliud. 
Eliud autem genuit Eleazar. 
Eleazar autem genuit Ma- 
tban. Mathan autem gen- 
uit Jacob. Jacob autem 
genuit Joseph, virum Marias, 
He qua natus est Jesus, qui 
vocatur Christus. 

Josias ; and Josias begot Je- 
chonias and his brethren in 
the transmigration of Babylon. 
And, after the transmigration 
of Babylon, Jechonias begot 
Salathiei ; and Salathiei begot 
Zorobabel ; and Zorobabel be- 

fot Abiud ; and Abiud begot 
lliacim; and Eliacim begot 
Azor ; and Azor begot Sadoc ; 
and Sadoc begot Achim : and 
Achim begot Eliud ; and Eliud 
begot Eleazar; and Eleazar 
begot Mathan ; and Mathan 
begot Jacob ; and Jacob begot 
Joseph, the husband of Mary, 
of whom was born Jesus ; who 
is called Christ. 

"Rejoice, O Joachim, for of thy daughter a Sou is 
"born to us," 1 exclaims St. John Damascene. It is 
in this spirit the Church reads to us to-day the list 
of the royal ancestors of our Saviour. Joseph, the 
descendant of these illustrious princes, inherited their 
rights and passed them on to Jesus, who was his Son 
according to the Jewish law, though according to 
nature he was of the line of his Virgin Mother alone. 

St. Luke, Mary's Evangelist, has preserved the 
names of the direct ancestors of the Mother of the 
Man-God, springing from David in the person of 
Nathan, Solomon's brother. J oseph, the son of Jacob 
according to St. Matthew, appears in St. Luke as son 
of Heli. The reason is, that by espousing Mary, the 

1 J. Damasc. Oratio I. de V. M. Nativit. ex Isai. ix. 6. 

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only daughter of Heli or Heliachim, that is Joachim, 
he became legally his son and heir. 

This is the now generally received explanation of 
the two genealogies of Christ the Son of David. It 
is not surprising that Rome, the queen city who has 
become the Bride of the Son of man in the place of 
thfc repudiated Sion, prefers to use in her Liturgy the 
genealogy which by its long line of royal ancestors 
emphasizes the kingship of the Spouse over Jerusa- 
lem. The name of Joachim, which signifies "the 
"preparation of the Lord," is thus rendered more 
majestic, without losing aught of its mystical meaning. 

He is himself crowned with wonderful glory. 
Jesus, his Grandson, gives him to share in his own 
authority over every creature. In the Offertory we 
celebrate St. Joachim's dignity and power. 


Thou bast crowned him Gloria et honore coronasti 
with glory and honour: and eum: et constituisti eum 
hast set him over the works of super opera manuum tua- 
thy hands, O Lord. rum, Domine. 

" Joachim, Anne and Mary/' says St. Epiphanius : 
" what a sacrifice of praise was offered to the Blessed 
" Trinity by this earthly Trinity !" May their united 
intercession obtain for us the full effect of the sacrifice 
which is being prepared upon the Altar in honour of 
the head of this noble family. 


Receive this sacrifice, O Suscipe, clementissime 

most merciful God, offered to Deus, sacrificium in hono- 

thy majesty in honour of the rem sancti patriarchse Joa- 

holy patriarch Joachim, the chim patris Maris Virginis, 

father of the Virgin Mary; majestati tuse oblatum : ut, 

that by his intercession, with ipso cum conjnge sua, et 

that of his spouse and most beatissima prole interce- 

blessed offspring, we may de- dente, perfectam consequi 

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mereamur remissionem pec- serve to obtain the entire re- 
catorum, et gloriam sempi- mission of sins, and everlast- 
ternam. Per Dominum. ing glory. Through, etc. 

While enjoying the delights of the sacred mysteries, 
let us not forget, that if Mary gave us the Bread of 
Life, she herself came to us through Joachim. Let 
us confidently entrust to his prudent care the precious 
germ which we have just received, and which must 
now fructify in our souls. 


Fidelia servus et prudens, A faithful and wise steward, 
quern constituit Dominus whom his Lord set over his 
super famili am sua m,ut det family; to give them their 
illis in tempore tritici men- measure of wheat in due 
suram. season. 

The Sacraments produce of themselves the essen- 
tial grace belonging to them ; but we need the 
intercession of the Saints to remove all obstacles to 
their full operation in our hearts. Such is the sense 
of the Postcomm union. 


Quaesumus, omnipotens We beseech thee, Almighty 

Deus : ut, per haec sacra- God, that by these mysteries 

menta, quae sumpsimus, in- which we receive, the merits 

tercedentibus meritis et pre- and prayers of blessed J oachim, 

cibus beati Joachim, patris father of her who bore thy 

Genitricis dilecti Filii tui beloved Son our Lord Jesus 

Domini nostri Jesu Christi, Christ, interceding for us, we 

tuae gratiae in praesenti, et may be made worthy to be 

astern ae gloriae in futuro par- partakers of thy grace in this 

ticipes esse mereamur. Per life, and of eternal glory in the 

eumdem. life to come. Through the 

same Lord, <fec. 

Then is added the Postcommunion of the occurring 

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Sunday, and the Gospel of the same is read at the 
end of Mass, instead of that of St. John. 


Yesterday at First Vespers the Church sang the 
praises of Joachim as "a man glorious in his 
"generation, unto whom the Lord gave the blessings 
" of all nations, and upon whose head he confirmed 
"his testament" 1 The second Vespers are taken 
from the Common of a Confessor not a Bishop, the 
Antiphons of which are so full of graceful simplicity. 
No more fitting words could be found wherewith to 
praise this just man whose path, as we read in the 
Book of Wisdom, was truly as a brilliant light 
going forward and increasing even to perfect day. 
He offered to the Lord in his temple the Virgin 
Mother who was to give our human nature to the 
Word. His life had no evening. It closed when 
his daughter's sanctity was attaining its zenith, and 
the father of the Immaculate Virgin went to carry 
hope to the souls of the just in Limbo. 

* 1. Ant. Lord, thou gavest 1. Ant. Domine, quinque 

me five talents : behold I have talenta tradidisti mihi : ecce 

gained five more. alia quinque superlucratus 

Ps. Dixit Dominus, page 36. sum. 

2. Ant. Well done, thou 2. Ant. Euge, serve bone, 
good servant, faithful in few in modico fid el is, intra in 
things, enter into the joy of gaudiuin Domini tui. 

thy Lord. 

Ps. Confitebor tibi, Domine, 
page 37. 

3. Ant. Faithful and pru- 3. Ant. Fidelis servus et 
dent servant, whom his Lord prudens, queni cons ti tui t 
hath placed over his family. Dominus super familiam 

Ps. Beatus vir, page 38. suam. 

1 Ant. of Magnificat at 1st Vespers. 

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4. Ant. Beatus ille servus, 
quern cum venerit Dominus 
ejus, et pulsaverit januam, 
invenerit vigilantem. 

5. Ant. Serve bone et 
fidelis, intra in gaudium Do- 
mini tui. 


Beatus vir, qui inventus 
est sine macula, et qui post 
aurum non abiit, nec spera- 
vit in pecunia et tbesauris. 
Chilis est hie, et laudabimus 
eumt fecit enim mirabilia 
in vita sua. 

4. Ant. Blessed is that ser- 
vant, whom when his Lord 
shall come and knock at the 
gate, be shall find watching. 

Ps. Laudate pueri, page 39. 

5. Ant. Good and faithful 
servant, enter into the joy of 
thy Lord. 

Ps. Laudate Dominum om- 
nes gen tea, page 334. 

(Eccli. xxxi.) 

Blessed is the man that is 
found without .blemish : and 
that hath not gone after gold, 
nor put his trust in money 
nor in treasures. Who is he, 
and we will praise him ? For 
he hath done wonderful things 
in his life. 


late Confessor Domini co- 

Quern pie laudant populi 
per orbem, 

On this day, the blessed 
Confessor of the Lord, whom 
all nations throughout the 
world lovingly venerate, meri- 

* In the Monastic Breviary it is as follows :- 

R7. brev. Os justi. * Medita- 
bitur sapientiam. Os justi. 

)5\ fit lingua ejus loquetur 
judicium. * Meditabitur. Gloria. 
Os justi. 

Iste Confessor Domini sacratus 
Festa plebs cujus celebrat per 

Hac die laetus meruit supremos 
Laudis honores. 

Qui pius, prudens, humilis, pu- 

Sobrius, castus fuit et quietus, 
Vita dum prssens vegetavit ejus 
Corporis artus. 

Ad sacrum cujus tumulum fre- 

Membra languentum modo sa- 

Quolibet morbo fuerint gravat* 

Unde nunc noster chorus in 

Ipsius hymnum canit hunc li- 

benter ; 
Ut piis ejus meritis juvemur 
Omne per ®vum. 

Sit salus iili, decus, atque virtus, 
Qui supra coali residens cacu- 

Totius mundi machinam guber- 

Trinus et unus. Amen. 

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ted the highest honours of Hac die laetus meruit su- 
praise. premos 

Laudis honores. 

Pious, prudent, humble, and 
chaste, he led a sober and spot- 
less life, as long as quickening 
breath animated his frame. 

Oft does it happen, through 
his eminent merit, that the 
languishing limbs of poor suf- 
ferers, overcoming the power 
of the disease, are restored to 

Therefore does our choir 
devoutly sing his praise, tell- 
ing his glorious victories : may 
we be evermore assisted by 
his benevolent prayers. 

Salvation and honour and 
power be to him who, seated 
glorious on his heavenly throne, 
One and Three, ruleth the 
whole universe. 


y. The Lord hath led the 
just man through right ways. 

]j. And shown him the 
kingdom of God. 

Qui pius, prudens, -humilis, 

Sooriam duxit sine labe 


Donee humanos animavit 
Spiritus artus. 

Cujus ob praestans meritum 

Mgra. quae passim jacuere* 

Viribus morbi domitis, sa* 


Noster hinc illi chorus ob- 

Concinit laudem, celebres- 

que palmas : 
Ut piis ejus precibus juve- 


Omne per aevum. 

Sit salus illi, decus, atque 

Qui super cceli solio corus- 

Totius mundi seriem guber- 

Trinus et unus. 

ff. Justum deduxit Do- 
minus per vias rectas. 

1$. Etostenditilliregnum 


This man, despising the Hie vir despiciens mun- 

world and earthly things, tri- dum et terrena, triumphans, 

umphantly, by word and deed, divitias coelo condidit ore, 

laid up treasures in heaven. manu. 

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~ The Prayer is the Collect of the Mass, page 437. 
Then is made a commemoration of the Sunday. 

The Acts of the Saints reproduce on the 20th 
March this Hymn from the ancient Roman Breviary, 
which will serve as a prayer to the father of Mary. 


O Pater summae, Joachim, 

Quae Deum clauao genuit 

Promove nostras Domino 

Castaque vota. 

gfcis quot hie saevis agitemur 

Triste quos mundi mare 

defatigat : 
Scis quot adnectat Sathanas 

Praelia nobis. 

Jam sacris junetus superum 
• catervis, 
Imo praecedens, potes omne, 
si vis : 

Nil nepos Jesus merito ne- 
Nil tibi nata. 

Fac tuo nobis veniam pre- 

Donet et pacem Deitas be- 

Ut simul juncti resonemus 

Dulciter hymnos. 

O Joachim, Father of the 
sovereign Maiden, who in all 
purity gave birth to God, 
present to the Lord our pe- 
titions and our chaste desires. 

Thou knowest by what angry 
waves we are here tossed, 
whom the cruel sea of this 
world wearies out : thou know- 
est how many battles Satan 
and the flesh prepare for us. 

Now that thou art united to 
the holy companies in heaven, 
or rather art placed at their 
head, thou canst do all if thou 
wilt : for rightly neither Jesus 
thy Grandson nor Mary thy 
daughter can deny thee aught. 

Obtain by thy prayer that 
our Blessed God may give us 
pardon and peace : that united 
with thee we may sweetly 
sing canticles to him. 


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Father of Mary, we thank thee. All creation 
owes thee a debt of gratitude, since the Creator was 
pleased that thou shouldst give him the Mother he 
had chosen for himself. 

Husband of holy Anne,: thou showest us what » 
would have been in Paradise ; thou seem est to have 
been reinstated in primeval innocence, in order to 
give birth to the Immaculate Virgin : sanctify 
Christian life, and elevate the standard of morals. 
Thou art the Grandfather 6f Jesus : let thy paternal 
love embrace all Christians who are his brethren. 
Holy Church honours thee more than ever in these 
days of trial; she knows how powerful thou art with 
the Eternal and Almighty Father, who made thee 
instrumental, through thy blessed daughter, in the 
temporal Generation of his Eternal Son. 

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August 16. 


One of the loveliest lilies from the Dominican field 
to-day unfurls its petals at the foot of Mary's throne. 
Hyacinth represents on the sacred cycle that in- 
trepid band of missionaries who, in the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries, faced the barbarism of the 
Tartars and Mussulmans which was threatening the 
West. From the Alps to the Northern frontiers of 
the Chinese Empire, from the islands of the Archi- 
pelago to the Arctic regions, he propagated his 
Order and spread the kingdom of God. On the 
Steppes, where the schism of Constantinople disputed 
its conquests with the idolatrous invaders from the 
North, he was seen for forty years working prodi- 
gies, confounding heresy, dispelling the darkness of 

The consecration of martyrdom was not wanting 
to this, any more than to the first Apostolate. 
Many were the admirable episodes, where the Angels 
seemed to smile upon the hard combats of their 
earthly brethren. In the convent founded by 
Hyacinth at Sandomir on the Vistula, forty-eight 
Friars Preachers were gathered together under the 
rule of Blessed Sadoc. One day the lector of the 
Martyrology, announcing the feast of the morrow, 

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read these words which appeared before his eyes in 
letters of gold : At Sandomir on the 4th of the 
Nones of June, the Passion of Forty-nine 
Martyrs. The astonished brethren soon under- 
stood this extraordinary announcement ; in the joy 
of their souls they prepared to gather the palm, 
which was procured for them by an irruption of the 
Tartars on the very day mentioned. They were 
assembled in choir at the happy moment, and whilst 
singing the Salve Regina they dyed with their 
blood the pavement of the church. 

No executioner's sword was to close Hyacinth's 
glorious career. John, the beloved disciple, had had 
to remain on earth till the Lord should come; our 
Saint waited for the Mother of his Lord to fetch 

Neither labour nor the greatest sufferings, nor 
above all the most wonderful divine interventions 
were wanting to his beautiful life. Kiew, the holy 
city of the Russians, having for fifty years resisted 
his zeal, the Tartars, as avengers of God's justice, 
swept over it and sacked it. The universal devasta- 
tion reached the very doors of the sanctuary where 
the man of God was just concluding the Holy 
Sacrifice. Clothed as he was in the sacred vest- 
ments, he took in one hand the most Holy Sacrament 
and in the other the statue of Mary, who asked him 
not to leave her to the barbarians ; then, together 
with his brethren, he walked safe and sound through 
the very midst of the bloodthirsty pagans, along the 
streets all in flames, and lastly across the Dnieper, 
the ancient Borysthenes, whose waters, growing firm 
beneath his feet, retained the marks of his steps. 
Three centuries later, the witnesses examined for 
the process of canonisation attested on oath that the 
prodigy still continued ; the footprints always visible 
upon the water, from one bank to the other, were 

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called by the surrounding inhabitants St. Hyacinth's 

The Saint, continuing his miraculous retreat as far 
as Cracow, there laid down bis precious burden in 
the convent of the Blessed Trinity. The statue of 
3£ary, light as a reed while he was carrying it, now 
resumed its natural weight, which was so great that 
one man could not so much as move it. Beside this 
statue Hyacinth, after many more labours, would 
return to die. It was here that, at the beginning of 
his apostolic life, the Mother of God had appeared 
to him for the first time, saying: "Have great 
" courage and be joyful, my son Hyacinth ! What- 
" soever thou shalt a>k in my name, shall be granted 
"thee." This happy interview took place on the 
Vigil of the Assumption. The Saint gathered from 
it the superhuman confidence of the thaumaturgus, 
which no difficulty could ever shake ; but above all 
he retained from it the virginal fragrance which 
embalmed his whole life, and the light of super- 
natural beauty which made him the picture of his 
father Dominic. 

Years passed away : heroic Poland, the privileged 
centre of Hyacinth's labours, was ready to play its 
part, under Mary's shield, as the bulwark of Chris- 
tendom ; at the price of what sacrifices we shall hear 
in October from a contemporary of our Saint, St. 
Hedwiges, the blessed mother of the hero of 
Liegnitz. Meantime, like St. Stanislaus his prede- 
cessor in the labour, the son of St. Dominic came to 
Cracow, to breathe his last sigh and leave there the 
treasure of his sacred relics. Not on the Vigil this 
time, but on the very day of her triumph, August 
15th, 1257, in the church of the Most Holy Trinity, 
our Lady came down once more, with a brilliant 
escort of Angels, and Virgins forming her court. 
"Oh! who art thou?" cried a holy soul who beheld 

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all this in ecstasy ; " I," answered Mary, " am the 
"Mother of mercy; and he whom I hold by the 
"hand, is brother Hyacinth, my devoted eon, whom 
" I am leading to the eternal nuptials." Then our 
Lady intoned herself with her sweet voice : " I will 
"go to the mountain of Libanus/'.and the Angels 
and Virgins continued the heavenly song with 
exquisite harmony, while the happy procession 
disappeared into the glory of heaven. 

Let us read the notice of St. Hyacinth given by 
the Liturgy. We shall there see that his above- 
mentioned passage over the Dnieper, was not the 
only circumstance wherein he showed his power over 
the waves. 

Hyacinth was a Pole and 
born of noble and Christian 
parents in the town of Camien 
of the diocese of Breslau. In 
his childhood he received a 
liberal education, and later he 
studied law and Divinity. 
Having become a Canon of 
the church of Cracow, he 
surpassed all his fellow-priests 
by his remarkable piety and 
learning. He was received at 
Rome into the Order of 
Preachers by the founder St. 
Dominic, and till the end of 
his life he observed in a most 
holy manner the mode of life 
he learnt from him. He re- 
mained always a virgin, and 
had a great love for modesty, 
patience, humility, abstinence 
and other virtues, which are 
the true inheritance of the 
religious life. 

In his burning love for God 
he would spend whole night* 


Hyacinthus Polonus, no- 
bilibus et christianis pa- 
rentibus, in Camiensi villa 
episcopatus Vratislaviensis 
natus est. A pueritia lit- 
teris instructus, post datam 
jurisprudentiae et sacris lit- 
teris operam, inter canon icos 
Cracovienses ascitus, insigni 
morum pietate et summa 
eruditione ceteros antecel- 
luit. Romae in Praedica- 
torum ordiuem ab ipso in- 
stitutore sancto Dominico 
adscriptus, perfectam Viven- 
di rationem, quam ab ipso 
didicerat, usque ad finem 
vitse sanctissime retinuit. 
Virginitatem perpetuo co- 
luit : modestiam, patien- 
tiam, humilitatem, absti- 
nentiam, ceterasque virtu- 
tes, ut certum religiose vitse 
patrimonium, adamavit. 

Caritate in Deum fervens, 
integras saepe noctes fun- 

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dendis precibus, castigan- in prayer and chastising his 

doque corpori insumens, body. He would allow nim- 

nullum eidem levamentum, self no rest except by leaning 

nisi lapidi innixus, sive against a stone, or lying on 

humi Cubans, adhibebat. the bare ground. He was sent 

Remissus in patriam, Frisaci back to his own country ; but 

primum in itinere amplissi- first of all on the way there, 

mum sui ordinis monaste- he founded a large house of 

rium,moxCraco viae alteram his Order at Friesach, and 

erexit. Inde per alias Po- then another at Cracow. Then 

loniae regni provincias, aliis in different provincesof Poland 

quatuor exaedificatis, incre- he built four other monasteries, 

dibile dictu est quantum and it seems incredible what 

verbi Dei praedicatione et an amount of good he did in 

vitae innocentia apud omnes all these places by preaching 

profecerit. Nullum diem the word of God and by the 

praetermisit, quo non prae- innocence of his life. Not a 

clara aliqua fidei, pietatis day passed but he gave some 

atque innocentiae argumenta striking proof of his faith, his 

praestiterit. piety, and his innocence. 

Sanctissimi viri studium God honoured the holy 

erga proximorum salutem man's zeal for the good of 

maximis Deus miraculis his neighbour by very great 

illustravit. Inter quae illud miracles. The following is 

insigne, quod Vandalum one of the most striking : he 

fluvium prope Visogradum crossed without a boat the 

aquis redundantem, nullo river Vistula which had over- 

navigio usus, trajecit, sociis flowed, near Wisgrade, and 

quouue expanso super undas drew his companions also 

allio traductis. Admira- across on his cloak which he 

ili vitae gen ere ad quadra- spread out over the water, 

ginta prope annos post pro- After having persevered in 

fessionem perducto, mortis his admirable manner of life 

die suis fratribus praenun- for forty years after his Pro- 

tiatOjipsoassumptae Virginis fession, he foretold to his 

festo, Horis Canonicis per- brethren the day of his death, 

solutis, sacramentis ecclesi- On the feast of our Lady's 

asticis summa cum venera- Assumption in the year 1257, 

tione perceptis, iis verbis : having finished the Canonical 

In manus tuas Domine, Hours, and received the Sacra- 

spiritum Deo reddidit, anno ments of the Church with 

salutis millesimo ducentesi- great devotion, saying these 

mo quinquagesimo septimo. words : " Into thy hands, O 

Ouem miraculis, etiam post " Lord, I commend my spirit," 

obitum, illustrem, Clemens Jje gave up his soul to God. 

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He was illustrious for miracles 
in death as in life, and Pope 
Clement VIII. numbered him 
among the Saints. 

Papa Octavus in Sanctorum 
numerum retulit. 

Great was thy privilege, O son of Dominic, to be 
so closely associated to Mary as to enter into thy 
glory on the very feast of her triumph. As thou 
occupiest so fair a place in the procession accom- 
panying her to heaven, tell us of her greatness, her 
beauty, her love for us poor creatures, whom she 
desires to make sharers, like thee, in her bliss. 

It is through her thou wert so powerful in this 
thy exile, before being near her in happiness and 
glory. Long after Adalbert and Anscharius, Cyril 
and Methodius, thou didst traverse once more the 
ungrateful North, where thorns and briars so quickly 
spring up again, where the people, whom the Church 
has with such labour delivered from the yoke of 
paganism, are continually letting themselves be 
caught in the meshes of schism and the snares of 
heresy. In his chosen domain, the prince of dark- 
ness suffered fresh defeats, an immense multitude 
broke his chains, and the light of salvation shone 
further than any of thy predecessors had carried it 
Poland, definitively won to the Church, became her 
rampart, until the days of treason which put an £nd 
to Christian Europe. 

0 Hyacinth, preserve the faith in the hearts of 
this noble people, until the day of its resurrection. 
Obtain grace for the Northern regions, which thou 
didst warm with the fiery breath of thy word. 
Nothing thou askest of Mary will be refused, for the 
Mother of mercy promised thee so. Keep up the 
apostolic zeal of thy illustrious Order. May the 
number of thy brethren be multiplied, for it is far 
below our present needs. 

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Akin to thy power over the waves, is another 
attributed to thee by the confidence of the faithful, 
and justified by many prodigies: viz., that of 
restoring life to the drowned. Many a time also 
have Christian mothers experienced thy miraculous 
power, in bringing to the saving font their little 
ones, whom a dangerous delivery threatened to 
deprive of Baptism. Prove to thy devout clients 
that the goodness of God is ever the same, and the 
influence of his elect not lessened. 

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Three years of famine, three months of defeats, 
three days of pestilence: the choice given to the 
guilty David between these three measures of 
expiation, shows them to be equivalent before the 
justice of God. The terrible scourge, which makes 
more havoc in three days than would famine or a 
disastrous war in months and years, showed in the 
fourteenth century that it kept its sad pre-eminence: 
the black death covered the world with a mantle of 
mourning, and robbed it of a third of its inhabitants. 
Doubtless the world had never so well merited the 
terrible warning: the graces of sanctity poured in 
profusion on the preceding century had but checked 
for a while the defection of the nations; every 
embankment being now broken down, entrance was 
given to the irresistible tide of schism, reform, and 
revolution by which the world must die. Neverthe- 
less God has mercy as long as life lasts ; and while 
striking sinful mankind, he gave them at the same 
time the Saint predestined to appease his vengeance. 

At his birth he appeared marked with the cross. 
When a young man he distributed his goods to the 
poor, and leaving his family and country, became a 
pilgrim for Christ's sake. Going to Italy to visit 
the sanctuaries, he there found the cities devastated 

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by a terrible plague. Roch took up his abode 
among the dead and dying, burying the former, and 
healing the latter with the sign of the cross. 
Himself stricken with the evil, he hid himself so as 
to suffer alone; and a dog brought him food. 
When, cured by God, he returned to Montpeliier, his 
native town, it was only to be there seized as a spy 
and thrown into prison, where he died after five 
years. Such are thy dealings with thy elect, O 
Wisdom of God ! But no sooner was he dead, than 
prodigies burst forth, making known his origin and 
history, revealing the power he still enjoyed of 
delivering from pestilence those who had recourse 
to him. 

The reputation of his influence, increased by fresh 
benefits at each visitation of plague, caused his 
cultus to become popular ; hence although the feast 
of St. Roch is not universal, this short notice was 
due to him. It will be completed by the following 
legend and prayer borrowed from the proper office 
for certain places in the supplement of the Roman 

Rochus in monte Pessu- 
lano natus, quanta in proxi- 
mum caritate flagraret, turn 
maxim e ostendit, cum sae- 
vissima peste longe lateque 
per Italiam grassante, patria 
relicta, Italicam peregrina- 
tionem suscepit, urbesque et 
oppida peragrans, seipsum 
in segrotantium obsequium 
pro fratribus ponere non 
dubitavit Quod beati viri 
studium quam gratum Deo 
fuerit, miris sanation ibus 
declaratum est. Complures 
enim pestilentia infectos e 

Roch was born at Mont- 
peliier. He showed his great 
love for his neighbour, when 
a cruel pestilence ravaged the 
length and breadth of Italy ; 
leaving his native country he 
undertook a journey through 
Italy, and passing through 
the towns and villages, de- 
voted himself to the service 
of the sick, not hesitating to 
lay down his life for his 
brethren. Miraculous cures 
bore witness how pleasing to 
God was the zeal of the holy 
man. For by the sign of the 
cross he saved many who were 

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in danger of death through 
the plague, and restored them 
to perfect health. He re- 
turned to his own country, 
and, rich in virtues and merits, 
died a most holy death. He 
was honoured by the venera- 
tion of the faithful imme- 
diately after his death. It is 
said their devotion was greatly 
increased at the Council of 
Constance, when, in order to 
avert the pestilence that 
threatened them, the image 
of St. Roch was, with the 
approbation of the bishops, 
carried solemnly through that 
town followed by the whole 

Eeople. Thus devotion to 
im has spread in a wonderful 
way through the whole world, 
and he has been piously de- 
clared the universal protector 
against contagious diseases. 
Having carefully considered 
all this, Pope Urban VIII. 
allowed his feast to be cele- 
brated with an ecclesiastical 
office, in those places where 
there are churches dedicated 
to God under the invocation 
of St. Roch. 

mortis periculo signo crucis 
eripuit, et integral sanitati 
restituit. In patriam rever- 
sus, virtutibus et meritis 
dives, sanctissime obi it,ej us- 
que obitum statim subsecuta 
est veneratio fidelium, quae 
in Constantiensi deinde con- 
cilio magnum recepisse dici- 
tur incrementum, cum ad 
propulsandam ingruentem 
luem Rochi imago solemni 
pompa, omni comitante po- 
pulo, per eamdem civitatem, 
episcopis approbantibus, est 
delata. Itaque ejus cultus 
mirifice propagatus est in 
universo terrarum orbe, qui 
eumdem sibi apud Deum 
ad versus contagiosam luem 
patron urn religioso studio 
adoptavit. Quious accurate 
perpensis, Urbanus Octavus 
Pontifex Maximus, ut ejus 
dies festus iis in locis, in 

Suibus f orent ecclesiaa sancti 
tochi nomine Deo dicatse, 
Officio ecclesiastico celebra- 
retur, indulsit. 


We beseech thee, O Lord, 
protect thy people in thy 
unceasing goodness ; and 
through the merits of blessed 
Roch, preserve them from 
every contagion of soul and 
body. Through. 

Populum tuum,qua3sumus 
Domine, continua pietate 
custodi : et beati Rochi suf- 
f ragantibus meritis, ab om- 
ni fac animse et corporis 
contagione securum. Per 

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August 17. 


At Christmas Stephen watched beside the crib, 
where the Infant God attracted our hearts ; Laurence 
to-day escorts the Queen whose beauty outshines the 
heavens. It was fitting that a deacon should be 
present at both triumphs of love, shown at Bethle- 
hem in the weakness of the Babe, and in heaven in 
the glory wherewith the Son delights to honour his 
Mother. During her pilgrimage through the desert 
of this world, the deacons are the guardians of the 
Bride, the Church, signified by the ancient taber- 
nacle, wherein was the Ark of the Covenant, a figure 
of Mary. 

" "Beloved sons," said the Pontiff to them on the 
day of their consecration, " consider by how great a 
" privilege, inheriting both the office and the name 
" of the Levitical tribe, you surround the tabernacle 
"of the testimony, which is the Church, to defend 
"it against an untiring enemy. As your fathers 
"carried the tabernacle, so must you support the 
" Church ; adorn her by sanctity, strengthen her by 
'.'the divine word, uphold her by the example of 
"perfection. Levi signifies set apart ; be you then 
"separated from earthly desires; shine with the 
" brightness of spotless purity, as beseems the tribe 
"beloved of the Lord/' 1 

1 Pontificate Rom. in Ordinat. Diaconi. 

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By this disengagement from earth which gives true 
liberty, the Church, who is free herself, whereas the 
Synagogue was a slave, clothes her deacons with a 
grace unknown to the Levites of old. It were true 
to say of Laurence what was written of Stephen, that 
his face appeared as the face of an Angel amongst 
men ; from the brow of each shone the light of 
Wisdom who dwelt in them, and the Holy Ghost 
who spoke by them put a grace upon their lips. In 
blood not his own did the Levite of Sinai, raising his 
sword, consecrate his hands to Jehovah; the deacon, 
ever ready to give his own blood, manifests his power 
by a fidelity of love, not of servitude; keeps up his 
energy by righteousness and self-forgetfulness ; and 
while his feet are on the earth, where he combats, his 
eyes are on heaven, to which he aspires, and his heart 
is given to the Church, who has entrusted herself to 

With what devotedness he guards both her and 
her treasures ; from the precious Pearl of the Body 
of her spouse, to the jewels of the Mother, which are 
her poor and suffering children: from the purely 
spiritual riches springing from Baptism and the word 
of God, to those material goods, the possession of 
which proves the Bride's right of citizenship here 
below. It were well to recall this lesson in our days: 
God willed that the greatest martyr of the holy City 
should win his crown by refusing to deliver up the 
revenues of the Church; and yet, under the circum- 
stances, the confiscation of the treasure was legal, 
at least as far as an edict of Caesar could legalize 
injustice. Laurence did not consider that this pre- 
tended legality authorized him to yield to the gover- 
nor's demands; he had no answer but disdain for 
this man who knew not that, the earth being the 
Lord's, the Bride of the Lord is responsible 1*> him 
alone in the administration of his goods. Would 

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he have acted differently if the State had then, as 
later, joined hypocrisy to tyranny, and tried to vin- 
dicate its spoliations by artful language, unknown to 
the straightforward highway robber? Where are now 
the State and the Caesar of those days ? It is no new 
thing for persecutors to end in shame ; the imperial 
murderer of the great deacon had not long to wait ; 
in less than two years, Valerian had become the 
footstool of Sapor, and afterwards his skin, dyed red, 
was hung from the roof of a Persian temple. 

Laurence, meanwhile, has received more homage 
than was ever offered to king or Caesar. What 
ancient Roman conqueror ever attained to his glory? 
Borne itself became his conquest : twenty-four sanc- 
tuaries dedicated to Christ in his name in the Eternal 
City eclipse all the imperial palaces. And through- 
out the world, how many important churches and 
monasteries rejoice in his powerful patronage. The 
New World imitates the Old, giving the name of 
St. Laurence to its towns and provinces, its islands, 
bays, rivers, capes and mountains. But among all 
Christian kingdoms, his native Spain justly dis- 
tinguishes itself in paying honour to the illustrious 
Archdeacon ; it celebrates on the 1st May his holy 
parents Orentius and Patience, who gave him birth 
in the territory of Huesca ; and it consecrated to 
him the noblest monument of its grandest age, St. 
Laurence of the Escurial, at once a church, a monas- 
tery, and a palace, built in the form of a gigantic 

Let us close the Octave with the prayer addressed 
to him to-day by our common Mother : " Raise up, 
" O Lord, in thy Church, the spirit which was followed 
"by the blessed Levite, Laurence; that we being 
" filled with it, may study to love what he loved, and 
" in our works to practise what he taught." 

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We have just quoted the Collect of the Octave 
day ; it is borrowed, together with the Introit and 
other prayers of to-day, from the Mass which was 
anciently celebrated in the night of the 10th August. 
We take the opportunity of remarking that super- 
natural prodigies at various times have proved that 
this glorious night won for the martyr a special 
privilege of delivering souls from Purgatory in virtue 
of his own fiery torture. It became the custom in 
Rome to pray for the dead in the basilica of St. 
Laurence in agro Verano, raised by the first Chris- 
tian emperor over the martyrs tomb. The faithful 
of the Eternal City come to sleep their last sleep 
under its shadow, and within its walls Pius IX., of 
happy memory, willed to await his resurrection. 

Notker gives us this fine Sequence, after which 
we will conclude with a prayer from the Leonian 


O Laurence, martyr and Laurenti, David magni 
brave soldier of the great and martyr milesque fortis, 
true David, 

The tribunal of the emperor, Tu imperatoris tribunal, 

The blood-stained hand of Tu manus tortorum cru- 
the executioners, entas, 

Are set at nought by thee, Sprevisti, secutus deside- 
who f ollowest the Desirable rabilem atque manu fortem, 
One, who is mighty of hand, 

Who alone could overthrow Qui solus potuit regna 
the Kingdom of the cruel ty- superare tyranni crudelis, 

And whose holy love mak- Cujusque sanctus sangui- 
eth his soldiers prodigal of nis prodigos facit amor mili- 
their blood, tes ejus, 

Provided they may behold Dummodo ilium liceat cer- 
him, at the price of the present nere dispendio vitae prae- 
life. sentis. 

Thou despisest the fasces of Caesaris tu fasces contem- 
Csesar, and laughest to scorn nis et judicis minas derides, 
the judge's threats. 

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Carnifex ungulas et ustor 
craticulam vane consumunt. 

Dolet impius urbis prae- 
fectus, victus a pisce assato, 
Christi cibo. 

Gaudet Domini conviva 
favo, conresurgendi, cam 
ipso sataratus. 

O Laurenti,militum David 
invictissime, regis aeterni, 

Apud ilium servulis ipsius 
deprecare veniam semper, 
Martyr milesque fortis. 

In vain does the torturer 
use his iron hooks and the 
executioner his gridiron. 

The impious prefect of the 
city laments* overcome by the 
broiled fish, the food of Christ : 

But the guest of the Lord 
rejoices, feasting with him on 
the honeycomb, the type of 
resurrection. 1 

O Laurence, most invincible 
of all the soldiers of the eter- 
nal king David, 

Ever implore of him pardon 
for his servants, 

O brave martyr and soldier. 



Auge, quaasumus Domine, 
fidem populi tui, de sancti 
Laurentii Martyris festivi- 
tate conceptam ; ut ad con- 
f essionem tui Nominis nullis 
properare terreamur adver- 
sis, sed tantae virtutis intuitu 
potias incitemur. Per Do- 

Increase, O Lord, we be- 
seech thee, the faith of thy 
people gotten on the feast of 
the holy martyr Laurence; 
that we may by no adversi- 
ties be terrified from hasten- 
ing to confess thy Name, but 
may rather be encouraged by 
the sight of such great valour. 
Through, &c 

1 An allusion to the mysterious scene of Easter evening, when 
our risen Lord ate a piece of broiled fish and some honey-comb 
before his disciples, and gave them the remains. 

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August 18. 


In the eternal decrees Mary was never separated 
from Jesus; together with him, she was the type of 
all created beauty. When the Almighty Father 
prepared the heavens and the earth, his Son, who 
is his Wisdom, played before him in his future 
humanity as first exemplar, as measure and number, 
as starting-point, centre and summit of the work 
undertaken by the Spirit of Love ; but at the same 
time the predestined Mother, the woman chosen to 
give to the Son of God from her own flesh his 
quality of Son of Man, appeared among mere 
creatures as the term of all excellence in the various 
orders of nature, of grace, and of glory. We need 
not then be astonished at the Church putting on 
Mary's lips the words first uttered by Eternal 
Wisdom : " From the beginning and before the world 
" was I created." 

The divine ideal was realized in her whole being, 
even in her body. To form out of nothing a re- 
flection of the divine perfections, is the purpose of 
creation and the law even of matter. Now, next to 
the Face of the most beautiful of the sons of men, 
nothing on earth so well expressed God as the 
Virgin's countenance. St. Denis is said to have 
exclaimed on seeing our Lady for the first time: 

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"Had not faith revealed to me thy Son, I should 
" have taken thee for God.'* Whether it be authentic 
or not to place it in the mouth of the Areopagite, 1 
this cry of the heart expresses the feeling of the 
ancients. We shall be the less surprised at this, if we 
remember that no son ever resembled his mother as 
Jesus did ; it was the law of nature doubled in him, 
since he had no earthly father. It is now the delight 
of the Angels, to behold in the glorified bodies of 
Jesus and Mary, new aspects of eternal beauty, 
which their own immaterial substances could not 

Now the unspeakable perfection of Mary's body 
sprang from the union of that body with the most 
perfect soul that ever was, excepting of course the 
soul of our Lord her Son. With us, the original Fall 
has broken the harmony that ought to exist between 
the two very different elements of our human being, 
and has generally displaced, and sometimes even 
destroyed, the proportions of nature and grace. It 
is very different where the divine work has not thus 
been vitiated from the beginning; so that in each 
blessed spirit of the nine choirs, the degree of grace 
is in direct relation to his gifts of nature. 2 Exemp- 
tion from sin allowed the soul of the Immaculate One 
to inform the body of its own image with absolute 
sway, while the soul itself, lending itself to grace 
to the full extent of its exquisite powers, suffered 
God to raise it supernaturally above all the Seraphim, 
even to the steps of his own throne. 

For in the kingdom of grace, as in that of nature, 
Mary's super-eminence was such as became a Queen. 
At the first moment of her existence in the womb of 
St. Anne, she was set far above the highest moun- 
tains ; and God, who loves only what he has made 

1 Ex pseudo-epistola Dionys. ad Paulum. 
3 Thom. Aquin., I a P., qu. lxii., art. 6. 

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worthy of his love, loved this entrance, this gate of 
the true Sion above all the tabernacles of Jacob. It 
was indeed impossible that the Word, who had 
chosen her for his Mother, should, even for an 
instant, love any creature more, as being more 
perfect. Throughout her life there was never in 
Mary the least want of correspondence with her 
preventing graces; so great perfection could not 
brook the least failing, the least interruption., the 
least delay. From the first moment of her most holy 
Conception till her glorious death, grace operated in 
her without hindrance, to the utmost of its divine 
power. Thus, starting from heights unknown to us, 
and doubling her speed at each stroke of her wings, 
her powerful flight bore her up to that nearness to 
God, where our admiring contemplation follows her 
during these days. 

Our Lady, moreover, is not only the first-born, the 
most perfect, the most holy, of creatures and their 
Queen — or rather she is all this, only because she is 
also the Mother of the Son of God. If we wish only 
to prove that she alone surpasses all the united 
subjects of her vast empire, we may compare her 
with men and with Angels, in the order of nature 
and of grace. But all comparison is out of the 
question, if we try to follow her to the inaccessible 
heights, where, still the handmaid of the Lord, she 
participates in the eternal relations which constitute 
the Blessed Trinity. What mode of divine charity 
is that, whereby a creature loves God as her Son ? 
But let us listen to the Bishop of Meaux, not the 
least of whose merits is, to have understood as he 
did the greatness of Mary: "To form the holy 
" Virgin's love, it was necessary to mingle together 
"all that is most tender in nature and most effi- 
" cacious in grace. Nature had to be there, for it 
" was love of a son ; grace had to act, for it was love 

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"of a God. But what is beyond our imagination is, 
"that nature and grace were insufficient; for it is 
" not in nature to have God for a son ; and grace, at 
" least ordinary grace, cannot love a son as God : 
"we must therefore rise higher. Suffer me, O 
"Christians, to raise my thoughts to-day beyond 
"nature and grace, and to seek the source of this 
"love in the very bosom of the Eternal Father. 
"The divine Son, of whom Mary is Mother, belongs 
" to her and to God. She is united with God the 
"Father by becoming the Mother of his only be- 
" gotten Son, who is common to her and the Eternal 
" Father by the manner of bis conception. But to 
"make her capable of conceiving God, the Most 
" High had to overshadow her with his own power ; 
"that is, to extend to her his own fecundity. In 
" this way Mary is associated in the eternal genera- 
tion. But this God, who willed to give her his 
"Son, was obliged also, in order to complete his 
" work, to place in her chaste bosom a spark of the 
" love he himself bears to his only Son, who is the 
" splendour of his glory and the living image of his 
"substance. Such is the origin of Mary's love: it 
" springs from an effusion of God's heart into hers ; 
" and her love of her Son is given to her from the 
"same source as her Son himself. After this 
" mysterious communication, what hast thou to say, 
" 0 human reason ? Canst thou pretend to under- 
stand the union of Mary with Jesus Christ? It 
"has in it something of that perfect unity which 
"exists between the Father and the Son. Do not 
"attempt any more to explain that maternal love 
" which springs from so high a source, and which is 
" an overflow of the love of the Father for his only 
" begotten Son." 1 

1 Bossuet. First sermon for the Assumption. 

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Palestrina, the ancient Preneste, sends a repre- 
sentative to Mary's court to-day, in the person of its 
valiant and gentle martyr, Agapitus. By his youth 
and his fidelity, he reminds us of that other gracious 
athlete, the acolyth Tarcisius, whose victory, gained 
on the 15th August, is eclipsed by the glory of 
Mary's queenly triumph. During the persecution of 
Valerian, and just before the combats of Sixtus and 
Laurence, Tarcisius, carrying the Body of our Lord, 
was met by some pagans, who tried to force him to 
show them what he had ; but, pressing the heavenly 
treasure to his heart, he suffered himself to be 
crushed beneath their blows rather than " deliver up 
" to mad dogs the members of the Lord." 1 Agapitus, 
at fifteen years of age, suffered cruel tortures under 
Aurelian. Though so young, he may have seen the 
disgraceful end of Valerian ; while the new edict, 
which enabled him to follow Tarcisius to Mary's 
feet, had scarcely been promulgated throughout the 
empire, when Aurelian, in his turn, was cast down 
by Christ, from whom alone kings and emperors hold 
their crowns. 


Let thy Church rejoice, O Laetetur Ecclesia tua, 
God, relying on the interces- Deus, beati Agapiti Mar- 
sion of blessed Agapitus, thy tyris tui confisa suffragiis : 
martyr; and by his glorious atqueejusprecibusgloriosis, 
prayers, may she remain de- et devota permaneat, et se- 
vout, and be securely support- cura consist at. Per Domi- 
ed. Through, <fcc. num. 

As we return from Palestrina to the Eternal City, 
we pass on our left the cemetery of Saints Marcelli- 
nus and Peter, where were first deposited the holy 

1 Damas. in Callisti. 
pent. iv. 2 H 

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relics of the pious empress Helena, who entered 
heaven on this day. The Koman Church deemed no 
greater honour , could be given her, than to mingle, 
so to say, her memory on the 3rd May with that of 
the sacred Wood which she restored to our adoring 
love. We shall not then speak to-day about the 
glorious Invention, which, after three centuries of 
struggle, gave so happy a consecration to the era of 
triumph. Nevertheless, let us offer our homage 
to her who set up the standard of salvation, and 
placed the Cross on the brow of princes who were 
once its persecutors. 


Domine Jesu Christe, qui O Lord Jesus Christ, who 
locum, ubi crux tua latebat, unto blessed Helena didst re- 
beatae Helenae revelasti, ut veal the place where thy Cross 
per earn Ecclesiam tuam hoc lay hid : thus choosing her as 
pretioso thesauro ditares: the means to enrich thy Church 
ejus nobis intercessione con- with that precious treasure : 
cede ; ut yitalis ligni pretio do thou, at her intercession, 
aeternra vitae praemia conse- grant that by the price of the 
quamur. Qui vivis. Tree of Life we may attain 

unto the rewards of everlast- 
ing life. Who li vest and reign- 
est, <fec. 

But let us return to the empress of heaven, for 
Helena is but her happy handmaid and the martyrs 
are her army. Adam of St. Victor offers us this 
sweet Sequence wherewith to praise her and pray to 
her in the midst of this stormy sea. 


Ave, Virgo singularis, 
Mater nostri salutaris, 
QuaB vocaris sttlla maris^ 
Stella non erratica ; 

Hail, matchless Virgin, Mo- 
ther of our salvation, who art 
called Star of the Sea, a star 
that wandereth not; permit 

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us not in this life's ocean to 
suffer shipwreck, but ever in- 
tercede for us with the Saviour 
born of thee. 

The sea is raging, the winds 
are roaring, the boisterous 
billows rise ; the ship speeds 
on, but her swift course what 
fearful odds oppose ! Here the 
sirens of pleasure, the dragon, 
the sea-dogs, pirates, all at 
once menace well-nigh de- 
spairing man with death. 

Down to the depths and up 
to the sky does the raging 
surge bear the frail bark ; the 
mast totters, the sail is snatch- 
ed away, the mariner ceases 
his useless toil; our animal 
man faints amid so great evils: 
do thou, O Mother, who art 
spiritual, save us ere we perish. 

The dew of heaven being 
sprinkled on thee, thou, with- 
out losing the flower of thy 
purity, didst in a new manner 
give to the world a new flower. 
The Word co-equal with the 
Father, entering thy virginal 
body, took for our sakes a body 
in the secret of thy womb. 

He who rules all things in 
his power, foresaw and elected 
thee. He filled thy sacred 
bosom without breaking the 
seal of thy virginity. Unlike 
the first mother, thou, O Mo- 
ther, didst feel neither anguish 
nor pain in bringing forth the 


Nos in hujus vitse mari ' 
Non permitte naufragari, 
Sed pro nobis salutari 
Tuo semper supplica. 

Saevit mare, f remunt venti, 
Fluctus surgunt turbulenti; 
Navis currit, sed currenti 

Tot occurrunt obvia ! 
Hie sirenes voluptatis, 
Draco, canes, cum piratis, 
Mortem pene desperatis 

Hsec intentant omnia. 

Post abyssos, nunc ad ces- 

Furens unda fert phaselum ; 
Nutat malus, fluit velum, 

Nautae cessat opera ; 
Contabescit in his malia 
Homo noster animalis : 
Tu nos, mater spiri talis, 

Pereuntes libera. 

Tu, perfusa cceli rore, 
Castitatis salvo flore, 
Novum florem novo more 

Protulisti saeculo. 
Verbum Patri coaequale, 
Corpus intrans virginale, 
Fit pro nobis corporale 

Sub ventris umbraculo. 

Te praevidit et elegit 

Sui potenter cuncta regit, 
ec pudoris claustra f regit, 
Sacra re plena viscera ; 
Nec pressuram, nec dolorem, 
Contra primae matrismorem, 
Pariendo Salvatorem, 
Sensisti, puerpera. 

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O Maria, pro tuorum 
Dignitate meritorum, 
Supra choros angelorum 

Sublimaris unice : 
Felix dies hodierna 
Qua conscendis ad superna ! 
Fietate tu materna 

Nos in imo respice. 

Radix san eta, radix viva, 
Flos, et vitis, et oliva, 
Quam nulla vis insitiva, 

Juvit ut fructificet ; 
Lampas soli, splendor poli, 

Suae splendore prsees soli, 
os assigna tuae proli, 
Ne districte judicet. 

In conspectu summi Regis, 
Sis pusUli memor gregis 
Qui, transgressor datae legis, 

Praesumit de venia : 
Judex mitis et benignus, 
Judex jugi laude dignus 
Reis spei dedit pignus, 

Crucis factus hostia. 

Jesu, sacri ventris fructus, 
Nobis inter mundi fluctus 
Sis dux, via et conductus 

Liber ad ccelestia : 
Tene clavum, rege navem ; 
Tu, procellam sedans gra- 

Portum nobis da suavem 
Pro tua dementia. 


O Mary, by the dignity of 
thy merits, thoualoneart raised 
far above the choirs of Angels : 
happy is this day whereon thou 
didst ascend to such heights ! 
Oh ! in thy motherly love, look 
down upon us here below. 

O holy root, O living root, 
O flower and vine and olive, 
no ingrafted energy made thee 
fruitful ; light of the earth and 
brightness of heaven, thou out- 
shinest the sun in splendour ; 
present us to thy Son, that he 
judge us not sternly. 

In presence of the Most 
High King, be mindful of the 
little flock, which, though it 
has transgressed the law given 
it, dares to hope for pardon ; 
the Judge, who is mild and 
merciful, Judge, worthy of 
everlasting praise, becoming 
the victim of the Cross, gave 
to the guilty the pledge of 

O Jesus, fruit of a holy 
Mother, to us amid the world's 
billows be a guide, a way and 
a free passage to heaven : take 
the helm and guide the ship : 
and stilling the tempest, do 
thou in thy clemency lead us 
to a pleasant harbour. 

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August 19. 


— ♦ — 

"It is a great thing for a saint to have as much 
" grace as would suffice for many; but if he had 
l - sufficient for all men in the world, that would be 
" fulness of measure : and this is the case with Jesus 
"Christ and the Blessed Virgin." 1 So speaks the 
prince of theologians with regard to her whom Suarez 
salutes as the " universal cause, intimately united to 
"the Lord her Son." * 

A higher authority than that of the School has 
confirmed this teaching of the Angelic Doctor ; in his 
encyclical Magnce Dei Matris, the Sovereign Pontiff 
Leo XIII. has deigned to make his own the words we 
have just quoted; and he adds: " When therefore we 
" hail Mary as full of grace, we awaken the recollec- 
" tion of her sublime dignity and of the redemption of 
" the human race, wrought by God through her inter- 
" mediary ; moreover we call to mind the divine and 
" eternal relationship, whereby she is associated to 
" Christ in his joys and his sorrows, his humiliations 
" and his triumphs, in ruling and aiding men with a 
" view to their eternal welfare." 3 

St. Bernardine of Sienna compares our Lady to the 

^hom. Aq. Opuscv in Salutat. Angelicam. 

2 Suarez in III 8 ™ P., qu. xxxvii., art 4. Disputat. xxi., sect. 3. 

3 Encyclical of Sept. 8th, 1892. 

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fountain mentioned in Genesis, which sprang from the 
earth and watered its whole surface. 1 And as it is 
well to know the different expressions of the different 
schools, we may add, that the illustrious representative 
of the Seraphic Order recognises in Mary what he calls 
" a sort of jurisdiction or authority over every temporal 
"procession of the Holy Ghost," 2 because, he con- 
tinues, " she is the Mother of him from whom the 
" Holy Ghost proceeds ; and therefore all the gifts, 
" graces, and virtues of this Holy Spirit are adminis- 
" tered by her hands, distributed to whom she wills, 
" when she wills, as she wills, and as much as she 
twills." 3 

We must not, however, conclude from these words 
that the Blessed Virgin has a right, properly so called, 
over the Holy Ghost or his gifts. Nor may we ever 
consider our Lady to be in any way a principle of the 
Holy Ghost, any more than she is of the Word him- 
self as God. The Mother of God is great enough not 
to need any exaggeration of her titles. All that she 
has, she has, it is true, from her Son by whom she is 
the first redeemed. But in the historical order of 
the accomplishment of our salvation, the divine pre- 
dilection, whereby she was chosen to be Mother of 
the Saviour, made her to be "the source of the 
" source of life," according to the expression of St. 
Peter Damian. 4 Moreover, being Bride as perfectly 
as she was Mother, and united, in the fulness of all her 
powers of nature and of grace to all the prayers, to all 
the sufferings, to the whole oblation of the Son of 
Man, as his truly universal co-operatrix in the time 
of his sorrow : what wonder that she should in the 

1 Bkrnardin. Sen. Pro festiv. V.M. Sermo vi. de animntiatione, 
art. i. , c. 2. 

2 Ibid. Sermo v. de Nativit. B. M., cap. 8, 

3 Bernardin. Sen. &c. 

4 Petr. Dam. Homilia in Nativ, B. V. 

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days of his glory have a Bride's full share in the 
dispensation of the goods acquired in common, though 
differently, by the new Adam and the new Eve? 
Even if Jesus were not bound in justice to give it 
her, who would expect such a Son to act otherwise ? 

Bossuet, who cannot be suspected of being carried 
away, and whom we therefore quote by preference, 
did not consider his necessary controversies with 
heresy an excuse for not following the doctrine of 
the saints. " God," says he, " having once willed to 
"give us Jesus Christ by the holy Virgin, the gifts of 
" God are without repentance, and this order remains 
" unchanged. It is and ever will be true, that having 
" received by her charity the universal principle of 
"grace, we also receive through her mediation its 
" various applications in all the different states where- 
" of the Christian life is made up. Her maternal love 
" having contributed so much to our salvation in the 
" mystery of the Incarnation, which is the universal 
" principle of grace, she will eternally contribute to it 
" in all the other operations which are but dependent 
"on the first. 

" Theology recognises three principal operations of 
" the grace of Jesus Christ : God calls us, justifies us, 
"gives us perseverance. Vocation is the first step ; 
"justification is our progress; perseverance ends the 
" voyage, and gives us in our true country glory and 
" rest, which are not to be found on earth. Mary's 
"charity takes part in these three works. Mary is 
" the Mother of the called, of the justified, and of the 
"persevering; her fruitful charity is an universal 
"instrument of the operations of grace." 1 

This noble language is an authentic testimony to 
the tradition of the holy Church of Gaul, which by 
its Irensaus, its Bernard, its Anselm, and so many 

1 Bossuet, Sermon sur la deVotion a la Ste. Vierge, pour la fete 
de la Conception, 9 Dec. 1669. 

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others, made France the kingdom of Mary. May the 
present teachers put to profit what they have in- 
herited from their great predecessors, and continue 
to sound the inexhaustible depths of mystery in 
Mary; so that one day they may deserve to hear 
from her lips, that word of Eternal Wisdom : They 
that explain me shall have life everlasting} 

We borrow from the ancient processional of our 
English St. Editha the beautiful Responsory Quce 
est ista; after which we will give a series of other 
graceful Responsories written in metre, which are to 
be found in the Antiphoner of Sens, 1552. 


IJ. Quae est ista quae pene- 
trant coelos? ad cujus tran- 
situm Salvator advenit, et 
induxiteam in thalamoregoi 
sui, ubi cantantur organa 
hymnorum : * Quae ab An- 
gelis ad laudem Kegis aeterni 
sine fine resonant semper. 

O Virgo ineffabiliter 
veneranda, cui Michael Arch- 
angelus, et omnis militia An- 
gelorum deferunt honorem, 
quam violent exaltatamsuper 
ccelos cceldrum. * Quae ab 

Gloria Patri, et Filio, et 
Spiritui Sancto. * Quae ab 

1$. Sanctas primitias offert 
Genitus Genitori: * Florem 
virgineum niveo candore 

5. Who is this that hath 
penetrated the heavens? At 
whose passage the Saviour 
came to meet her, and in- 
troduced her into his Royal 
Chamber, where music and 
hymns resound : * Which the 
Angels sing unceasingly, for 
ever praising the Eternal King. 

$\ O Virgin unspeakably 
venerable, to whom Michael 
the Archangel and all the an- 
gelic hosts pay honour, whom 
they behold exalted above the 
heaven of heavens. * Which 
the Angels. 

Glory be to the Father, etc. 
* Which the Angels. 

Holy first fruits does the 
Son offer to his Father. * The 
virginal flower lovely in its 
snowy whiteness. 

1 Eccli. xxiv. 31. 

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ft. No heat has scorched it, 
nor *night-cold withered it * 
The virginal flower. 

IJ. Through the fruit of vir- 
ginity, of the heavenly king- 
dom, * The loss incurred by 
eating the forbidden fruit is 

The sacred hierarchy re- 
joices that its diminished 
number is restored, * The loss 

1$. After the fall virginity 
is the first to recover heaven. 

* First of all in the Son, then 
in his Blessed Mother. 

ft. The heavenly ranks re- 
vere holy virginity. * First of 

1$. The gate of Sion enters 
the gate of closed Paradise. * 
Which our first mother had 
closed to herself and the whole 

ft. To the spotless Mother 
the gate of heaven is opened. 

* Which our first. 

]$. The Blessed Virgin re- 
ceived the one thing she re- 
quested. * To enjoy the face 
of the Lord for all eternity. 

ft. The divine bounty both 
prevented and surpassed her 
desire. * To enjoy. 

1$. While she mounts the 
fifteen steps to the palace of 
life. * The Virgin deserved 
to rise above the Angelic 

ft. Next to her Son the 
Mother merited to surpass all 
others, * The Virgin. 

lVe of assumption. 475 

ft. Non calor hunc coxit. 
nec frigus noctis adussit * 

1$. Eegni ccelestis, per 
f ructum virginitatis, * Dam- 
na ref ormantur vetitum con- 
tracta per esum. 

ft, Kestitui numerum 
gaudet sacer ordo minutum. 
* Damna. 

]$. Virginitas coelum post 
lapsum prima recepit: * Sed 
prius in Genito,post inGeni- 
trice beata. 

ft. Coelicus ordo sacram 
reveretur virginitatem.* Sed 

1$. Porta Sion clausi por- 
tam penetrat paradisi: * 
Prima parens toti quam se- 
cum clause rat orbi. 

ft. Intactae matri reseratur 
janua ccelL * Prima. 

5. Unam quam petiit 
Virgo benedicta recepit: * 
Ut facie Domini sine tem- 
pore perfrueretur. 

ft. Divinum munus vo- 
tum praevenit et auxit * Ut 

1$. Quindenis gradibus 
dum scandit ad atria vitae : 
* Angelicum meruit Virgo 
transcendere culmen. 

ft. Post Genitum Genitrix 
meruit praecellere cuuctis. * 

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1$. Ecclesise Sponsum 
Virgo genuit speciosum : * 
Qui Deus est et homo per- 
sona junctus in una. 

Sic secum Matrem 
coelesti sede locavit. * Qui 

Gloria Patri, et Filio, et 
SpirituiSancto. * Qui Deus. 

Be. The Virgin brought forth 
the beautiful Spouse of the 
Church. * Who is both God 
and Man united in one Person. 

tf. Thus he placed his Mo- 
ther with him on his heavenly 
throne. * Who is. 

Glory be to the Father, <fcc. 
* Who is. 

The following Hymn was composed by St Peter 
Damian : 


Aurora velut f ulgida, 
Ad coeli meat culmina, 
Ut sol Maria splendida, 
Tamquam luna pulcherrima. 

Eegina mundi hodie 
Thronum conscendit glorise, 
Ilium enixa filium 
Qui est ante Luciferum. 

Assumpta super Angelos, 
Excedit et Archangelos ; 
Cuncta Sanctorum merita 
Transcendit una femina. 

Quern foverat in gremio, 
Locarat in praesepio : 
Nunc Hegem super omnia 
Patris videt in gloria. 

Pro nobis, Virgo virginum, 
Tuum deposce h ilium : 
Per quam nostra susceperat 
Ut sua nobis prsebeat. 

Sit tibi laus, Altissime, 
Qui natus es ex Virgine : 
Sit honor ineffabili 
Patri, sanctoque Flamini. 


As a brilliant aurora Mary 
rises to the heights of heaven, 
glittering as the sun, most 
beautiful like the moon. 

To-day the Queen of the 
world ascends to her throne 
of glory, the Mother of that 
Son who was begotten before 
the Day-Star. 

She is raised above the 
Angels and passes beyond the 
Archangels; this one woman 
surpasses all the merits of the 

Him, whom she had cherished 
in her bosom, she placed in a 
manger ; now she beholds him 
King over all in the glory of 
his Father. 

O Virgin of virgins, implore 
for us thy Son: by thee he 
received of ours, through thee 
may he give us of his own. 

To thee, O Most High, be 
praise who wast born of the 
Virgin : be honour to thy in- 
effable Father and to the Holy 


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August 20. 


The valley of wormwood has lost its bitterness ; 
having become Clairvaux, or the bright valley, its 
light shines over the world ; from every point of the 
horizon vigilant bees are attracted to it by the honey 
from the rock which abounds in its solitude. Mary 
turns her glance upon its wild hills, and with her 
smile sheds light and grace upon them. Listen to 
the harmonious voice arising from the desert ; it is 
the voice of Bernard, her chosen one. "Learn, O 
" man, the counsel of God ; admire the intentions of 
" Wisdom, the design of love. Before bedewing the 
" whole earth, he saturated the fleece; being to 
" redeem the human race, he heaped up in Mary 
" the entire ransom. O Adam, say no more: 4 The 
" woman whom thou gavest me offered me the for- 
" bidden fruit say rather : ' The woman whom thou 
' * gavest me has fed me with a fruit of blessing.' 
" With what ardour ought we to honour Mary, in 
" whom was set all the fulness of good ! If we have 
" any hope, any saving grace, know that it overflows 
"from her who to-day ris6s replete with love: she 
"is a garden of delights, over which the divine 
"South Wind does not merely pass with a light 
" breath, but sweeping down from the heights, he 
" stirs it unceasingly with a heavenly breeze, so that 

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"it may shed abroad its perfumes, which are the 
"gifts of various graces. Take away the material 
"sun from the world: what would become of our 
"day? Take away Mary, the star of the vast sea: 
"what would remain but obscurity over all, a night 
" of death and icy darkness ? Therefore, with every 
" fibre of our heart, with all the love of our soul, with 
" all the eagerness of our aspirations, let us venerate 
" Mary ; it is the will of him who wished us to have 
"all things through her." 1 

Thus spoke the monk who had acquired his elo- 
quence, as he tells us himself, among the beeches 
and oaks of the forest, 2 and he poured into the 
wounds of mankind the wine and oil of the Scrip- 
tures. In 1113, at the age of twenty-two, Bernard 
arrived at Citeaux, in the beauty of his youth, 
already ripe for great combats. Fifteen years before, 
on the 21st March, 1098, Robert of Molesmes had 
created this new desert between Dijon and Beaune. 
Issuing from the past, on the very feast of the patri- 
arch of monks, the new foundation claimed to be 
nothing more than the literal observance of the pre- 
cious Rule given by him to the world. The weak- 
ness of the age, however, refused to recognise the 
fearful austerity of these new comers into the great 
family,: as inspired by that holy code, wherein dis- 
cretion reigns supreme ; 3 for this discretion is the 
characteristic of the school accessible to all, where 
Benedict " hoped to ordain nothing rigorous or bur- 
"thensome in the service of God." 4 Under the 
government of Stephen Harding, the next after 
Alberic, successor of Robert, the little community 
from Molesmes was becoming extinct, without human 
hope of recovery, when the descendant of the lords 

1 Bernard. Sermo Nativ. B.M. 3 Greg. Dialogue II., xxxvi. 
8 Vita Bernardi, L. iv. 23. 4 S. P. Benedict, in Reg. Prolog. 

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of Fontaines arrived with thirty companions, who 
were his first conquest, and brought new life where 
death was imminent. 

"Rejoice, thou barren one that bearest not, for 
" many will be the children of the barren." La Fert6 
was founded that same year in Ch&lonnais; next 
Pontigny, near Auxerre; and in 1115 Clairvaux and 
Morimood were established in the diocese of Langres; 
while these four glorious branches of Citeaux were 
soon, together with their parent stock, to put forth 
numerous shoots. In 1119 the Charter of charity 
confirmed the existence of the Cistercian Order in 
the Church. Thus the tree, planted six centuries 
earlier on the summit of Monte Cassino, proved once 
more to the world that in all ages it is capable of 
producing new branches, which, though distinct from 
the trunk, live by its sap, and are a glory to the 
entire tree. 

During the months of his novitiate, Bernard so 
subdued nature, that the interior man alone lived in 
him; the senses of his own body were to him as, 
strangers. By an excess, for which he had after- 
wards to reproach himself, he carried his rigour, 
though meant for a desirable end, so far as to ruin 
the body, that indispensable help to every man in 
the service of his brethren and of God. Blessed 
fault, which heaven took upon itself to excuse ,so 
magnificently. A miracle (a thing which no one 
has a right to expect) was needed to uphold him 
henceforth in the accomplishment of his destined 

Bernard was as ardent in the service of Qod as 
others are for the gratification of their passions. 
"You would learn of me," he says in one of his 
earliest works, "why and how we must love God. 
" And I answer you : The reason for loving God is 
" God himself; and the measure of loving him is to 

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"love him without measure." 1 What delights he 
enjoyed at Citeaux in the secret of the face of the 
Lord ! WheD, after two years, he left this blessed 
abode to found Clairvaux, it was like coming out of 
Paradise. More fit to converse with Angels than 
with men, he began, says his historian, by being a 
trial to those whom he had to guide : so heavenly 
was his language, such perfection did he require 
surpassing the strength of even the strong ones of 
Israel, such sorrowful astonishment did he show on 
the discovery of infirmities common to all flesh. 2 

But the Holy Spirit was watching over the vessel 
of election called to bear the name of the Lord before 
kings and people; the divine charity, which con- 
sumed his soul, taught him that love has two in- 
separable, though sadly different, objects : God, whose 
goodness makes us love him ; and man, whose misery 
exercises our charity. According to the ingenious 
remark of William de Saint-Thierry, his disciple 
and friend, Bernard re-learnt the art of living among 
»men. 3 He imbued himself with the admirable re- 
commendations given by the legislator of monks to 
him who is chosen Abbot over his brethren : " When 
"he giveth correction, let him act prudently, and 
"push nothing to extremes, lest whilst eager of 
" extreme scouring off the rust, the vase get broke. 
"... When he enjoineth work to be done, let him 
"use discernment and moderation, and think of 
"holy Jacob's discretion, who said: 'If I cause my 
"'flocks to be overdriven, they will all die in one 
" * day/ Taking, therefore, these and other docu- 
" ments regarding that mother of virtue, discretion, 
" let him so temper all things as that the strong may 
" have what to desire and the weak nothing to deter 
"them." 4 

1 De diligendo Deo, I., 1. 3 Ibid. 30. 

a Vita, 1., vi. 27-30. 4 S. P. Kened. Iteg. lxiv. 

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Having received what the Psalmist calls " under- 
" standing concerning the needy and the poor," 
Bernard felt his heart overflowing with the tender- 
ness of God for those purchased by the divine Blood, 
He no longer terrified the humble. Beside the little 
ones who came to him attracted by the grace of his 
speech might be seen the wise, the powerful, and 
the rich ones of the world, abandoning their vanities, 
and becoming themselves little and poor in the 
school of one who knew how to guide them all, from 
the first elements of love to its very summits. In 
the midst of seven hundred monks receiving daily 
from him the doctrine of salvation, the Abbot of 
Clairvaux could cry out with the noble pride of the 
Saints : " He that is mighty has done great things 
" in us, and with good reason our soul magnifies the 
"Lord. Behold we have left all things to follow 
" thee : it is a great resolution, the glory of the great 
"Apostles; yet we, too, by his great grace have taken 
" it magnificently. Perhaps, even if I wish to glory 
"therein, I shall not be foolish, for I will say the 
"truth: there are some here who have left more 
" than a boat and fishing-nets." 1 

" What more wonderful," he said on another occa- 
sion, "than tfr see one who formerly could scarce 
"abstain two days from sin, preserve himself from 
"it for years, and even for his whole life? What 
"greater miracle than that so many young men, 
"boys, noble personages, all those, in a word, whom 
"I see here, should be held captive without bonds in 
"an open prison by the sole fear of God, and should 
"persevere in penitential macerations beyond human 
" strength, above nature, contrary to habit? What 
" marvels we should discover, as you well knew, were 
" we allowed to seek out the details of each one's 

1 Bern. De diversis, Serrao xxxvii. 7. 

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"exodus from Egypt, of his passage through the 
"desert, his entrance into the monastery, and his 
" life within its walls." 1 

But there were other marvels not to be hidden 
within the secret of the cloister. The voice that had 
peopled the desert was bidden to echo through the 
world ; and the noises of discord and error, of schism 
and the passions, were hushed before it ; at its word 
the whole West was precipitated as one man upon 
the infidel East. Bernard had now become the 
avenger of the sanctuary, the umpire of kings, the 
confidant of sovereign Pontiffs, the thaumaturgus 
applauded by enthusiastic crowds ; yet, at the very 
height of what the world calls glory, his one thought 
was the loved solitude he had been forced to quit. 
" It is high time," he said, " that I should think of 
"myself. Have pity on my agonized conscience: 
" what an abnormal life is mine ! I am the chimera 
" of my time ; neither clerk nor layman, I have the 
" habit of a monk and none of the observances. In 
" the perils which surround me, at the brink of pre- 
cipices yawning before me, help me with your 
"advice, pray for me." 2 

While absent from Clairvaux he wrote to his 
monks : " My soul is sorrowful and ctTnnot be com- 
" forted till I see you again. Alas ! Must my exile 
" here below, so loug protracted, be rendered still 
" more grievous ? Truly those who have separated 
"us have added sorrow upon sorrow to my evils. 
" They have taken away from me the only remedy 
"which enabled me to live away from Christ; while 
" I could not yet contemplate his glorious Face, it was 
" given me at least to see you, you his holy temple. 
"From that temple the way seemed easy to the 
" eternal home. How often nave I been deprived of 

1 In Dedicat. Eccl., Sermo i. 2. 2 Epist. cel. 

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" this consolation ? This is the third time, if I mis- 
" take not, that they have torn out my heart. My 
" children are weaned before the time ; I had be- 
" gotten them by the Gospel, and I cannot nourish 
"them. Constrained to neglect those dear to me 
" and to attend to the interests of strangers, I scarcely 
" know which is harder to bear, to be separated from 
" the former or to be mixed up with the latter. O 
" Jesus, is my whole life to be spent in sighing ? It 
" were better for me to die than to live ; but I would 
"fain die in the midst of my family; there I should 
" find more sweetness, more security. May it please 
" my Lord that the eyes of a father, how unworthy 
" Soever of the name, may be closed by the hands of 
"his sons; that they may assist him in his last 
" passage ; that their desires, if thou judge him 
" worthy, may bear his soul to the abode of the 
"blessed; that they may bury the body of a poor 
" man with the bodies of those who were poor with 
" him. By the prayers and merits of my brethren, 
" if I have found favour before thee, grant me this 
"desire of my heart. Nevertheless, thy will, not 
" mine, be done ; for I wish neither to live nor to die 
"for myself." 1 

Greater in his Abbey than in the noblest courts, 
Bernard was destined to die at home at the hour 
appointed by God ; but not without having had his 
soul prepared for the last purification by trials both 
public and private. For the last time he took up 
again, but could not finish, the discourses he had 
been delivering for the last eighteen years on 
the Canticle. These familiar conferences, lovingly 
gathered by his children, reveal in a touching man- 
ner the zeal of the sons for divine science, the heart 
of the father and his sanctity, and the incidents of 

1 Epist. cxliv. 

PENT. IV. 2 I 

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daily life at Clairvaux. Having reached the first 
verse of the third chapter, he was describing the 
soul seeking after the Word in the weakness of this 
life, in the dark night of this world, when he broke 
off his discourses, and passed to the eternal face to 
face vision, where there is no more enigma, nor figure, 
nor shadow. 

The following is the notice consecrated by the 
Church to her great servant : 

Bernardus, Fontanis in Bernard was born of a dis- 
Burgundia honesto loco na- tinguishedfamilyatFountains 
tus, adolescens propter egre- in Burgundy. As a youth, 
giam f ormam vehementer on account of his great beauty 
sollicitatus a mulieribus, he was much sought after by 
numquam de sententia co- women, but could never be 
lendse castitatis dimoveri shaken in his resolution of 
potuit. Quas diaboli ten- observing chastity. To escape 
tationes ut effugeret, duos these temptations of the devil, 
et viginti annos natus, mo- he, at twenty-two years of age, 
nasteriumCisterciense,unde determined to enter the mo- 
hic ordo incepit, et quod nastery of Citeaux, the first 
turn sanctitate florebat, in- house of the Cistercian Order, 
gredi constituit Quo Ber- then famous for sanctity, 
nardi consilio cognito, fra- When his brothers learnt Ber- 
tres summopere conati sunt nard's design, they did their 
eum a proposito deterrere : best to deter him from it ; but 
in quo ipse eloquentior ac he, more eloquent and more 
felicior rait. Nam sic eos successful.won them and many 
aliosque multos in suam others to his opinion ; so that 
perduxit sententiam, ut cum together with him thirty young 
eo triginta juvenes eamdem men embraced the Cistercian 
religionem susceperint. Mo- Rule. As a monk he was so 
nachus jejunio ita deditus given to fasting, that when- 
erat, ut quoties sumendus ever he had to take food he 
esset cibus, toties tormen- seemed to be undergoing tor- 
turn subire videretur. In ture. He applied himself in a 
vigiliis etiam et orationibus wonderful manner to prayer 
mirifice se exercebat : et and watching, and was a great 
christianam paupertatem lover of Christian poverty; 
colens,quasicoelestemvitam thus he led a heavenly life on 
agebat in terris, ab omni earth, free from all anxiety or 
caducarum rerum cura et desire of perishable goods, 
cupiditate alienam. 

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The virtues of humility, 
mercy, and kindness shone 
conspicuously in his character. 
He devoted himself so earn- 
estly to contemplation, that he 
seemed hardly to use his senses 
except to do acts of charity, 
and in these he was remark- 
able for his prudence. While 
thus occupied he refused the 
bishoprics of Genoa, Milan, 
and others, which were offered 
to him, declaring that he was 
unworthy of so great an 
office. He afterwards became 
Abbot of Clairvaux, and built 
monasteries in many places, 
wherein the excellent rules 
and discipline of Bernard long 
flourished. When the monas- 
tery of Ss. Vincent and Ana- 
fitasius at Rome was restored 
by Pope Innocent II., St. 
Bernard appointed as Abbot 
the future sovereign Pontiff, 
Eugenius III.; to whom he 
also sent his book " De Con- 
" sideratione." 

He wrote many other works 
which clearly show that his 
doctrine was more the gift of 
Ck>d than the result of his own 
labours. On account of his 
great reputation for virtue, the 
greatest princes begged him 
to act as arbiter in their dis- 
putes, and he went several 
times into Italy for this pur- 
pose, and for arranging ec- 
clesiastical affairs. He was of 
great assistance to the Su- 
preme Pontiff Innocent II. 
in putting down the schism 
of reter de Leone, both at the 
courts of the emperor and of 
king Henry of England, and 

JARD. 485 

Elucebat in eo humilitas, 
misericordia, benignitas J 
contemplationi autemsicad* 
dictus erat, ut vix sensibus, 
nisi ad officia pietatis, utere- 
tur: in quibus tamen pru- 
dentiae laude excellebat. 
uo in studio occupatus, 
enuensem, ac Mediolanen- 
sem, aliosque episcopatus 
oblatos recusavit, professus 
se tanti officii munere indi- 
gnum esse. Abbas f actus 
Claravallensis, multis in 
locis sedificavit monasteria, 
in quibus praeclara Bernardi 
institutio ac disciplina diu 
viguit. Romae, sanctorum 
Vincentii et Anastasii mo- 
nasterio ab Innocentio Se- 
cundo Papa restituto prse- 
fecit abbatem ilium, qui 
postea Eugenius Tertius 
Summus Pontifex fuit, ad 
quern etiam librum misit de 

Multa praeterea scripsit, 
in quibus apparet, eum doc- 
trina potius divinitus tra- 
dita, quam labore compa- 
rata, instructum fuisse. In 
summa virtutum laude exo- 
ratus a maximis principibus 
de eorum componendis con- 
troversiis, et de ecclesiasticis 
rebus constituendis, saepius 
in Italiam venit. Iunocen* 
tium item Secundum Ponti- 
ficem Maximum in confu* 
tando schismate Petri Leo- 
nis, cum apud imperatorem 
et Henricum AngliaB regem, 
turn in concilio Pisis coacto, 
egregie adjuvit. Denique 

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tres et sexaginta annos na- 
tus, obdormivit in Domino, 
ac miraculis illustris, ab 
Alezandro Tertio Papa inter 
Sanctos relatus est. rius ve- 
ro Octavus Pontifex Maxi- 
mus ex sacrorum Eituum 
Congregationis consilio san- 
ctum Bernardum universalis 
Ecclesise Doctorem declara- 
vit et confirmavit, necnon 
Missam et Officium de Doo 
toribus ab omnibus recitari 
jussit, atque indulgentias 
plenarias quotannis in per- 
petuum ordinis Cistercien- 
eium ecclesias visitantibus 
die hujus sancti festo con- 

at a Council held at Pisa. At 
length, being sixty-three years 
old, he fell asleep in the Lord. 
He was famous for miracles, 
and Pope Alexander III. placed 
him among the Saints. Pope 
Pius VIII., with the advice of 
the Congregation of Sacred 
Bites, declared St. Bernard a 
Doctor of the universal Church 
and commanded all to recite 
the Mass and Office of a 
Doctor on his feast. He also 
granted a plenary indulgence 
yearly, for ever, to all who 
visit churches of the Cistercian 
Order on this day. 

Let us offer to St. Bernard the following Hymn, 
with its ingenuous allusions ; it is worthy of him by 
the graceful sweetness wherewith it celebrates his 
grandeurs : 


Lacte quondam profluen- 

Ite, montes vos procul, 
Ite, colies, fusa quondam 
Unde mellis fl umina ; 
Israel, jactare late 
Manna priscum desine. 

Ecce cujus corde sudant, 
Cujus ore profluunt 
Duiciores lacte fontes, 
Mellis amnes aemuli : 
Ore tan to, corde tan to 
Manna nullum dulcius. 

Quseris unde duxit ortum 
Tanta lactis copia ; 

Ye mountains, once flowing 
with milk, depart to a dis- 
tance; depart, ye hills that 
once poured forth streams of 
honey; Israel, cease to boast 
freely of your ancient manna. 

Behold one from whose heart 
ebb forth, and from whose 
mouth flow out sweeter foun- 
tains of milk and rival rivers 
of honey : than such a mouth, 
than such a heart no manna 
could be sweeter. 

Thou askest whence such 
abundance of milk originat- 

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ed; whence the honeycomb, 
whence the swift - flowing 
sweetness of honey; whence 
such manna; and whence so 
many delights. 

The showers of milk the 
Virgin-Mother shed on him 
from heaven: the mouth of 
the dead lion was the source 
of the honeyed rivers: the 
woods and the solitude so 
nigh the heavens produced 
the manna. 

O Bernard, O Doctor, en- 
riched with such gifts of hea- 
ven, shed down upon us the 
dews of this milk and of this 
honey; give us the drops, now 
that thou possessest the full 

Unde favus, unde prompta 
Tanta mellis sua vitas ; 
Unde tantum manna fluxit, 
Unde tot dulcedines. 

Lactis imbres Virgo fudit 
Coelitus puerpera : 
Mellis amnes os leonis 
Excitavit mortui : 
Manna sylvae, coelitumque 
Solitudo proxima. 

Doctor o Bernarde, tantis 
Aucte coeli dotibus, 
Lactis hujus, mellis hujus, 
Funde rores desuper ; 
Funde stiilas, pleniore 
Jam potitus gurgite. 

Highest praise be to the 
Sovereign Father, and highest 
praise to the Son : and be the 
like to thee, O Holy Spirit, 
proceeding from them both, 
as it was, now is, and ever 
will be, equal glory eternally. 


Summa summo laus Pa- 
Summa laus et Filio : 
Par tibi sit, sancte, manans 
Ex utroque, Spiritus ; 
Ut f uit, nunc et per sevum 
Compar semper gloria. 


It was fitting to see the herald of the Mother of 
God following so closely her triumphal car ; entering 
heaven during this bright Octave, thou delightest to 
lose thyself in the glory of her whose greatness thou 
didst proclaim on earth. Be our protector in her 
court; attract her maternal eyes towards Citeaux; 
in her name save the Church once more, and protect 
the Vicar of Christ. 

But to-day, rather than to pray to thee, thou 
invitest us to sing to Mary and pray to her with 
thee ; the homage most pleasing to thee, O Bernard, 

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is that we should profit by thy sublime writings and 
admire the Virgin who, "to-day ascending glorious 
"to heaven, put the finishing touch to the happiness 
" of the heavenly citizens. Brilliant as it was already, 
"heaven became resplendent with new brightness 
" from the light of the virginal torch. Thanksgiving 
" and praise resound on high. And shall we not in 
" our exile partake of these joys of our home ? 
"Having here no lasting dwelling, we seek the city 
"where the Blessed Virgin has arrived this very 
"hour. Citizens of Jerusalem, it is but just that, 
"from the banks of the rivers of Babylon, we should 
" think with dilated hearts of the overflowing river 
" of bliss, of which some drops are sprinkled on earth 
"to-day. Our Queen has gone before us; the 
" reception given to her encourages us who are her 
" followers and servants. Our caravan will be well 
" treated with regard to salvation, for it is preceded 
" by the Mother of mercy as advocate before the 
"Judge her Son." 1 

" Whoso remembers having ever invoked thee in 
"vain in his needs, O Blessed Virgin, let him be 
"silent as to thy mercy. As for us, thy little 
"servants, we praise thy other virtues, but on this 
"one we congratulate ourselves. We praise thy 
"virginity, we admire thy humility; but mercy is 
"sweeter to the wretched; we embrace it more 
" lovingly," we think of it more frequently, we invoke 
"it unceasingly. Who can tell the length and 
" breadth and height and depth of thine, O Blessed 
" one ? Its length, for it extends to the last day ; 
"its breadth, for it covers the earth ; its height and 
"depth, for it has filled heaven and emptied hell. 
"Thou art as powerful as merciful; having now 
" rejoined thy Son, manifest to the world the grace 

1 Bernard. In Assumpt. B.M.V., Sermo i. 

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"thou hast found before God: obtain pardon for 
"sinners, health for the sick, strength for the weak, 
"consolation for the afflicted, help and deliverance 
"for those who are in any danger, 1 O clement, O 
"merciful, O sweet Virgin Mary ! ,,a 

1 Bernard. In Assumpt. B.M.V., Sermo iv. 

a A tradition of the cathedral of Spires attributes to St 
Bernard the addition of this triple cry of the heart to the Salve 

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August 21. 



Although Mary's glory is within her, beauty 
appears also in the garment wherewith she is clad : 
a mysterious robe woven of the virtues of the Saints, 
who owe to her both their justice and their reward. 
As every grace comes to us through our Mother, so 
all the glory of heaven converges towards that of the 

Now among the blessed souls there are some 
more immediately connected with the holy Virgin. 
Prevented by the peculiarly tender love of the 
Mother of grace, they left all things, when on earth, 
to run after the odour of the perfumes of the Spouse 
she gave to the world ; in heaven they keep the 
greater intimacy with Mary which was theirs even 
in the time of exile. Hence it is, that at this time 
of her exaltation beside the Son of God, the Psalmist 
sings also of the Virgins entering joyously with her 
into the temple of the King. The crowning of our 
Lady is truly the special feast of these daughters of 
Tyre, who have themselves become princesses and 
queens in order to form her noble escort and her 
royal court. 

If the Saint proposed to our veneration to-day is 

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not adorned with the diadem of virginity, she is 
nevertheless one of those who have deserved in their 
humility to hear the heavenly message : Hearken, 0 
daughter, and see, and incline thy ear ; and forget 
thy people and thy father's house} In reply, such 
was ner eagerness in the ways of love, that number- 
less virgins followed in her footsteps in order to be 
more sure of reaching the Spouse. She also, then, 
has a glorious place in the vesture of gold, with its 
play of colours, wherewith the Queen of Saints is 
clad in her triumph. For what is the variety 
noticed by the Psalm, in the embroideries and 
fringes of that robe of glory, if not the diversity of 
tints in the gold of divine charity among the elect ? 
In order to bring forward the happy effect produced 
by this diversity in the light of the Saints, Eternal 
Wisdom has multiplied the forms under which the 
life of the counsels may be presented to the world. 
Such is the teaching given in the holy Liturgy, by 
bringing together the feasts of yesterday and to-day 
on its sacred cycle. Between Cistercian austerity, 
and the more interior renouncement of the Visitation 
of holy Mary, there seems to be a great distance: 
nevertheless the Church unites the memory of St. 
Jane de Chantal and of the Abbot of Clairvaux in 
homage to the Blessed Virgin during the happy 
Octave which consummates her glory ; it is because 
all rules of perfection are alike in being merely 
variations of the one Rule, that of love, of which 
Mary's life was a perfect pattern. "Let us not 
"divide the robe of the Bride," says St. Bernard. 
"Unity, as well in heaven as on earth, consists in 
"charity. Let him who glories in the Rule, not 
"break the rule by acting contrary to the Gospel. 
" If the kingdom of God is within us, it is because it 

1 Ps. xliv. 11. 

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"is not meat and drink; but justice, and peace, 
" and joy in the Holy Ghost 1 To criticise others on 
" their exterior observance, and to neglect the Rule 
" in what regards the soul, is to take out a gnat from 
"the cup and to swallow a camel. Thou breakesfc 
" thy body with endless labour, thou mortifiest with 
" austerities thy members which are on the earth ; and 
" thou dost well. But while thou allowest thyself to 
"judge him who does not so much penance, he 
"perhaps is following the advice of the Apostle: 
" more eager for the better gifts, keeping less of that 
" bodily exercise which is profitable to little he gives 
" himself up more to that godliness which is profit- 
" able to all things. 2 Which then of you two keeps 
" the Rule better ? doubtless he that becomes better 
" thereby. Now which is the better? The humbler? 
" or the more fatigued ? Learn of me, said Jesus, 3 
" because I am meek and humble of heart."* 

St. Francis de Sales, in his turn, speaking of the 
diversity of religious Orders, says very well: "All 
'.' Religious Orders have one spirit common to them 
"all, and each has a spirit peculiar to itself. The 
'5 common spirit is the design they all have of 
'.'aspiring after the perfection of charity; but the 
" peculiar spirit of each is the means of arriving at 
"that perfection of charity, that is to say, at the 
" union of our souls with God, and with our neigh- 
" bour through the love of God." Coming next to 
the special spirit of the institute he had founded 
together with our Saint, the Bishop of Geneva 
declares that it is Va spirit of profound humility 
"towards God and of great sweetness towards our 
" neighbour, inasmuch as there is less rigour towards 
" the body, so much the more sweetness must there 

1 Rom. xiv. 17. 3 St. Matth. xi. 29. 

2 1 Tim. iv. 8. • 4 Bernard. Apologia ad Gulielm. 

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"be in the heart." 1 And because "this Congrega- 
" tion has been so established that no great severity 
"may prevent the weak and infirm from entering it 
"and giving themselves up to the perfection of 
"divine love," 2 he adds playfully: "If there be any 
"sister so generous and courageous as to wish to 
"attain perfection in a quarter of an hour by doing 
"more than the Community does, I would advise 
" her to humble herself and be content to become 
" perfect in three days, following the same course as 
" the rest. For a great simplicity must always be 
"kept in all things: to walk simply, that is the true 
"way for the daughters of the Visitation, a way 
" exceedingly pleasing to God and very safe." 8 

With sweetness and humility for motto, the pious 
Bishop did well to give his daughters for escutcheon 
the divine Heart whence these gentle virtues derive 
their source. We know how magnificently heaven 
justified the choice. Before a century had elapsed, 
a nun of the Visitation, the Blessed Margaret Mary, 
could say: "Our adorable Saviour showed me the 
"devotion to his divine Heart as a beautiful tree 
"which he had destined from all eternity to take 
" root in the midst of our Institute. He wills that 
" the daughters of the Visitation should distribute 
"the fruits of this sacred tree abundantly to all 
" those that wish to eat of it, and without fear of its 
"failing them." 4 

"Love! love! love! my daughters; ;I know 
"nothing else." Thus did Jane de Chantal, the 
glorious co-operatrix of St. Francis in establishing 
the Visitation of holy Mary, often cry out in her 
latter years. " Mother," said one of the sisters, " I 

1 Entretiens spirituels. 

2 Constitutions of the Visitation, Introduction. 

3 Entretiens spirituels. 

4 Letter of the 17th June, 1689, to Mother de Saumaise. 

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"shall write to our houses that your Charity is 
" growing old, and that, like your godfather St. John, 
"you can speak of nothing hut love." To which 
the Saint replied : " My daughter, do not make such 
" a comparison, for we must not profane the Saints 
"hy comparing them to poor sinners ; but you will 
" do me a pleasure if you tell those sisters that if I 
" went by my own feelings, if I followed my inclina- 
tion, and if I were not afraid of wearying the 
"sisters, I should never speak of anything but 
" Charity ; and I assure you, I scarcely ever open 
" my mouth to speak of holy things, without having 
" a mind to say : Thou shalt love the Lord with thy 
"whole heart, and thy neighbour as thyself." 1 

Such words are worthy of her who obtained for 
the Church the admirable Treatise on the Love of 
God, composed, says the Bishop of Genoa, for her 
sake, at her request and solicitation, for herself and 
her companions. 2 At first, however, the impetuosity 
of her soul, overflowing with devotedness and energy, 
seemed to unfit her to be mistress in a school where 
heroism can only express itself by the simple sweet- 
ness of a life altogether hidden in God. It was to 
discipline this energy of the valiant woman without 
extinguishing its ardour, that St. Francis perse- 
veringly applied himself during the eighteen years 
he directed her. "Do all things/' he repeats in a 
thousand ways, "without haste, gently, as do the 
" Angels ; follow the guidance of divine movements, 
" and be supple to grace ; God wills us to be like 
"little children/' And this reminds us of an ex- 
quisite page from the amiable Saint, which we cannot 
resist quoting : " If one had asked the sweet Jesus 
w when he was carried in his Mother's arms, whither 

1 Memoirs of Mother de Chaugy, Part iii., chap. v. 

2 Treatise on the Love of God, Preface ; Memoirs of Mother 
de Chaugy. 

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" he was going, might he not with good reason have 
" answered : I go not, 'tis my Mother that goes for 
" me : and if one had said to him : Bat at least do 
"you not go with your Mother? Might he not 
" reasonably have replied : No, I do not go, or if I 
"go whither my Mother carries me, I do not myself 
" walk with her nor by my own steps, but by my 
"Mother's, by her, and in her. But if one had 
"persisted with him, saying: But at least, O most 
"dear divine child, you really will to let yourself be 
"carried by your sweet Mother? No, verily, might 
"he have said, I will nothing of all this, but as my 
" entirely good Mother walks for me, so she wills for 
" me ; I leave her the care as well to go as to will to 
" go for me where she likes best ; and as I go not 
"but by her steps, so I will not but by her will; 
"and from the instant I find myself in her arms, I 
"give no attention either to willing or not willing, 
"turning all other cares over to my Mother, save 
"only the care to be on her bosom, to suck her 
" sacred breast, and to keep myself close clasped to 
" her most beloved neck, that I may most lovingly 
"kiss her with the kisses of my mouth. And be it 
" known to you that while I am amidst the delights 
" of these holy caresses which surpass all sweetness, 
"I consider that my Mother is a tree of life, and 
" myself on her as its fruit, that I am her own heart 
" in her breast, or her soul in the midst of her heart, 
" so that as her going serves both her and me with- 
" out my troubling myself to take a single step, so 
" her will serves us both without my producing any 
" act of my will about going or coming. Nor do I 
"ever take notice whether she goes fast or slow, 
"hither or thither, nor do I inquire whither she 
" means to go, contenting myself with this, that go 
" whither she please I go still locked in her arms, 
" close laid to her beloved breasts, where I feed as 

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" among lilies. . . . Thus 
" pliable and tractable to 
The Church abridges 
could, the life of St. Jane 

Joanna Francisca Fremiot 
de Chantal, Divione in Bur- 
gundia clarissimis orta na- 
talibus, ab ineunte aetate 
eximiae sanctitatis non ob- 
scuras edidit significationes. 
Earn enim vix quinquen- 
nem nobilem quemdam Cal- 
vinis tarn solida supra aetatem 
argumentatione perstrinxis- 
se ferunt, collatumque ab eo 
munusculum flammis illico 
tradidisse in haec verba : En 
quomodo hseretici apud in- 
feros comburentur, qui lo- 
quenti Christo fidem detrec- 
tant. Matre orbata, Dei- 
parse Virginis tutelae se 
commendavit, et famulam, 
quae ad mundi amorem earn 
alliciebat, ab se rejecit. 
Nihil puerile in moribus 

should we be, Theotimus, 1 
God's good pleasure." 2 
for us far better than we 
Frances de Chantal : 

Jane Frances Fr6miot de 
Chantal was born at Dijon in 
Burgundy, of noble parents, 
and from her childhood gave 
clear signs of her future great 
sanctity. It was said that 
when only five years of age, 
she put to silence a Calvinist 
nobleman by substantial argu- 
ments, far beyond her age, and 
when he offered her a little 
present she immediately threw 
it into the fire, saying : " This 
" is how heretics will burn in 
** hell, because they do not be- 
" lieve Christ when he speaks." 
When she lost her mother, she 
put herself under the care of 
the Virgin Mother of God, 
and dismissed a maid servant 
who was enticing her to love 
of the world. There was 

1 " A great servant of God informed me not long ago that by 
"addressing my speech to Philothea in the Introduction to a 
" Devout Life, I hindered many men from profiting by it : 
"because they did not esteem advice given to a woman, to be 
" worthy of a man. I marvel that there were men who, to be 
" thought men, showed themselves in effect so little men. . . . 
" Nevertheless, to imitate the great Apostle in this occasion, 
" who esteemed himself a debtor to everyone, I have changed my 
" address in this treatise and speak to Theotimus ; but if 
" perchance there should be any woman (and such an unreason- 
" ableness would be more tolerable in them) who would not read 
"the instructions which are given to men, I beg them to know 
" that Theotimus to whom I speak is the human spirit desirous 
"of making progress in holy love, which spirit is equally in 
" women as in men." — Treatise on the Love of God, Preface. 

2 Treatise on the Love of God, Book ix., chap. xiv. (We have 
preferred the translation by Dom. H. B. Mackey, O.S.B.) 

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nothing childish, in her man- 
ners ; she shrank from worldly 
pleasures, and thirsting for 
martyrdom, she devoted her- 
self entirely to religion and 
piety. She was given in mar- 
riage by her father to the 
Baron de Chantal, and in this 
new state of life she strove to 
cultivate every virtue, and 
busied herself in instructing 
in faith and morals her chil- 
dren, her servants and all 
under her authority. Her 
liberality in relieving the ne- 
cessities of the poor was very 
great, and more than once 
God miraculously multiplied 
her stores of provisions; on 
this account she promised 
never to refuse any one who 
begged an alms in Christ's 

Her husband having been 
killed while hunting, she de- 
termined to embrace a more 
perfect life and bound herself 
by a vow of chastity. She not 
only bore her husband's death 
resignedly, but overcame her- 
self so far as to stand god- 
mother to the child of the man 
who had killed him, in order 
to give a public proof that 
she pardoned him. She con- 
tented herself with a few ser- 
vants and with plain food and 
dress, devoting her costly gar- 
ments to pious usages. What- 
ever time remained from her 
domestic cares she employed 
in prayer, pious reading, and 
work. She could never be in- 
duced to accept offers of second 
marriage, even though honour- 
able and advantageous. In 

:miot de chantal. 497 

exprimens, a saeculi deliciis 
abhorrens, martyriumque 
anhelans, religioni ac pietati 
impense studebat. fearoni 
de Chantal nuptui a patre 
tradita, virtutibus omnibus 
excolendis operam dedit, 
liberos, famulos, aliosque 
sibi subjectos in fidei doc- 
trina, bonisque moribus im- 
buere satagens, Profusa 
liberalitate pauperum ino- 
piam sublevabat, annona 
divinitus non raro multipli- 
cata: quo factum est, ut 
nemini se umquam Christi 
nomine roganti stipem ab- 
negaturam spoponderit. 

Viro in venatione inte- 
rempto, perfections vitas 
consilium iniens, continen- 
tiae voto se obstrinxit. Viri 
necem non solum aequo ani- 
mo tulit, sed, in publicum 
indultae veniae testimonium, 
occisoris filium e sacro fonte 
suscipere sui victrix elegit. 
Modica familia, tenui victu 
atque vestitu contenta, pre- 
tiosas vestes in pios usus 
convertit. Quidquid a do- 
mesticis curis supererat tern- 
poris, precibus, piis lectio- 
nibus, laborique impende- 
bat. Numquam adduci po- 
tuitut alterasnuptias,quam- 
vis utiles et honorificas, in- 
iret Ne autem a proposito 
castimoniae observanaae in 
po3terum dimoveretur,illius 
voto innovato, sanctissimum 

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JesuChristinomencandenti order not to be shaken in her 

ferro pectori insculpsit. Ar- resolution of observing chas- 

dentius in dies caritate f er- tity, she renewed her vow, and 

vescens,pauperes,derelictos, imprinted the most holy name 

aegros, teterrimisque morbis of Jesus Christ upon her breast 

infectos ad se adducendos with a red-hot iron. Her love 

curabat ; eosque non hospi- grew more ardent day by day. 

tio tantum excipiebat, sola- She had the poor, the aban- 

batur, fovebat, verum etiam doned, the sick, and those who 

sordidas eorumdem vestes were afflicted with the most 

depurgabat, laceras reficie- terrible diseases brought to 

bat, et manantibus foetido her, and not only sheltered, 

pure ulceribus labia admo- and comforted, and nursed 

vere non exhorrebat. them, but washed and mended 

their filthy garments, and did 
not shrink from putting her 
lips to their running sores. 

A Sancto Francisco Sale- Having learnt the will of 

sio, quo spiritus moderatore God from St. Francis de Sales 

usafuit,divinamvoluntatem her director, she founded the 

edocta, proprium parentem, Institute of the Visitation of 

socerum, filium denique ip- our Lady. For this purpose 

sum, quern etiam vocationi she quitted, with unfaltering 

obsistentem, sua e domo courage, her father, her father- 

egrediens, pedibus calcare in-law, and even her son, over 

non dubitavit, invicta con- whose body she had to step in 

stantia deseruit, et sacri in- order to leave her home, so 

stituti Visitationis sanctae violently did he oppose her 

Marise fundamenta jecit. vocation. She observed her 

Ejus instituti leges integer- Eule with the utmost fidelity, 

rime custodivit, et adeo pau- and so great was her love of 

pertatis fuit amans, ut vel poverty, that she rejoiced to 

necessaria sibi deesse gau- be in want of even the neces- 

deret. Christianae vero ani- saries of life. She was a per- 

mi demissionis et obedien- feet model of Christian humi- 

tiae, virtutumque denique lity, obedience, and all other 

omnium perf ectissimum ex- virtues. Wishing for still 

emplar se prsebuit. Altiores higher ascensions in her heart, 

in corde suo ascensiones dis- she bound herself by a most 

ponens, arduissimo efficien- difficult vow, always to do 

ai semper id quod perf ectius what she thought most per- 

esse intelligent, voto se feet. At length when the 

obstrinxit. Denique, sacro Order of the Visitation had 

Visitationis institute ejus spread far and wide, chiefly 

potissimum opera longe la- through her endeavours, after 

teque diffuso, verbo, exem- encouraging her sisters to piety 

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and charity by words and ex- 
ample, and also by writings 
full of divine wisdom: laden 
with merits, she passed to the 
Lord at Moulins, having duly 
received the Sacraments of the 
Church. She died on the 13th 
December* in the year 1641. 
St. Vincent de Paul, who was 
at a great distance, saw her 
soul being carried to heaven, 
and St. Francis de Sales com- 
ing to meet her. Her body 
was afterwards translated to 
Annecy. Miracles having made 
her illustrious both before and 
after her death, Benedict XIV. 
placed her among the Blessed, 
and Pope Clement XIII. 
among the Saints. Pope Cle- 
ment XIV. commanded her 
feast to be celebrated by the 
universal Church on the 12th 
of the Calends of September. 

plo, et scriptis etiam divina 
sapientia refertis, ad pieta- 
tem et caritatem sororibua 
excitatis, meritis referta, et 
sacramentis rite susceptis, 
Molini8,anno millesimo sex- 
centesimo quadragesimo 
primo, die decima tertia De- 
cembris, migravit ad Domi- 
num, ej usque animam, oc- 
currente sancto Francisco 
Salesio, in coelos deferri 
sanctus Vincentius a Paula 
procul distans adspexitv 
Ejus corpus postea Anne- 
cium translatum est: eam- 
que miraculis ante et post 
obitum claram Benedictus 
Decimus quartus beatorum, 
Clemens vero Decimus ter- 
tius Pontif ex Maximus albo 
sanctorum adjecit. Festum 
autem ejusdem die duode- 
cimo calendas Septembris ab 
universa Ecclesia Clemens 
Decimus quartus Pontifex 
Maximus celebrari praecepit. 

The office of Martha seemed at first to be destined 
for thee, 0 great Saint ! Thy father, Francis de Sales, 
forestalling St. Vincent de Paul, thought of making thy 
companions the first daughters of Charity. Thus was 
given to thy work the blessed name of Visitation, 
which was to place under Mary's protection thy visits 
to the sick and neglected poor. But the progressive 
deterioration of strength in modern times had laid 
open a more pressing want in the institutions of holy 
Church. Many souls called to share Mary's part, 
were prevented from doing so by their inability to 
endure the austere life of the great contemplative 
Orders. The Spouse, who deigns to adapt his good- 
ness to all times, made choice of thee, 0 Jane, to 

PENT. rv. 2K 

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second the love of his Sacred Heart, and come to the 
rescue of the physical and moral miseries of an old, 
worn-out, and decrepit world. 

Eenew us, then, in the love of him whose charity 
consumed thee first ; in its ardour, thou didst traverse 
the most various paths of life, and never didst thou 
fail of that admirable strength of soul, which the 
Church presents before God to-day in order to obtain 
through thee the assistance necessary to our weak- 
ness. 1 May the insidious and poisonous spirit of 
Jansenism never return to freeze our hearts ; but at 
the same time, as we learn from thee, love is only 
then real, when, with or without austerities, it lives by 
faith, generosity, and self-renunciation, in humility, 
simplicity, and gentleness. It is the spirit of thy 
holy institute, the spirit which became, through thy 
angelic Father, so amiable and so strong : may it ever 
reign amidst thy daughters, keeping up among their 
houses the sweet union which has never ceased to 
rejoice heaven ; may the world be refreshed by the 
perfumes which ever exhale from the silent retreats 
of the Visitation of holy Mary ! 

1 Collect, Secret, and Postcommunion of the Feast 

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August 22. 
— ♦ — 

He alone who could understand Mary's holiness 
could appreciate her glory. But Wisdom, who 
presided over the formation of the abyss, has not 
revealed to us the depth of that ocean, beside which 
all the virtues of the just and all the graces lavished 
upon them are but streamlets. Nevertheless, the 
immensity of grace and merit, whereby the Blessed 
Virgin's supernatural perfection stands quite apart 
from all others, gives us a right to conclude that she 
has an equal supereminence in glory, which is always 
proportioned to the sanctity of the elect. Whereas 
all the other predestined of our race are placed 
among the various ranks of the celestial hierarchy, 
the holy Mother of God is exalted above all the 
choirs, forming by herself a distinct order, a new 
heaven, where the harmonies of Angels and Saints 
are far surpassed. In Mary God is more glorified, 
better known, more loved than in all the rest of the 
universe. On this ground alone, according to the 
order of creative Providence, which subordinates the 
less to the more perfect, Mary is entitled to be 
Queen of earth and heaven. In this sense, it is for 
her, next to the Man-God, that the world exists. 
The great theologian, Cardinal de Lugo, explaining 
the words of the Saints on this subject, dares to say : 
14 Just as, creating all things in his complacency for 
" his Christ, God made him the end of creatures ; so, 

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"with due proportion, we may say he drew the 
" rest of the world out of nothing through the love 
" of the Virgin Mother, so that she, too, might thus 
"be justly called the end of all things." 1 

As Mother of God, and at the same time his first- 
born, she had a right and title over his goods; as 
Bride she ought to share his crown. " The glorious 
"Virgin," says St. Bernardine of Sienna, "has as 
" many subjects as the Blessed Trinity has. Every 
" creature, whatever be its rank in creation, spiritual 
"as the Angels, rational as man, material as the 
" heavenly bodies or the elements, heaven and earth, 
" the reprobate and the blessed, all that springs from 
"the power of God, is subject to the Virgin. For 
" he who is the Son of God and of the Blessed 
"Virgin, wishing, so to say, to make his Mother's 
"principality in some sort equal to his Father's, 
"became, God as hie is, the servant of Mary. If 
"then it be true to say that every one, even the 
"Virgin, obeys God, we may also convert the pro- 
" position, and affirm that every one, even God, obeys 
"the Virgin." 2 

The empire of Eternal Wisdom comprises, so the 
Holy Spirit tells us, the heavens, the earth, and the 
abyss: the same then is the appanage of Mary on 
this her crowning day. Like the divine Wisdom to 
whom she gave Flesh, she may glory in God. He 
whose magnificence she once chanted, to-day exalts 
her humility. The Blessed one by excellence has 
become the honour of her people, the admiration of 
the Saints, the glory of the armies of the Most High. 
Together with the Spouse, let her, in her beauty, 
march to victory ; let her triumph over the hearts of 
the mighty and the lowly. The giving of the world's 

1 De Lugo, De Incarnat. disput. vii., sect. 11. 

a Bernardin. Sen. Sermo v. de festiv. B.M., cap. 6. 

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sceptre into her hands is no mere honour void of 
reality: from this day forward, she commands and 
fights, protects the Church, defends its head, upholds 
the ranks of the sacred militia, raises up Saints, 
directs Apostles, enlightens doctors, exterminates 
heresy, crushes hell. 

Let us hail our Queen, let us sing her mighty 
deeds ; let us be docile to her ; above all, let us love 
her and trust in her love. Let us not fear that, 
amidst the great interests of the spreading of God's 
Kingdom, she will forget our littleness or our 
miseries. She knows all that takes place in the 
obscurest corners, in the furthest limits of her 
immense domain. From her title of universal cause 
under the Lord, is rightly deduced the universality 
of her providence ; and the masters of doctrine show 

vision, whereby all that is, has been, or is to be, is 
present before God. On the other hand, we must 
believe that her charity coulcf not possibly be de- 
fective : as her love of God surpasses the love of all 
the elect, so the tenderness of all mothers united, 
centred upon an only child, is nothing to the love 
wherewith Mary surrounds the least, the most for- 
gotten, the most neglected of all the children of God, 
who are her children too. She forestalls them in 
her solicitude, listens at all times to their humble 
prayers, pursues them in their guilty flights, sustain,? 
their weakness, compassionates their ills, whether of 
body or of soul, sheds upon all men the heavenly 
favours whereof she is the treasury. Let us then 
say to her in the words of one of her great servants : 
" O most holy Mother of God, who hast beautified 
"heaven and earth, in leaving this world thou hast 
" not abandoned man. Here below thou didst live 
" in heaven ; from heaven thou conversest with us. 
" Thrice happy those who contemplated thee and lived 

sharing in the science called of 

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" with the Mother of life ! But in the same way as 
" thou didst dwell in the flesh with them of the first 
"age, thou now dwellest with us spiritually. We 
" hear thy voice ; and all our voices reach thine ear ; 
"and thy continual protection over us makes thy 
" presence evident. Thou dost visit us ; thine eye is 
" upon us all ; and although our eyes cannot see thee y 
" O most holy One, yet thou art in the midst of us, 
"showing thyself in various ways to whosoever is 
" worthy. Thy immaculate body, come forth from 
" the tomb, hinders not the immaterial power, the 
"most pure activity of that spirit of thine, which, 
"being inseparable from the Holy Ghost, breathes 
" also where it wills. O Mother of God, receive the 
"grateful homage of our joy, and speak for thy 
" children to him who has glorified thee : whatsoever 
"thou askest of him, he will accomplish it by his 
"divine power; may he be blessed for ever!" 1 


Let us honour the group of Martyrs which forms 
the rear-guard of our triumphant Queen. Timothy, 
who came from Antioch to Rome, Hippolytus, Bishop 
of Porto, and Symphorian, the glory of Autun, 
suffered for God at different periods and at different 
places ; but they gathered their palms on the same 
day of the year, and the same heaven is now their 
Obode. " My son, my son," said his valiant mother 
to Symphorian, "remember life eternal; look up, 
" and see him who reigns in heaven ; they are not 
"taking thy life away, but changing it into a 
" better." Let us admire these heroes of our faith ; 
and let us learn to walk like them, though by less 
painful paths, in the footsteps of our Lord, and so to 
rejoice Mary. 

1 German. Constantinop. In Dormit. B.M., Oratio i. 

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We beseech thee, O Lord, 
to be appeased, and to impart 
to us thy help: and, by the in- 
tercession of Blessed Timothy, 
Hippolytus, and Symphorian, 
thy Martyrs, extend over us 
the right hand of thy mercy. 
Through our Lord, <fcc. 

Auxilium tuum nobis, 
Domine qusesumus,plaoatus 
impende: et intercedentibus 
beatis Martyribus tuisTimo- 
theo, Hippoly to et Sympho- 
riano, dexteram super nos 
tuse propitiationis extende. 
Per Dominum, 

The inexhaustible Adam of St. Victor gives us 
another Sequence for the Assumption ; it was sung 
at Saint Victor on the Octave day. 


Let us rejoice on this day 
whereon is celebrated the As- 
sumption of holy Mary; this 
day, this dear day, when from 
earth she was translated into 
heaven with joy. 

Exalted above the choirs of 
Angels, she is set over all the 
citizens of heaven. She con- 
templates her Son in his 
beauty, and prays for all the 

Let us cleanse away our 
stains, that clean of heart we 
may take part in her praises ; 
if our minds be in accord with 
our tongues, her ears will be 
attentive to our voices. 

Let us then praise her with 
one accord, and in her praise 
cry out': Hail, full of grace ! 
hail, Virgin Mother of Christ, 
who didst conceive him by 
the presence of the Holy 

Gratulemur in hac die 
In qua sanct® fit Maria 

Celebris Assumptio ; 
Dies ista, dies grata, 
Qua de terris est translata 

In coelum cum gaudio. 

Super choros exaltata 
Angelorum, est prselata 

Cunctis cceli civibus. 
In decore contemplatur 
Natum suum, et precatur 

Pro cunctis fidelibus. 

Expurgemus nostras sordes 
Ut illius, mundicordes, 
Assistamus laudibus ; 
Si concordent Unguis men- 

Aures ejus intendentes 
Erunt nostris vocibus. 

Nunc Concordes hanc lau- 

Et in laude proclamemus : 

Ave, plena gratia ! 
Ave, Virgo Mater Christi, 
Quae de Sancti concepisti 

Spiritus praesentia ! 

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Virgo sancta, Virgo munda, 
Tibi nostrae sit jocunda 

Vocis modulatio. 
Nobis opem fer desursum, 
Et, post hujus vitas cursum, 
' Tuo junge Filio. 

Tu a sseclis praeelecta, 
Litterali diu tecta 

Fuisti sub cortice ; 
De te ? Christum genitura, 
Pradixerunt in Scriptura 

Prophetas, sed typice. 

Sacramentum patefactum 
Est, dum Verbum, caro fac- 

Ex te nasci voluit, 
Quod nos sua pietate 
A maligni potestate 

Potenter eripuit 

Te. per thronum Salomonis, 
Te per vellus Gedeonis 

Praesignatam credimus ; 
Et per rubum incombustum, 
Testamentum si vetustum 

Mystice perpendimus. 

Super vellus ros descendens 
Et in rubo flamma splen- 

(Neutrum tamen laeditur,) 
t Fuit Christus carnem su- 

In te tamen non consumens 
Pudorem, dum gignitur. 

De te virga processurum 
Florem mundo prof uturum 

: Isaia8 cecinit, 
Flore Christum praefigurans 
Cuius virtus semper durans 
Nee ccepit, nec desinit. 


Holy Virgin, spotless Vir- 
gin, may the music of our 
voice be pleasing to thee. 
Bring us help from on high, 
and after this life's course, 
unite us to thy Son. 

O thou elect from all eter- 
nity, long wast thou hidden 
in the shell of the letter; of 
thee as future Mother of Christ, 
the Prophets foretold in the 
Scripture, but in types. 

The Mystery was unveiled 
when the Word made Flesh 
willed to be born of thee, who 
in his love did powerfully 
snatch us from the power of 
the wicked one. 

Thee by the throne of Solo- 
mon, thee by the fleece of 
Gedeon, we believe to be fore- 
shown, and by the bush un- 
burnt, if the ancient Testa- 
ment we mystically ponder. 

On the fleece the dew de- 
scending, in the bush the 
flame resplendent (yet neither 
hurt thereby), was Christ as- 
suming flesh in thee, yet not 
destroying thy purity by his 

The flower that was to 
spring from thee, the stem, 
and benefit the world, Isaias 
sang ; by the flower prefigur- 
ing Christ, whose power ever- 
lasting neither began nor end- 

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Thou art the reservoir of 
the fountain of life, thou art 
a lamp burning and shining : 
through thee the light super- 
nal on us hath shed its ray ; 
burning with fire of charity, 
shining with light of chastity, 
bringing into the world thy 
Son, the light of supreme 

O gate of our salvation, hear 
us and comfort us, and from 
our crooked ways hasten to 
call us back : we are calling 
on thee from the abyss, sailing 
on the sea of the world ; from 
the furious enemy deliver us 
by thy prayer. 

O Jesus our salvation, by 
the incomparable merit of thy 
Mother, deign to visit us in 
this valley with the gift of 
thy grace. Thou who wiliest 
that no one be condemned, 
grant us to steer our course 
so straightly through this sea, 
that after death we may be 
worthy to be rewarded in thy 



Fontis vitae tu cisterna, 
Ardens, lucens es lucerna ; 
Per te nobis lux superna 

Suum fudit radium ; 
Ardens igne caritatis, 
Luce lucens castitatis, 
Lucem summed claritatis 

Mundo gignens Filium. 

O salutis nostras porta, 
Nos exaudi, nos conforta, 
Et a via nos distorta 

Kevocare propera : 
Te vocantes de profundo, 
Navigantes in hoc mundo, 
Nos ab hoste furibundo 

Tua prece libera. 

Jesu, nostrum salutare, 
Ob meritum singulare 
Tuae Matris, visitare 
In hac valle nos dignare 

Tuae dono gratiae. 
Qui neminem vis damnari, 
Sic directe conversari 
Nos concedas in hoc mari, 
Ut post mortem munerari 

Digni simus requie. 


The following prayer is remarkable for the sym- 
bolism wherewith it is inspired. It is used at the 
blessing of medicinal herbs and fruits, given from 
time immemorial, in certain places, on the day of 
the AssumptioD. 


O Qod, who on this day Deus, qui virgam Jesse, 
didst raise up to the height of Genitricem Filii tui Domini 

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508 time afte: 

nostri Jesu Christi, hodierna 
die ad coelorum f astigia ideo 
evexisti, ut per ejus suffra- 
gia et patrocinia fructum 
ventris illius, eumdem Fi- 
Hum tuum, mortalitati nos- 
tra communicares : te sup- 
plices exoramus ; ut ejusdem 
Filii tui virtute, ej usque 
Genitricis glorioso patroci- 
nio, istorum terrse f ructuum 
prsesidiis per temporalem ad 
seternam salutem dispona- 
mur. Per eumdem Domi- 
num nostrum. 


heaven the rod of Jesse, the 
Mother of thy Son our Lord 
Jesus Christ, in order that 
through her prayers and pa- 
tronage thou mightest com- 
municate to our mortality the 
same thy Son the fruit of her 
womb : we humbly beseech 
thee, that by the power of 
this thy Son, and by the 
glorious patronage of his Mo- 
ther, we may, by the help of 
these fruits of the earth, be 
disposed by temporal health 
for eternal salvation. Through 
the same Christ our Lord, 

But let us close the radiant Octave by hearing 
Mary herself speak in this beautiful Antiphon, 
appointed amongst others in certain manuscripts to 
accompany the Magnificat on the feast. Our Lady 
there appears, not in her own name alone, but as 
representing the Church, which begins in her its 
entrance in body and soul into heaven. The present 
happiness of the Blessed Virgin is the pledge for us 
all of the eternal felicity promised us; the triumph 
of the Mother of God will not be complete until the 
last of her children has followed her into glory. 
Let us then join in this prayer so full of sweet love : 
it is truly worthy to express the feelings of Mary, as 
she crossed the threshold of her heavenly home. 

Maria exsultavit in spiri- 
tu, et dixit: Benedico te, 
qui dominaris super omnem 
benedictionem. Benedico 
habitaculum gloriae tuae, 
benedico te, cui factum est 
habitaculum in utero meo ; 

Mary exulted in spirit and 
said: I bless thee who art 
Lord over every blessing. I 
bless the dwelling of thy glory, 
I bless thee for whom was 
made a dwelling in my womb, 
and I bless all the works of 

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thy hands which obey thee in 
all subjection. I bless thy 
love wherewith thou hast loved 
us. I bless all the words that 
have come forth from thy 
mouth and are given to us. 
For I believe in truth that as 
thou hast said, so shall it be 



et benedico omnia opera 
manuum tuarum, quae obe- 
diunt tibi in omni subjec- 
tione. Benedico dilectionem 
tuam qua nos dUexisti . Be- 
nedico omnia verba quae 
exierunt de ore tuo, quae 
data sun t nobis. Ia veritate 
enim credam, quia sicut 
dixisti sic net. 


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